Adabul 'Alim wal Muta'allim
Imam Al Qadli Husain quoted (a hadith) in the beginning of his footnote, the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “Whoever loves knowledge and scholars, all his mistakes will not be written during his lifetime”.
He also said that it has been narrated that the Prophet said:
“Whoever prays behind a scholar, it is as if he prays behind the Prophet. And whoever prays behind the Prophet, his sins will be forgiven by Allah.”
In a hadith narrated by Abi Dhar:
“It is said that attending a gathering of dhikr is better than praying a thousand rak’ahs (without you), visiting a thousand dead people and visiting a thousand sick people.”
Umar Ibn Al Khattab. said: “A man will go out of his house, and he will have a multitude of sins equal to the size of the mountain of Tihamah. When he hears a scholar, he is afraid and he repents of his sins, then he returns to his house clean from sins, therefore do not separate yourselves from the places of the scholars, for verily Allah has not created a single piece of land on this earth that is more noble than the scholars.
Imam Al Sharmasahi Al Maliki quotes a hadith in the introduction to his book “Nadhmud Durar” that the Prophet said:
“Whoever honors the pious has honored Allah, and whoever disparages the pious has disparaged Allah and His Messenger”.
Companion Ali ibn Abi Talib said: “The glory of knowledge is sufficiently illustrated in the one who claims to be knowledgeable, when he is not. And the humiliation of ignorance is reflected in the one who refuses to be called ignorant, even though he is ignorant.”
Then Sayyidina Ali recited a poem:
It is enough that glory is obtained by knowledge even if it is only the ignorant who recognize it, and ta will be happy if one day it is attributed to knowledge.
And it is enough that dishonor is acquired by ignorance, but I am guarded when I am attributed to it (knowledge). And I will be angry if ignorance is attributed to me.
Ibn al-Zubayr said: “That Abu Bakr once sent a letter to me, when I was in Iraq. The content of the letter was as follows: “O my son, cling to knowledge, for when you become poor it will be a treasure, and when you become rich it will be an adornment”.
Wahab bin Munabbih said: “The things gained from knowledge are various:
- Glory, even if the person who possesses it is a lowly person.
- Greatness of rank, even if he is underestimated.
- Near (to the hearts of the ummah), even if he is in a distant region.
- Wealth, even if he is poor in wealth.
- Authority, even if he is an inferior person.”
Then Wahab bin Munabbih, recited a similar poem:
– Knowledge will lead a people to the peak of glory, the one who has knowledge will be protected from damage.
– O you who have knowledge, do not defile it with destructive actions, for there is no substitute for knowledge.
– Knowledge raises a house without a pillar, ignorance knocks down a house of honor and glory.
Abu Muslim Al Khaulani ag said: “The scholars of the earth are like stars hanging above the sky. If the stars are visible to the people, then they are guided by them. But if the stars appear gloomy, then they are confused by them.
Then Abu Muslim recited a poem:
“Pursue knowledge wherever it is, learn from those who truly understand it,
” Because knowledge is useful to enlighten the heart from blindness and help in carrying out the obligatory religious commands,
“Associate with the people of knowledge, and befriend the chosen ones among them, then friendship with them is beautiful and associating with them is auspicious. .
“Do not avert your eyes from them; indeed, they are like stars of guidance; when one star disappears, another appears.
“By Allah, if there were no teams the right path would be unclear, and things that are vague to us would have no signal detected…
Ka’ab Al Akhbar said: “If the reward of the gathering of scholars were visible to the people, they would fight among themselves over the reward, to the extent that every person of rank would leave his position and the market owners would leave their markets.
Some of the salaf scholars said: “The best gift is intelligence, while the worst calamity is ignorance”.
Some other salaf scholars also said: “Knowledge is a safeguard against the tricks of the devil, as well as a bulwark against the tricks of the spiteful, and a guide for the intellect”.
Then the ‘ulama’ recited a poem:
” How good is reason and how praiseworthy is the reasonable person # How ugly is ignorance and how despicable is the fool.
“No one’s speech is worthy of a debate, but it is ignorance that will ruin him on the day when he is asked.
“Knowledge is the noblest thing a person can acquire # Whoever is not knowledgeable, then he is not a man (figure).
” O my little brother Study knowledge and be amazed # Knowledge is an adornment for the one who really has reconciled it.
It was narrated from Muadz Bim Jabal that he said: “Study knowledge, because learning it is a virtue, seeking it is an act of worship, discussing it is tasbih, discussing it is jihad, giving it up is an effort to approach Allah SWT and teaching it to those who are not knowledgeable is shadagah.
Fuzdall ibn I’yadi said: “The scholar who teaches his knowledge to others will be invited to the Kingdom of Heaven as a great man”.
Sufyan bin “Uyainah said: “The most elevated man in the sight of Allah is the one who is between Allah and His servants. They are the prophets and the scholars.”
He also said: “In this world a person will not be given anything more excellent than the degree of prophethood and nothing after the degree of prophethood is more excellent than knowledge and understanding (of religion)”. Then Sufyan am was asked: “From whom is this said?” He replied: “From all the fuqaha'”.
Imam al-Shafi’i has said: “Had the jurists who always practiced their knowledge not been lovers of Allah, Allah would not have had a wali”.
Ibn al Mubarak said: “A person is still considered smart as long as he seeks knowledge. If someone thinks that he is clever, then he is really stupid.”
Imam Wagi’ said: “A man will not be called a pious person, so that he listens to his elders, listens to those who are equal to him, and listens to those who are younger than him.
Sufyan Al Tsauri said: “Miracles are everywhere. At the end of this age they are even more prevalent, and the calamities that befall people are many. The religious calamities are even more numerous nowadays. These disasters are great events, but the death of the ‘ulama is a greater event. Indeed, the life of the pious is a blessing for the ummah, while the death of the religion of Islam causes a defect.”
In the books of Sahih Al Bukhari and Al Muslim there is a badith narrated from Abdullah Ibn Amr Ibn al “Ash am he said: “I heard from the Messenger of Allah if, he said:
“Verily, Allah does not take away knowledge by taking it away from people, but Allah takes away knowledge from this earth by taking away the lives of the scholars”, so that when there are no scholars left, people appoint ignorant leaders. So they ask these leaders (about religious matters), then they give fatwas without knowledge, so that they become misguided and mislead others”,
All the things mentioned above, namely the virtues of knowledge and scholars, are only for scholars who practice their knowledge, have a good personality and are pious, aiming to gain the pleasure of Allah SWT, close to Him by getting a paradise full of pleasures. It is not the one whose knowledge is intended for worldly purposes, namely position, property or competing to increase followers and students.
It has been narrated from the Prophet (S) “Whoever seeks knowledge in order to bring down the scholars, or to argue with the jurists, or to turn people’s eyes away, then Allah will put him in Hellfire” (H.R. Al Tirmidhi).
And it was narrated from the Prophet: “Whoever studies knowledge that should be sought only for the sake of Allah, but if he does not study it except to obtain worldly goals, then he will not get the smell of heaven”.
He also narrated: “Whoever seeks knowledge for other than Allah or desires the Essence of Allah then, have his seat from the fire of hell.
Also narrated by him, “On the Day of Resurrection, a scholar will be brought, then he will be thrown into the fire of hell so that his intestines will burst out of his stomach, then he will spin around in hell like a donkey spinning while carrying a grinding tool:
* What caused you to be like this?
* He replied: “I command others to do good, but I myself do not do it and I forbid others from doing bad deeds, while I myself do them”.
Narrated Bisyr: “Allah gave a revelation to Prophet Dawud: “Do not let there be between me and you a pious person who is slandered, so that his arrogance prevents you from loving Me. They are those whose work is to stop My servants in the middle of the road”.
Sufyan Al Tsauri said: “Knowledge is learned only for piety. It has an advantage that no one else has because it functions as a means of introducing piety to Allah . If this goal is compromised and the intention of seeking knowledge is corrupted, for example, he feels that his knowledge will be a means to achieve worldly gain: in the form of property or position, then the reward of the person seeking knowledge is completely erased and he really suffers a great loss.
Al Fudhail ibn ‘Iyadi said: “The scholars and memorizers of the Qur’an who are disbelievers will be tortured on the Day of Resurrection before the torture of those who worship idols”.
Al Hasan al Basri said: “The torment of knowledge is the death of the heart, then he was asked: “What is the death of the heart?” He replied: “The death of the heart is seeking this world with the deeds of the Hereafter”.
CHAPTER II: PERSONAL MORALS OF A STUDENT
A disciple’s personal ethics are of ten kinds, namely.
Firstly, the learner should purify his heart from anything that is deceptive, dirty, full of race, resentment, envy, bad beliefs, and bad manners, so that he is fit to receive knowledge, memorize it, review the depth of its meaning and understand the implied meaning.”
Second, must improve the intention in seeking knowledge, with the aim of seeking the pleasure of Allah SWT, and being able to practice it, turn on the shari’a, to illuminate the heart, decorate the inner and get closer to Allah SWT. Not aiming to obtain worldly goals, such as becoming a leader, position, property, beating rivals, being respected by the community and so on.
Third, one must try to acquire knowledge as soon as possible while still young and utilize the rest of his life. Do not be deceived by procrastination and wishful thinking, for every hour will pass, which cannot be replaced or exchanged. A student should cut off the troublesome things that he is able to do, as well as those things that may hinder the perfection of seeking knowledge, and exert himself to the utmost and strive for success. Then, in fact, it will be a break in the learning process.
Fourth, must accept what is (qana’ah) in the form of everything that is easy for him to get, be it in the form of food or clothing and patience for the life that is below the poverty line that he experiences when in the process of seeking knowledge, as well as collecting the clutter of the heart due to too much wishful thinking and desire, so that the sources of wisdom will flow into the heart.
Imam al-Shafi’i said: “The student will not be successful if he seeks knowledge with honor and a life of luxury, but the one who seeks knowledge with a sense of humility, modesty, a life of hardship (modest) and service (to the scholars), he is the one who can achieve success.
Fifthly, one must be able to manage all of one’s time and use every opportunity of one’s life, because one’s remaining life is of no value if one does not benefit from it.
The most ideal and good time to be used by students: Suhoor time is used for memorization. Morning time is used to discuss lessons. The middle of the day is used for writing. Evening time is used for reviewing (studying) and remembering the lesson (muroja’ah).
The best place to memorize is in one’s room and away from anything that might cause one to forget. It is not good to memorize lessons in front of vegetation, green plants, by the river and in crowded places.
Sixth, students should minimize eating and drinking, because when the stomach is full it will hinder the spirit of worship and the body becomes heavy.
One of the benefits of eating less is that it makes the body healthy and prevents sickness. The cause of sickness is too much food and drink, as it is said in a verse:
Indeed, most of the diseases you see are caused by food and drink.
Another benefit of eating and drinking little is that it saves the heart from being arbitrary and arrogant, and none of the waliyullah, imams and selected scholars had this characteristic (of eating a lot): Indeed, eating a lot is the habit of animals that have no mind and are only prepared for hard work.
Seventhly, the learner should force himself to be wira’i (guarding himself from actions that can damage his dignity) and be careful in every behavior, paying attention to the halalness of his food, drink, clothing and housing and everything he needs, so that his heart is bright and easy to receive knowledge, the light of knowledge and achieve the benefits of knowledge. Students should take advantage of the favors (rukhshah) given by Allah SWT according to their place when they are in need and there are causes, because Allah likes a servant who takes advantage of His favors that He gives, just as Allah likes His decrees (obligatory) to be carried out by His servants before the rukhshah.
Eighthly, he should eat less of foods that are one of the causes of dullness of the brain (dedel: Javanese), weakness of the senses, such as eating sour apples, vegetable beans (chickpeas), drinking vinegar, as well as foods that cause a lot of phlegm, which can dull the mind and make the body heavier, such as drinking too much milk, eating fish and so on. He should also abstain from things that may cause forgetfulness in certain cases, such as eating food that has been eaten by rats, reading the inscriptions on the maesan (grave marker), standing in the middle when he is leading two camels, and removing live head lice.
Ninthly, one should endeavor to reduce sleep as long as it does not cause harm to one’s body and mind. The hours of sleep should not exceed eight hours in a day and night, which is 1/3 of the day (out of twenty-four hours). If he is able to sleep less than eight hours, then he may do so. If he is tired, then he may rest his body, heart, brain and senses: by taking recreation (sightseeing), and relaxing in recreational areas, so as to restore his fitness and not waste his body.
Tenthly, one should abandon socializing, because abandoning it is preferable for knowledge seekers, especially associating with people of the opposite sex, especially if they play too much and use little reasoning, because the nature of humans is to steal many opportunities (nyolongan: Javanese). The danger of socializing is wasting one’s life uselessly and losing one’s religion if one associates with irreligious people. If he needs someone to keep him company, then that person must be pious, strong in religion, fearful of Allah, wira’i, clean in heart, do much good, do little evil, have good self-esteem, and have little disagreement (not ngeyelan). If he forgets, then his friend reminds him, and if he remembers, then he can help his friend.
CHAPTER III: AKHLAQ OF A STUDENT TOWARDS HIS TEACHER
There are twelve kinds of manners of the one who seeks knowledge when he is with his teacher, namely
First, he should consider his intellect first, then perform istikharah prayers on whom he should take knowledge from and attain the praiseworthy character of the teacher. If possible, the learner should choose a teacher who is qualified in his field, one who is compassionate, has good manners, and refrains from doing things that lower one’s dignity. He should also be a teacher who has good teaching methods and understanding.
It was narrated from some of the salaf scholars: “Knowledge is part of religion, so pay attention to who you take it from or learn your religion from.”
Secondly, to seek out a teacher who has a comprehensive understanding of the knowledge of sharee’ah and who is among those who are trusted by the scholars of his time, and who has a wealth of experience in discussion and association: Not to study with a teacher who only learns knowledge from books without any knowledge of associating with scholarly scholars (masyayikh).
Our Imam as-Shaafa’i said: “Whoever learns the science of fiqh from books alone has wasted some of the rulings”.
Third, obeying the teacher in all matters and not going beyond his advice and rules. In fact, the relationship between the teacher and the student should be like a patient with a specialist. So that he asks for prescriptions in accordance with his recommendations and always tries his best to gain his pleasure in what he does and is serious in paying homage to him and getting closer to Allah by serving him. The learner should know that humbling himself before his teacher is an honor, submission to his teacher is a matter of pride, and tawadlu’ before him is an elevation of his status.
Fourth, looking at the teacher with the view that he is a figure who must be honored and respected and believes that the teacher has a perfect degree. Because such a view is closest to the benefit of his knowledge.
Abu Yusuf said: “I heard the scholars of the salaf say: “Whoever does not have a belief in the honor of his teacher will not be happy. So the student should not address the teacher using ta’ khitab (read: you) and kaf khitab (you), nor should the student address the teacher by name only. Rather he should call out with: “yaa sayyidi”, O my master or “yaa ustadzi”, O my teacher. Also, when the teacher is not present, the student should not call him by his name unless the name is accompanied by a title that gives an understanding of the greatness of the teacher, such as what the student says: “Sheikh” “Al Ustadz” said this, that” or “our teacher said” and so on.
Fifthly, the learner should know his obligations to his teacher and never forget his merits, majesty and glory, and always pray for his teacher either when he is alive or after his death.
Always take care of his descendants, relatives and loved ones, and always emphasize on himself to always make a pilgrimage to his grave, to ask for forgiveness, give shadagah in his name, always show good manners and provide guidance to others who need it, In addition, the student should always maintain the customs, traditions and habits that have been carried out by his teacher whether in religious matters or in scientific matters, and use the ethics that have been done by his teacher, always be loyal, submissive and obedient to him in any situation and wherever he is.
Sixth, students must restrain themselves, to try to be patient when a teacher’s heart is troubled, angry, or his character/behavior is not accepted by his students.
This should not lead the learner to abandon the teacher, rather he should be convinced that the teacher is infallible, and try his best to interpret and interpret all the things that the teacher shows and does, and that the opposite is true, with good interpretation.
If a teacher is rude to a student, the first thing to do is to apologize to the teacher and show regret and seek the pleasure of the teacher, because that will bring the student closer to getting the teacher’s affection.
Seventh, not meeting the teacher in other than the usual ta’lim gatherings without asking permission first, whether the teacher is alone or with others. If he has already asked permission (such as saying the greeting of peace) to meet the teacher once and the teacher knows about it but does not give permission, then the student should leave and not repeat his request for permission. If there is any doubt as to whether the teacher heard the student’s request for permission to see him or not, it is permissible to repeat the request up to three times or to knock on the door three times, but with a reasonable knock full of manners, such as with the fingernail and then with the fingers gradually.
If the teacher has allowed entry and there are many students who want to meet, the older ones enter first while saying greetings then followed by others in order of age while saying greetings in turn. Also, when meeting the teacher, one should be well dressed, clean and pure after cutting one’s nails and removing bad body odor. This is especially true if the purpose is to recite the Quran. This is because the place is an assembly of dhikr, worship, and gathering of people. When one is inside and he is talking to someone, the others should be quiet and not talk to themselves. Or when you go inside and find that the teacher is praying alone or in the midst of dhikr or study, the student should leave him alone, keep quiet, and not start a conversation. However, he should be understanding and say his greetings and leave as soon as possible, unless the teacher tells him to stay. But don’t stay too long, unless you are told to.
If the student comes to the teacher’s place and the teacher is not yet present, he should wait so that he does not miss the lesson. It is not permissible to go to the teacher’s room and knock on the door to get the teacher to come out. If the teacher is still sleeping, the student should be patient until he wakes up, or return home and come again at a later time because patience is a trait that students should have. It is not permissible for the student to ask the teacher for a special time for himself to be taught knowledge, even if the student is a leader or a big person, because this is arrogance and foolishness to the teacher and other students.
However, if the teacher asks for a special time because he/she cannot be present at the agreed time either because of an excuse or for a good cause, then this is fine.
Eighthly, when the learner sits in front of his teacher, he should sit in front of him with good manners, such as sitting on his knees (like sitting in the initial tahiyat) or sitting like the one who sits in the final tahiyyat, with a sense of tawadiu’, humility, thuma’ninah (calm) and khushu’.
The santri is not allowed to look at the teacher (kyai) except in an emergency, even if possible the santri must face the teacher perfectly while looking and listening attentively, then he must think, examine and imagine what he said so that the teacher does not need to repeat his words a second time.
Students are not allowed to look to the right, left or look up (tolah toleh: Javanese) except in an emergency, especially when the teacher is discussing, discussing various issues.
Students are not allowed to make noise so that it can be heard by the kyai and cannot pay attention to him, students are also not allowed to play with the hem of their clothes, not allowed to open their sleeves to their elbows, not allowed to play with some of their limbs, both hands, both feet or others, not allowed to open their mouths, not allowed to move their teeth, not allowed to hit the ground or others using the palms of their hands or fingers, not allowed to caress their hands and play with using sarongs and so on.
When a student is in front of the kyai, he is not allowed to lean against the wall or pillow, nor is he allowed to give something to him from the side or back, nor is he allowed to hold on to something that is behind him or beside him. Santri are also not allowed to tell something funny, so that it causes others to laugh, there is an element of insult to the teacher, speak using very ugly words, and show poor behavior and manners in front of the teacher.
The student should not laugh at anything except things that seem very ridiculous, funny and witty, he should not admire something when he is in the presence of his teacher.
If there is something, event, or incident that is funny, so that it makes santri laugh, then they should not laugh too loudly, not making a sound. He should also not spit or clear his throat as long as it is bearable or possible, but if it is not possible to do so then he should do it politely. He should not spit or emit riya’ from his mouth, but it is best to do so by using a handkerchief or using the hem of his shirt as a place for the riya’.
If a student sneezes, he should try to keep his voice down and cover his face with a handkerchief. If he opens his mouth because he is sleepy (angop: Javanese) then he should cover his mouth and try not to open his mouth.
As a student when he is in a gathering, in front of friends and relatives, he should always respect his companions, honor leaders, officials, and peers, because showing good manners to them means that he has respected his clerics, and respected the majlis (gathering). He should not leave the majlis by going forward or backward, and he should not speak during the discussion of knowledge about things that have no connection with it, or say anything that might interrupt the discussion.
If some of the students (those who seek knowledge) do things that we do not want (bad) to one of them, then he should not be scolded, jerked around, unless the teacher himself does it, unless the teacher gives a signal to other students to do it.
If someone does something negative to a shaykh, then it is incumbent upon the congregation to expel that person and not accept him or her, and to help the shaykh with whatever strength they have (if possible).
The student should not go ahead of his teacher in explaining a problem or answering some questions, unless he has the teacher’s permission.
Part of honoring a kyai is that the santri should not sit next to him, on his prayer mat, or on his bed. If the teacher orders the student to do this, then he should not do it, unless the teacher forces and intimidates the student who is unlikely to refuse, then in this situation it is only permissible to obey the teacher’s orders, and there is no sin. But after that he must behave as usual, namely by upholding akhlakul karimah.
A question has arisen among many people: which of the two is better, upholding and adhering to the commands of the teacher but contradicting his morals, or upholding moral values and forgetting the commands of the teacher?
In this case, according to the most correct opinion, the ruling is tafshil: If the command given by the teacher is coercive and there is no possibility of refusing it, then the best ruling is to obey the command, but if the command is only a suggestion, then upholding the value of morality is above all, because at one time the teacher is allowed to show respect and attention to his students so that there will be a balance (bawazun) with his obligations to respect the teacher and behave, good manners when with his teacher.
Ninth, speak kindly to the teacher as much as possible. You should not say “Why?”, “I don’t accept (the teacher’s answer)”, “Who said that?”, and “Where is the place?” (teacher’s explanation). If the student does ask for a deeper explanation, it is best to do so in polite words. It is better to ask in another forum specifically for asking for clearer information. When the teacher explains something, the student should not say, “This is your opinion”, “I think”, “So-and-so said this”, “So-and-so has a different opinion from yours”, “This opinion is not correct”, or other similar words.
When the teacher utters an opinion or argument but it is not clear, or even contradicts the truth due to forgetfulness or negligence, then in such a situation the student must think positively. He should not change his face or his eyes, but rather look radiant, realizing that the prophets – may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them all – are the only ones who are protected from human error.
Tenth, when the student hears the teacher mentioning the ruling of a case or a useful information, or telling a story, or reciting a poem, but the student has memorized it, the student should still listen carefully, benefit, feel thirsty (for knowledge) and be happy as if he had never heard. Imam Atho’ (may Allah be pleased with him) said: “I hear a hadith from a person when I know it better than he does, and I act as if I am no better than him.”
Imam Atho’ further said: “Some young man mentioned a tradition. I listened to it as one who had never heard it. Yet I had heard the hadith before the young man was born.”
When a teacher asks a student if he or she has memorized any knowledge, the student should not answer “Yes” because that shows a lack of respect for the teacher. But it is also not good to answer “No” because it is lying (to the teacher). It is better to say “I like to hear it from the teacher” or “I like to learn it from the teacher.”
Eleventh, not preceding or concurring with the teacher in explaining a matter or in answering a question. Not to show that he or she knows something about it. Not to interrupt the teacher in any way: to precede or equal him or her. But to be patient until the teacher has finished speaking, and then the student should speak. Not chatting with someone while the teacher is talking to that person or while the teacher is talking to the rest of the congregation. The student should always concentrate on the teacher so that if the teacher gives an order, asks a question, or points to him, there is no need to repeat himself.
Twelfth, if the teacher gives something to the student, the student should accept it with his right hand. If the student is giving something to the teacher, such as a paper containing a fatwa on Islamic law, a story, Shari’ah knowledge, or anything else that is written down, the student should first unfold the paper and then hand it to the teacher unfolded, unless the teacher tells him to do so. If the item to be given by the student to the teacher is a book, the student should hand over the book ready to be opened and read so that the teacher does not need to correct the position of the book. When the reading of the book has reached a certain material, the page containing the material must be opened and the student indicates which reading should be conveyed. never throw something to the teacher such as a book, paper, or anything else.
If the teacher wants to take something from the student or give him something while the teacher is some distance away, then it is the student, not the teacher, who should extend both hands by standing, not crawling to him. When sitting in front of the teacher, the student should not be too close to the teacher, which can lead to poor etiquette. The student should not place any part of his body such as his hands, feet, or clothes on the teacher’s shirt, pillow, prayer mat, or mat.
If the student wants to hand a pen to the teacher to write with, he should sharpen the nib before handing it to him. When handing over an inkwell, the inkwell should also be uncovered so that when the teacher wants to write, he can take the ink. If a knife is to be handed over, do not hand it over with the blade/tip facing the teacher or the handle facing the teacher but with the student’s hand holding the blade. The proper way is for the student to face the sharp part of the blade towards him/her while holding the tip of the handle and then place the handle in the teacher’s right hand. If the gift is a prayer mat on which the teacher will pray, the student should also spread the mat. Especially, when the teacher wants to pray.
When in front of the teacher, the student should not sit on the prayer mat or pray on it unless the place is not pure or the mat is needed for some reason. When the teacher stands up (wants to leave the place of prayer), the student should quickly bring the teacher’s prayer mat, hold his hand or arm if necessary, and prepare his sandals if the teacher does not object to that.
The student should do all of the above with the intention of getting closer to Allah and hoping for the pleasure of the teacher. There is an aphorism, “Four things that even a king would not be proud to do, namely standing up from his seat out of respect for his father, respect for the pious person from whom he draws knowledge, asking questions about what he does not know, and honoring guests.”
When the student is accompanying the teacher at night, he should be in front of the teacher. If it is during the day, he should be behind the teacher. This may not be the case if the circumstances demand otherwise, such as crowding. The student should walk in front of the teacher when crossing places where it is not clear whether it is safe or not such as muddy or flooded places and dangerous places. When walking, the student should try not to splash the teacher’s clothes. If the situation is crowded, the student should protect the teacher either from the front or the back of the teacher. When walking in front of the teacher, the student should look at the teacher frequently. If the teacher is talking to the student while walking and both of them are in the shade, the student should be to the right or left of the teacher, slightly forward while turning to the teacher.
The student introduces the teacher to characters that he does not know. The student should not walk beside the teacher except when needed or ordered by the teacher. The student should not push the teacher with his shoulder or the shoulder of his riding animal if both of them are riding a riding animal. And also not to cling to the teacher’s clothes.
Prioritize the teacher in shaded areas when walking in the summer. And in areas of sunlight during the rainy season. And in the direction where the sunlight does not hit the face when the teacher turns to the student. When the teacher is talking to someone, the student should not be between the two of them. He should be behind or in front of them, not too close, not eavesdropping on their conversation, and not turning his head to them. If the two of them invite the student to talk, then the student should come closer.
If the student meets the teacher by chance on the street, the student should greet him first. If the teacher is far away, the student should approach him and not call him from a distance. Likewise, when greeting the teacher, do not greet him from a distance or from behind him, but from a close distance. do not start a conversation before the teacher starts.
The student should not ask the teacher anything while on the road. When arriving at the teacher’s house, do not stand in front of the door for fear of bumping into the teacher’s relatives who the teacher does not want the student to see. If the student and teacher are going up the stairs, the student should go behind the teacher When going down the stairs, the student should go first so that if the teacher slips, the student can hold on to the teacher. If the teacher’s opinion is wrong, do not say, “Wrong” or “This is not a good opinion.” Instead, say, “This is definitely better.” Don’t say, “My opinion is like this” or other similar words.
CHAPTER IV: THE LEARNER’S ATTITUDE TOWARD HIS/HER STUDIES
The etiquette of the learner towards his learning and the things that he must observe when he is with his shaykh (scholar) and his friends. Regarding this there are ten etiquettes, namely:
Firstly, the learner should start with the lessons that are fardlu ‘ain, so that in this first step he is sufficient to produce four sciences, namely:
- The student should know about the science of monotheism, which is the study of the unity of God. He must have the belief that God exists, has a prior nature, is eternal and is purified from deficient characteristics and has perfect characteristics.
- It is sufficient for the learner to be convinced that the Supreme Being has the attributes of power, will, knowledge, life, hearing, seeing and speech. If he supplements this with evidence from the Qur’an and the Sunnah, then this is the perfection of knowledge.
- The science of fiqh, which is used to know the science of Islamic shari’ah taken from the arguments of shara’ tafsily. This science is a science that is able to lead to its owner to get closer to Allah), starting from the ways of purification, prayer, fasting.
If the learner is among those who have abundant wealth (min jumlatil aghniya’) then he should study the knowledge that has to do with that wealth, the science of economics, ‘iqtishad. It is not permissible for him to practice, implement or manifest any knowledge until he understands the rulings of Allah.
- The science of Sufism, which explains the states, types, levels, and discusses the seduction and deceit of the passions and things related to them.
Imam Ghazali has mentioned all four kinds of knowledge in his book “BIDAYATUL HIDAYAH”, and Sayyid Abdullah bin Thahir has also mentioned them in his book “SULLAMUT TAUFIQ”.
Second, after the santri has studied the sciences that are fardlu “ain, then he should in the next step study the sciences related to the book of Allah (tafsir al-gur’an) so that he has a very strong belief and i’tigad.
He should strive to understand the interpretation of the Qur’an and some other sciences, because the Qur’an is the source of all knowledge on earth and at the same time the parent and most important knowledge, after that he should memorize each material, knowledge that is not too long and wordy (ikhtishar) which is collected from the science of hadith, fiqh, ushul fiqh, nahwu and sharaf.
The busyness undertaken by students in seeking knowledge should not forget to read the Qur’an, protect it, always istigamah and always read it as a daily activity (wadhifah). He should be able to keep the Qur’an after memorizing it, because based on the evidence of al Hadith which explains about it.
After the students are able to memorize the Qur’an properly, then they should memorize it, deposit it with a teacher (kyai) to be recited and heard. When the process of memorizing is happening, the student from the beginning keeps himself from always holding (looking) at his book, even in every subject matter he should cling to people who can provide good teaching, education on the material and prioritize practice.
As a santri when in front of his teacher he must always maintain his religion, maintain his knowledge, love others and so on.
Thirdly, from the beginning, students should be able to refrain and not get caught up in discussions about matters where there are still differences of view, there is no absolute equality of perception among the scholars (khilafah) either related to thoughts or those originating from God, because if this is still done by students then it will certainly make their hearts confused, and make their minds uneasy.
Even from the beginning he must be able to convince himself to stick to only one book in the same subject matter, and several books on several subjects provided that he is able to use one method and get permission from the kyai (teacher), but if the teaching system that has been given by his teacher is only quoting, If the teaching system given by the teacher is only quoting, transferring opinions from several madhhabs and there is still ikhtilaf among the scholars themselves while he himself does not have a single opinion, then as Imam al-Ghazali has said, he should be able to guard against such things because between benefit and damage (mafsadat) there is still more damage.
Likewise, a santri when he is still in the initial stage of learning should avoid studying various kinds of non-religious books, and books outside of his lessons because it will waste his time and his heart cannot concentrate, not focusing on one lesson, instead he must give all the books and lessons he takes to his teacher to see where his learning ability is so that the teacher can provide guidance and direction until the student is confident, and is able to master the lesson.
The same applies to quoting, transcribing and summarizing from one book to another without any necessity, because doing so is a sign of boredom and a sign of someone who cannot attain happiness.
However, if the santri already has a basic, adequate background of ability and quoting a problem is only to improve and develop the abilities he has, then what is better is that he should not leave any of the lessons of religious science (shara’) because what can help is only the tagdir of Allah SWT, hopefully given a long life by Allah to deepen religious science (shara’).
Fourth, before memorizing something, the learner should first mentor a kyai (teacher) or a person who has the capability in this knowledge, after completing the examination by the teacher, then he memorizes it well and good.
After memorizing the subject matter, one should repeat it as often as possible and make tagrar (repeating lessons) a daily habit. Do not memorize something before it has been examined, verified by a kyai or someone who has the ability in that field, because it will have a negative effect. For example, changing the meaning of the sentence. And it has been explained in the previous chapters that knowledge is not taken from a book or book alone, but is taken and obtained from a teacher because it is a very dangerous damage.
When studying knowledge, the learner should prepare an inkwell, a pen and a sharpie to correct and correct anything that needs to be corrected in terms of language or i’rab.
Fifth, students should leave early. Early in order to seek knowledge. If it is the science of hadith, the student should not waste all the opportunities he has to explore knowledge and research the sanads of hadith, their rulings, benefits, language, stories contained in them, and be serious from the beginning with the books “Shahih Bukhari” and “Shahih Muslim” and then other main books that are commonly used as guidelines, references at this time, such as Muwattha’nya imam Maliki and Sunan Abu Daud, Sunan Nasa’i, Sunan Ibn Majah, the book Jami’nya Imam Turmudzi. The student should not minimize the limitations mentioned above.
The best book that can / can help a pious person, a person who is an expert in fiqh science is the book “Sunan Al Kubra” by Abu Bakar Al Baihaqi, because in fact the hadith is one of the two sides of the science of shari’a and at the same time is able to explain the many problems that exist on the other side, namely the Qur’an, meaning that the Qur’an is a holy book whose content is universal, therefore a tool is needed to translate the contents of the Qur’an, namely al-Hadith.
Imam al-Shaafa’i said: “Whoever is able to study the book of hadith will have a very strong proof.”
Sixthly, when the learner is able to explain and translate what he has memorized, even if it is still at the stage of ikhtishar, and he is able to explain the absurdities and important principles, then he is allowed to move on to discussing the major books and continue to study them without getting tired.
Students should have high ideals, very lofty, as if the feet may be on the ground but the ideals hang in the sky, so they should not feel enough to have only a little knowledge, even though they still have enough opportunities to seek as much knowledge as possible. Santri must not be gana’ah (accepting what is) the knowledge inherited by the prophets, which is to accept something even if it is only a little. Santri should not delay in getting a knowledge and benefits that are very likely to get ja, because delaying something contains several dangers, besides that if the student can get knowledge quickly and on time then at another time he can get something else.
Santri must always make the best use of their free time, their dexterity, their rigor, and their health and youth before the arrival of things that can prevent them from seeking and gaining knowledge.
The student must take care to look at himself with a perfect view, not needing the instructions of a teacher in learning knowledge, because it is the essence of ignorance and arrogance.
The leader of the tabi’in, Sa’id ibn Jubair, said: “A man always gets the title, the title of a pious person when he is always learning, increasing knowledge, but if ta has abandoned learning and thinks that he is a person who does not need knowledge (feeling smart) then, in fact, he is the most stupid person”.
Seventh, students should always attend halaqah, discussion and deliberation with their teachers in every lesson, if possible fa read it. If this is done by the student, he will always receive good things, produce everything he hopes for, aspires to, acquire good manners and gain virtue and glory.
Students must always be serious in serving their teachers because it will result in glory and honor. And if possible, the santri should not hold discussions, halagah with the teacher just to listen to the lesson, rather he must be serious in every lesson explained by the teacher, with diligence, concentration and full attention, he can do it with a sincere heart without feeling objections, and always hold deliberations with his companions so that every lesson that has been delivered by the teacher he mastered well.
If he is unable to master all of them, then he should prioritize the more important lessons first and then the others.
The student should always remember every event, incident that occurred in the discussion forum with his teacher, some benefits, rules, definitions, limitations and so on. In addition, the student should repeat what the teacher said during the discussion, because remembering things has tremendous benefits.
Al Khatib Al Baghdadi said: “The best mudzakarah (recollection of lessons) is to be done at night. A group of people from the salaf scholars start mudzakarah after Isha’, they do not leave the place of mudzakarah until the call to dawn. If the student does not find a friend with whom he can mudzakarah, remembering the lessons, then he should do it on himself, he repeats the meaning or meaning of each word / phrase he hears in his heart so that it sticks and imprints in the depths of his heart. Repeating the meaning in one’s heart is the same as repeating the words or phrases orally. But very few people who do not use their minds to think can obtain happiness, especially in front of their teachers, sometimes using their minds and sometimes leaving them, then not getting used to using their brain power.
Eighth, when a student attends a meeting of the board of teachers, he should greet the people present at the forum with a voice that they can hear clearly, especially towards a kyai by giving higher respect and honor. The same applies when the student leaves the forum.
When a student says the greeting in a forum, he is not allowed to pass by the people in the place to get close to the cleric, he sits in a place that can be visited by others, unless the cleric, the other congregation asks him to come forward, then there is no problem with the student coming forward by passing by people who are already present at the assembly.
It is not permissible for a student to intentionally move from one seat to another or to jostle for space. If someone invites a student to take his seat, he should not do so unless there is a benefit, a good that is known to others, or many people benefit from it, such as being able to explain a problem together with his teacher when they are close together, and he is a person with a lot of age, honor and authority.
It is not permissible for a student to sit in the middle of a meeting, in front of someone except in an emergency, between two friendly people unless they are willing to do so, or above someone who is more honorable than himself.
The learner should gather with his companions when discussing a subject, or discussing several subjects from one direction, so that when the teacher explains an issue, the subject matter is intact and not interrupted.
Ninth, students should not hesitate, do not need to be ashamed to ask a question that he thinks is very abstruse (difficult) and understand everything that has not been understood properly and correctly by using soft, smooth language, good words, and using polite manners. It was once said that: “Whoever is shy to ask about something, his shortcomings will appear when he is with other people”.
Mujahida. said: “One who is shy and arrogant will not be able to learn knowledge”.
‘Aisha said: “May Allah have mercy on the women of the Ansar, for their shyness does not prevent them from learning religious knowledge”.
Umm Sulaim, the Prophet’s wife said: “Verily, Allah will never be ashamed of what is right, or what is right, for a woman who has a husband who bathes her when she dreams of sperm?
The student should not ask something that is out of place, except because he needs it or he understands it by giving the teacher a solution to the question. If the teacher does not answer, then he should not push him, but if he answers and happens to be wrong, then the student should not reject him immediately.
The learner should not be shy about asking questions, and he should not be shy about saying these words: “I have not understood”, if he is asked by his teacher whether he has understood, while he himself has not understood.
Tenth, if in learning the santri use the sorogan system, a method of learning by going forward one by one and being directly listened to and noticed by the ustadz, then he must wait for his turn in an orderly manner, not preceding other participants unless he allows it.
In a hadith it has been narrated that once a man from the Anshar companions came to the Messenger of Allah, while asking about something, after that came another man from Banu Tsagib to him, also for the same purpose, asking him something, then Nabin replied: “O my brother from Banu Tsagif, sit down! I will start saying something that the Anshar friend needed, before your arrival, Al Khatib said “For those who come first it is recommended to give precedence to the distant person than himself, out of respect for him”.
Similarly, if the one who comes later has a need, an obligatory need, and the one who came earlier understands his situation, he should be given precedence, or the teacher gives a signal to give him precedence because of the benefit, the good that is hidden in it, so it is recommended that he be given precedence.
The right to an early turn can be obtained by arriving early at the assembly, the forum used by the teacher to transform knowledge, and the right that a person has will never be waived because of an emergency, such as fulfilling a desire, renewing wudlu’, provided that he returns to his original place.
If two people get ahead of each other or fight over a place, then they should draw lots, or the teacher should decide which one gets the place first, if one of them does a good deed.
Eleventh, maintaining the courtesy of sitting in front of the teacher when participating in learning activities and also paying attention to the habits, traditions that have been used, applied by the teacher in teaching.
The student should sit in front of the teacher according to the manners described in detail in the chapter on manners towards the teacher. The student should bring his own book to study with the teacher. The student should not place the book he is reading on the floor in an open state, but should hold it. It is not permissible to read the teacher’s book except with the teacher’s permission, and the student should not read the book when the teacher’s heart is troubled, bored, angry, difficult and so on.
If the ustazd gives permission, then the santri before reading the book should read, ta’awwudz, basmalah, hamdalah, sholawat to the Prophet Saw his family, his companions, then pray for the ustazd, the parents of his teachers, himself, the Muslims all. And ask Allah SWT for mercy for the author of the book when reading it.
And when the student prays for his teacher, he should say the words: “May Allah be pleased with you all”, “be pleased with our teachers”, “be pleased with our leader”, and similar titles that the student prays for his teacher.
When the student has finished learning, he should also pray for his teacher. If the student does not start with the things mentioned above, either because he forgot or because of his own ignorance, then the teacher should remind the student, teach him, and remind him, because it is one of the most important ethics and morals.
Twelfth, to pursue the lesson carefully and attentively and not move on to another lesson before the first lesson is well understood. It is not permissible to move either from one country to another, or from one madrasa to another, unless it is an emergency and there is a very urgent need, because it will cause various kinds of problems, make the heart become restless, upset and waste time in vain without any results.
The santri should always surrender and surrender to Allah, he should not preoccupy himself with matters of livelihood, enmity and conflict with someone, keep away from the company of people who are experts in speech, experts in damage, sin and people who do not have a permanent job (unemployment). This is because living with such people is bound to have a negative impact.
Students should face the Qiblah while studying, practice a lot, follow the traditions of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), follow the invitation of the experts of goodness, refrain from the prayers of the wronged (madzlum), and increase prayer with all solemnity.
Thirteenthly, the student should encourage his friends to strive for knowledge and show them where to find it: remove from them the desires that distract them: help them with their expenses: convey to them knowledge about the rules of various sciences and issues that are rarely known by studying together, so that their minds will be enlightened, their knowledge will be blessed, and their rewards will increase. With regard to a friend who is reluctant to be consulted about a subject, the student should not study with him, because it is not beneficial. This is the method of the salaf scholars.
The student should not boast in front of his friends or praise his brilliant mind. Rather, he should say alhamdulillah and thank Allah that his knowledge will increase. The student should honor his friends by spreading the greeting of peace, showing love and respect, maintaining the rights of friendship and brotherhood in the same religion and profession in which they also belong to ahl al-knowledge, bearers and seekers of knowledge, forgetting and forgiving their mistakes and errors, covering their faults, thanking good friends and being careful of bad friends.
CHAPTER V: PERSONAL MORALS OF A TEACHER
Regarding the akhlaq of the teacher (ustadz) to the joint self there are twenty morals, namely that a teacher should:
First, always istigamah in muragabah to Allah, whether in a quiet or crowded place. The definition of muragabah is to see Allah with the eyes of the heart and relate it to the actions done so far, then take the wisdom or the best way for himself by considering and feeling about God’s monitoring of him. One of the characteristics of muragabah according to Dzunnun Al Misry is to exalt what God exalts and humble what God humbles. Muragabah is one of the many levels and steps in Sufism, in addition to khauf, raja’, tawadlu’, khushu’, zuhud’, and so on. (See Risalah Al Qusyairiyah: 189-191).
Second, always apply khauf (fear of Allah) in all his words and actions, whether in a quiet place or a crowded place, because the pious person is a person who can always keep the mandate, can be trusted with something entrusted to him, whether it is in the form of knowledge, wisdom, and fear of Allah. While the opposite of the above is called treason. Allah has said in the Qur’an:
“O you who believe, betray not all of you against Allah and His messenger and (also) betray not the trusts entrusted to you, while you know it”. (Q.S. Al Anfal: 27)
The purpose of khauf here is to fear the possibility of punishment from Allah, in this world or in the hereafter. The basis used is the word of Allah in Surah Al Imran verse 175, the aim is for humans to consider their behavior. Abu al-Gasim said, “Whoever fears something will run away from it, but whoever fears Allah will come closer to Him.” (Risalah Al Qusyairiyah, 125-126).
Third, always be calm.
Fourth, always be wira’i. Wira’i according to Ibrahim ibn Adham, is to leave every subhatic thing as well as leaving every useless thing, which is a vain thing. Meanwhile, according to Yusuf ibn Abid, Wara’ is leaving every subhatic matter and correcting oneself in every situation. (Risalah Al Qusairiyah, 109-111)
Fifth, always be tawadlu’. Shaykh Junaidi states that, Tawadlu’ is to humble oneself to the creatures and soften oneself to them, or to obey the truth and not turn away from wisdom, law, and wisdom. (Risalah al Qusairiyah, 145-148).
Sixth, always be in khushu’ to Allah. One of the letters written by Imam Malik to Harun al-Rashid was: “When you understand knowledge, then you should be able to see the effect that knowledge has, authority, calm and generous”. For the Messenger of Allah has said that :
“The ‘ulama’ are the heirs of the prophets.”
Companion Umar said: “Study knowledge and learn it together so that it may give rise to authority and calmness.”
Some of the salaf scholars said that: “The duty of those who have knowledge is to always humble themselves to Allah, whether in a quiet place or in a crowded place, to take care of themselves, to stop anything that they feel is difficult for themselves”.
The meaning of khushu’ above is the stability of the heart in the face of truth, but some scholars say that khushu’ is to restrain the eyes from seeing something inappropriate.
Seventh, making Allah the place to ask for help in all circumstances.
Eighth, not making his knowledge a ladder to achieve worldly benefits, whether in the form of positions, property, being heard by many people, being famous, being more advanced than other friends.
Ninthly, not honoring the santri because they are the children of worldly rulers (officials, conglomerates, etc.), such as going to them for their education or working for their benefit, unless there is a benefit that can be expected that outweighs this humiliation, especially when the teacher goes to the homes or places of those who study with him (santri), even if the student is of a very high position, a high official and so on.
In fact, what a teacher must do is to be able to maintain the authority of the knowledge he has, as has been done by the scholars’ salafussholihin. The news related to them is very good, there is never any news that discredits them, because they were able to keep their knowledge from the temptations of the world, even though they never took distance from the rulers of the time or others.
As narrated by Imam Malik bin Anas, once he came to the king Harun Al Rashid to visit his residence, then Harun Al Rashid said to him: “O Aba Abdillah, you should come to my residence, so that my little ones can listen to the book of Muwattha’ from you. Imam Malik said: May Allah bless you O king Harun Al Rashid, indeed this knowledge has spread among the people.
If you glorify this knowledge, it will become noble, but on the contrary, if you belittle this knowledge, it will be despised by people. Knowledge should come to the one who seeks it, not the other way around it should come to the learner (santri), then Harus Al Rashid said, you are right. Come out all of you in the mosques so that you can all hear it with others.
Al Zuhry said: “It is an insult to knowledge if it is taken by the pious to the homes of their students, unless there is a compelling reason, or there is an emergency, and there is more benefit than harm. So giving knowledge in the homes of those who need it will not be a sin, so long as the reason or good is still there. This argument was also used by some of the salaf scholars to spread knowledge.
In general, it can be concluded that whoever honors knowledge will be honored by Allah, and whoever despises knowledge will be despised by Allah. This has been widely and proven in the midst of society.
Wahab bin Munabbih said: “The scholars before us were all content with their knowledge, so they did not need the wealth of this world, because they loved knowledge. Whereas today, those who are experts in knowledge, they devote their knowledge to people who have a lot of wealth, so what happens is that people who have wealth, do not like knowledge because they look down on knowledge.”
It is beautiful what Qadli Abu al Hasan al Jurjani conveyed in his verses, he said:
” I have never fulfilled the right of knowledge * Whenever greed arises I make knowledge a rung on the ladder.
” I have never humbled my soul to serve knowledge * Instead of serving the people I meet, I want to be served.
” Do I plant noble knowledge, then I harvest contemptible * Therefore, choosing ignorance may be more saving.
“If the knowledgeable guard their knowledge, it will guard them * And if they honor it in the Soul, it will become noble.
” But they despised him, and he was despised * and they soiled his face with greed that he mourned.
Tenth, to be zuhud with regard to the wealth of the world, and only take a little from the world, just to fulfill his needs, not harming himself, his family, in a simple way and always qana’ah.
The definition of zuhud here is to reject pleasure or love. According to Abu Sulaiman Ad Daroni, zuhud is the abandonment of everything that turns away from God, or, emptying the heart of the urge to want more than it needs and eliminating dependence on creatures. Clearly, zuhud is taking the world and its adornments and affairs for granted. With this kind of heart, the zuhud person will not be captivated by worldly matters and will not feel sad about his shortcomings, so that he will be more able to concentrate on the remembrance of Allah and the life of the hereafter.
The least degree of a pious person (ustadz) is to abandon all things related to worldly goods and consider them as dirty goods, because he knows better about the lowliness of worldly treasures, worldly treasures often cause fitnah, quarrels between people, quickly destroyed and to obtain worldly treasures requires extra hard work, and hard work, as a teacher should not pay too much attention to it, let alone to pay attention and occupy himself with world affairs.
It was narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:
“Glorified is the one who is generous and despised is the one who is greedy”.
It is narrated that Imam al-Shafi’i said: “If I had a will, the most intelligent person would give it to the zuhud. So who is more deserving than the scholars, because they have the advantage and perfection of intellect?”,
Yahya bin Mu’az said: “If the treasures of this world were pure gold and the hereafter were fragments of tile that are eternal (eternal), then surely people who have sense will prefer the fragments of tile that last for a long time than pure gold that is extinct, lost without a trace.
So what happens now, in reality, that: the treasures of this world are like fragments of shards that quickly crumble, while the hereafter is like pure gold that never crumbles, lasting forever.
It is appropriate for people who understand that the world’s wealth will be abandoned by its owner and left to his heirs, in addition to the many calamities that hit, and befall on property, that his zuhud nature should be higher and stronger, compared to his love for the world’s wealth, leaving wealth should be prioritized over seeking wealth.
Eleventh, abstaining from endeavors that are lowly and despicable according to human nature, as well as from things that are hated by shari’ah or customs (habits). Such as cupping (removing blood from the limbs by using a tool through the head or nape), tanning leather, currency exchange (money changer), goldsmithing and so on.
The twelfth is to keep away from places of immorality, even if they are far from crowded places, and not to do anything that might reduce muru’ah (guarding oneself from things that are not praiseworthy) and something that is outwardly considered to be forbidden, even if in reality it is permissible, because it will have an impact, an unfavorable excess on him, his authority, and become a bad topic of conversation for others, so that it causes sin for the person who makes fun of him.
If it happens by chance, because of a need, necessity or something else, then he should tell the person who saw him and explain to him the ruling, the reason and the purpose of his coming, so that the other person will not feel guilty and run away (from the bad thing): so that he does not gain knowledge from him again, and it should be a lesson for the ignorant.
In this regard, the Prophet said: “Once two men passed by the Prophet, when he was with Shafiyyah bint Huyay, then they both walked slowly, then he said: that woman is Shafiyah bint Huyay. Then the Prophet said: “Indeed, Satan enters people (descendants of Adam) through the circulation of blood, I am afraid that Satan will drop something in both of them so that they become corrupt.
The thirteenth is to protect oneself by doing good deeds with regard to the symbols of Islam and its rulings, such as praying in congregation in the mosque, spreading the greeting of peace to people in particular or in general, commanding the good and forbidding the evil, and so on, and being patient in accepting trials.
Speaking the right words, speaking the truth to the rulers and officials, and completely submitting himself to Allah and not fearing the reproach and abuse of others, and constantly remembering the words of Allah which read:
“O son of man, perform the prayer and enjoin (people) to do what is good and prevent (them) from what is evil and have patience for what befalls you, surely such is an important matter. (QS Luqman: 17)
And the things that have happened to other apostles and prophets for example they are always patient for the trials that befall them, and their cases are faced patiently for the sake of Allah, such as the disbelief of the followers of the Prophets such as the story of Prophet Adam and his children, Prophet Tsis and his people, Prophets Noah and Hud and his people, Prophet Ibrahim when dealing with king Namrud and his father, Prophet Ya’gub and his son, Prophet Yusuf and his brothers, Prophet Ayyub and the trials he received from Allahl, Prophet Moses and the children of Israel when they had survived the red sea, Prophet Isa when with his people who received a meal, food directly from the sky, and Prophet Muhammad n and his people, his companions when dividing the price of ghanimah (booty) in the battle of hudaibiyah. Then the prophet said:
“May Allah have mercy on my brother, Prophet Moses, he was tried by Allah with more trials than I have received but he remained patient.”
Then the things that Abu Bakr’s companions experienced, when he was left for dead by Nabin and his companions, then when facing apostates, then the things experienced by the companions, such as being rude to rude people because of differences in views that occurred between them, then the tabi’in and the followers of the tabi’in until now. In them is a good example, a good example that should be emulated.
Fourteenthly, acting in a manner that reflects the sunnah: – The best of the sunnah, and anything that serves the interests of the Muslims in a way that is justified by Islamic sharee’ah, whether in tradition or in character.
A teacher must not be willing to do only external and internal actions, rather he must force himself to do the best and perfect things, because teachers are role models, they are used as a barometer, a source of reference in every problem related to the law.
Teachers are the hujjatullah of those who are ignorant, and sometimes their movements are always watched, monitored without their knowledge, so that their advice is always followed, adopted by the ignorant.
If the teacher cannot benefit from his own knowledge, let alone other people, of course he is even more unable to utilize his knowledge. Therefore, mistakes, mistakes, even if they are only small, will turn into something very extraordinary, because of the interrelated elements of this damage because the teacher is a barometer, a benchmark that of course he will be a role model for ordinary people, if he makes a mistake then he will be followed by many people so that it becomes dhollu wa adhollu (misguided misleading) again.
Fifteenth, to familiarize oneself with the Sunnah, whether gaultyah or fliyah. Such as reading the Qur’an, dhikr of Allahl either in the heart or verbally, reciting prayers and dhikr of Allahl either day or night, performing prayers and fasting, performing the Hajj if able and so on.
Reciting salawat to the prophet, loving him, glorifying him, honoring him, and using good etiquette and manners when hearing his name, and his traditions (traditions) mentioned.
Sixteenth, associating with others with good manners, such as showing a radiant face, cheerful, spreading greetings, giving food, restraining anger in the soul, refraining from hurting others, bearing and being patient when hurt by others, putting others first, not asking others to put themselves first, serving others, do not want himself to be used as a master, grateful for the enjoyment that Allah SWT has given him, making himself calm, trying to meet all the needs of his life, risking his position, rank to help others, compassion for the poor, always loving neighbors, relatives, always loving students, helping and doing good to them.
If the teacher sees someone who is unable to pray, purify himself properly or perform other obligations, then he gives him guidance and instructions in a gentle manner, as the Prophet did with the a’raby (hill people) when he urinated in the mosque, and with Mu’awiyah bin Hakam when he was praying while talking.
Seventeenth, to cleanse his heart and actions of bad manners and proceed to realize them in concrete and good deeds. Included in the bad, low character traits are: envy, betrayal, anger not for the sake of Allah, cheating, arrogance, riya’, boasting, so that people hear, stinginess, haughtiness, greed, boasting of oneself, extravagance, extravagance, adorning oneself in front of others, happy to be praised by others for something he never did, pretending not to know about his own disgrace, always paying attention to the disgrace of others, urakan, too fanatical about something other than Allah (ta’assub), like to talk about others, complain, lie, speak badly, and insult others.
Teachers should avoid bad traits and bad manners, because the above-mentioned traits are the door of every evil, in fact all evil starts and enters from these traits.
Some of the scholars and jurists who have bad hearts are mostly tried by Allah with the aforementioned traits, except for those who are directly guarded by Allah, especially the traits of hasud, boasting (ujub), riya’ and arrogance.
Some of the cures for these various diseases have been explained in the book on the subtleties of character (kutub al raqa’iq). Whoever wants to purify himself from these diseases should have these books. Among the most important and subtle books is the book “Bidayatul Hidayah” by Imam Al Ghazali.
One way to cure hasud is to always think that hasud is always against Allah.
One way to cure the disease of ujub is to always remember that the knowledge he has acquired, the understanding he has, the intelligent and good mind, and the verbal fluency in uttering words and others, all the pleasures he has obtained are all from Allah, and are a mandate that he must hold and guard so that he can keep it as well as possible.
And indeed the One who gave the mandate to be entrusted to someone is the One who is the most powerful, who is able to take and withdraw it from its owner in the blink of an eye, none other than Allah, the Most Sublime. As He said:
“And such is not difficult for Allah.” (QS. Ibrahim: 20)
In another of His words:
“So do they feel safe from the (unforeseen) punishment of Allah? No one is safe from the punishment of Allah except the losers.” (Q.S. Al-A’raf: 99)
One of the ways to cure riya’ is to always think and imagine that none of the creatures in this universe, in the sea, in the sky and on the land, can benefit or harm anyone except with the permission of Allah. Hence, why does he dilute and nullify his own good deeds, do harm to himself, engage in activities, busyness and try to be noticed by others, while creatures cannot truly benefit or harm, even though Allah has revealed their intentions and the ugliness of their hearts, as stated in a hadith:
“Whoever has the intention of being heard by others, Allah will make him heard, and whoever shows off, Allah will also show off the nature of that person”.
One way to cure the disease of insulting others is to always think about the word of Allah which reads :
“O you who believe! Let not one people make fun of another people (for) they may be worse than those who make fun of them, nor let women make fun of other women (for) they may be better than those who make fun of them, and do not reproach one another, and do not call one another ugly names, for the worst of calls is that which is bad after faith. And whoever does not repent, then they are the wrongdoers.”
And the word of Allah SWT in QS al Hujurat verse: 13
“O mankind, indeed we created you from a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes that you may know one another. Verily, the noblest among you in the sight of Allah is the most pious among you. Verily, Allah is All-Knowing and All-Merciful.” (QS. Al Hujurat: 13)
“…So do not praise yourselves, for surely Allah knows better those who are more pious.” (QS. An Najm: 32)
Because sometimes the person who is insulted has a cleaner heart in the sight of Allah and is more pure in his actions, deeds and intentions are more sincere, as it is said in a sha’ir:
It could be that the lowly are the most majestic humans
Thou shalt not despise the lowly in this realm
It is said that Allah is secretive in three things, viz: His guardian among His servants, His pleasure in obeying Him, His wrath in disobeying Him.
Including one category of akhlaq mardiiyyah, akhlaq that is pleased by Allah is to multiply repentance, sincerity, confidence, tagwa, patience, ridha, gana’ah (accepting what is), zuhud, tawakkal, surrender to Allah, a good heart, good prejudice, forgive, good manners, see good things, be grateful for Allah’s blessings, compassion for Allah’s creatures, have a shy nature both to Allah and humans, and fear and hope in Allah.
Loving Allah (mahabbah ilallah) is one of the keys to having good traits, a sense of love, mahabbah to Allah will be actualized by loving and carrying out the traditions that have been carried out by His Majesty Rosulullah SWT, because Allah himself has said in the Qur’an:
“Say (Muhammad), “If you love Allah, follow me, and Allah will love you and forgive your sins.” Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.” (QS. Ali Imran: 31)
Eighteenth, always eager to achieve the development of his knowledge and strive earnestly in every activity of worship, such as reading, reading to others, muthala’ah, remembering lessons, giving the meaning of the book, memorizing, and discussing and not wasting his age and time so that no time is wasted except in the framework of thalabul ilmi, except only for modest needs (hajatul basyariyah), such as eating, drinking, sleeping, resting because of boredom or fatigue, carrying out the obligations of husband and wife, meeting people who have friendship, looking for maisyah (necessities of life) needed by every human being, sickness, and so on and permitted activities.
Some of the scholars of the salaf, they never abandoned studying, analyzing and studying the books of the salaf, just because they suffered from a disease that was not too heavy (mild), even they hoped for the cure of their illness by studying, and always doing knowledge activities as long as possible. The Prophet himself said:
“Verily, a deed depends on its intention.”
The nobility of knowledge will not be achieved by the learner except through hard work.
In Sahih Bukhari, it is narrated that Yahya Bin Katsir said:
“Knowledge cannot be mastered by relaxing”.
In another hadith it is also mentioned that :
“Heaven is surrounded by unpleasant things”.
In a shi’ir it is said that:
Whereas honey must be obtained after being stung by bees # You want nobility at a low price
Imam Shafi’i said: “The obligation of the knowledgeable person is to convey the knowledge he has as much as possible to increase knowledge, patience with all obstacles in learning, always based on sincere intentions when he reaches a knowledge, whether it is in the form of nash (the Qur’an and Al Hadith) or in istinbath law, taking the argument of a law based on shara, always hoping for Allah’s help in seeking knowledge.
The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:
“Be enthusiastic in seeking what is beneficial to you and seek help from Allah SWT”
Nineteenth, taking any lessons and wisdom from everyone without discriminating against status, be it in the form of position, lineage, age and other issues. In fact, he must always accept the wisdom wherever he is, because wisdom is actually like the believer’s lost property, which he takes wherever he finds it.
Sa’d ibn Jubayr said: A man will always be called a pious person as long as he strives to learn, but if he abandons learning and thinks that he is a person who does not need knowledge, then he is actually the most ignorant person. Some Arabs recite a shi’ir which reads:
Total blindness is silence over ignorance # It’s not ignorance while asking questions, actually
The blind man is not the one who asks many questions, the perfect blind man is the one who is too silent because of his own stupidity.
A group of people from the salaf used to learn from their students what they did not know, and this was confirmed by the Companions and the Taabi’een. And what is greater than all that is that the Messenger of Allah (saw) recited the Qur’an in the presence of Ubay bin Ka’ab, he said:
“I have been commanded by Allah to read to you the verse “Jam yagunilladzina kafarauu” .
Then the scholars said: one of the meanings of this verse is that a noble person should not be prevented from becoming a student, and gaining knowledge from someone who is lower than him (rank).
Al-Humaidi said: He was one of Imam al-Shaafa’i’s students, and he said: “I accompanied Imam al-Shaafa’i from Makkah to Egypt, and I always took the wisdom of asking him questions, and then he would ask me questions about the hadith.
Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: Imam Shafi’i said to me, you are more knowledgeable about the science of hadeeth than I am, so if there is a saheeh hadeeth please tell me, and I will take it.
The twentieth is to make a habit of compiling or summarizing books, if he has the expertise in that field, because if he does so, it will make a teacher always examine, study the essence of knowledge both explicitly and implicitly and ultimately deepen the essence of knowledge and also benefit a lot.
As Al Khatib Al Baghdadi has said, that writing, summarizing, resuming will strengthen one’s memorization, educate the mind, sharpen reasoning power, develop arguments, produce a fragrant name, a good name, a great reward until the Day of Judgment.
The most important thing is to prioritize something that has more general benefits so that it can be enjoyed by others, in addition to being needed by the wider community.
In writing a paper, one should not prolong the discussion too much so as to cause boredom to those who read, not too short so that the subsections cannot be understood by those who read, and always submit, give his paper that is worthy, appropriate to be given to others. Do not give the paper before it has been properly researched, reviewed, and validated.
Some people today reject any work, whether it is an essay or a collection, even if it is the work of someone who is clearly an expert and is known for his knowledge. There is no basis for such rejection except that it will only lead to competition among people of knowledge. If a person puts ink on paper and writes whatever he wishes, whether it is poetry, a permissible story or anything else, no one will reject his work. Moreover, if someone writes about the knowledge of Shari’ah and its tools, which are obviously useful, then of course it should not be rejected.
As for the one who does not have the proper knowledge to write something, his work should be rejected because it contains ignorance and deception of those who study it. Moreover, the author of the false work is wasting his time on something he does not know how to do, and he has abandoned the effort to strengthen his skills, which he should have done before writing.
TEACHER MORALS WHEN TEACHING
When teaching, the teacher should be clean and clean of all impurities and dirt, as well as neatly dressed, wearing fragrances and wearing clothes that are appropriate and appropriate to wear when with friends, and other ustazd. All of this is done with the intention to glorify, glorify and respect knowledge, in addition to honoring Islamic law and as an effort to taqarrub fiallah, get closer to the ruler of nature, Allah SWT, spread knowledge, and revive the law.
Conveying the messages of Allah SWT through its legal rulings that have been entrusted to a scholar’ and ordering him to spread his religion. Always cultivate knowledge by telling the truth and always returning to the hagigi truth. Gathering for dhikr to Allah, sending greetings to fellow Muslims and praying for the scholars of our predecessors (salafusshalihin).
When the teacher leaves the house to teach, he should pray with the prayer that has been taught by the prophet Muhammad SWT:
“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from going astray and being led astray, from being derailed and being derailed, from being wronged and being wronged, from being ignorant and being ignorant. Great is Your protection, Your help and glorious is Your praise and there is no God but You.”
Then it is connected with the recitation:
By mentioning the asma of Allah, I believe in Allah. I cling to Allah, and I put my trust in Allah. There is no power and no strength (to reject disobedience and do obedience) except with the help of Allah. O Allah, establish my heart and make the truth appear in my tongue.”
And when he arrives at the school (class), he should greet his students or santri, the audience and sit facing the Qibla (if possible), maintain a good attitude, calm, authoritative, tawadlu’ and khusu’ while sitting cross-legged or sitting on a chair properly and politely.
A teacher should guard himself against things that diminish his authority, such as sitting crowded with others, playing with his hands, inserting one deriji with another deriji, turning his gaze on unimportant things by playing with his eyeballs without desire
In addition, a teacher should refrain from joking and laughing often, because it reduces authority and brings down the price and dignity of a teacher.
Teachers should not teach when they are hungry, thirsty or hungry. Nor when angry, anxious, sleepy or when excessively hot or cold.
In addition, the teacher should sit with his appearance visible to his students, pupils, and the audience, so that they will honor a teacher who is knowledgeable, old, beautiful, and noble, and honor him and give him preference as the prayer leader. In addition, he should act and speak in a gentle manner towards others and honor them with kind words, a radiant face and great respect.
The teacher should stand up to honor the Islamic leaders as an expression of respect, and look at the audience with the aim of respecting them, especially those who talk to him and ask him questions. They should all be listened to with attention and concentration, even if they are young or of low dignity.
Before starting teaching, the teacher should begin by reciting verses of the Qur’an as tabarrukan (hoping for barakah) for the good of himself, the students, the people present, the Muslim community, and those who help the success of education, such as people who give wagaf, (if there are people who give wagaf and so on). This is followed by reciting ta’awwudz, basmalah, hamdalah, salawat (blessings) on the prophet and his followers, and asking Allah for the pleasure of the Muslim scholars.
If the lessons are many, the teacher should prioritize the nobler and more important lessons. This means giving precedence to tafsir, hadith, ushuluddin, ushul fiqh, madhhab books, nahwu and ending with the books of raga’ig (books that refine character) so that students can take lessons from the methods of cleansing the heart.
The teacher should continue lessons that have not been completed properly and stop the lesson when the material has been completed. The teacher should not mention topics that may confuse the students, and should not give clear answers, either in religious matters or in lessons, and leave them until the next meeting. In fact, a teacher must be able to explain the problem in detail and thoroughly or it is better to postpone it altogether, because otherwise it will cause confusion, especially if the forum (meeting) is attended by lay people.
Do not lengthen and shorten the lesson so as to cause boredom and damage understanding, when learning always maintain the public interest, both when giving information and explanations. In addition, one should not discuss a matter except in an official forum, a forum that is used for the discussion of knowledge. It is not permissible to advance or postpone the schedule of study unless there is a public benefit.
It is also important not to raise or lower the voice more than necessary, but more importantly, not to raise the voice so much that it can be heard from outside and not to lower it so much that it is difficult for the students, the audience, to hear it.
Al Khatib Al Baghdadi has narrated a hadith from the Prophet:
“Verily, Allah loves a low and soft voice and hates a loud voice.”
However, if there are people in the forum who are less sensitive to hearing, then there is no problem, and it is valid to raise the voice so that they are able to hear it, and it is not permissible to speak too quickly; rather, one should speak slowly while thinking and considering the mustami (those who are listening).
Prophet Muhammad, when he spoke with others, he always spoke slowly, systematically, and in detail so that others could understand. He when saying a sentence is always repeated up to three times with the intention that it is easy to understand. And when he had finished explaining an issue, or the subject matter, he paused for a moment to provide an opportunity for people who still had obstacles in their hearts to express them.
A teacher should keep his room or classroom free of noise, crowds or confusing discussions that have no clear direction, because that can change the purpose of the discussion. Al Rabi’ said: when the imam Shafi’i was debated by someone, then the person moved on to another issue before it was resolved, the imam Shafi’i said: “The teacher should be gentle in stopping such tendencies when they become apparent, before they become widespread and the audience’s emotions run high.
The teacher reminded the audience of the statements that condemn not wanting to lose an argument, especially after the truth has been revealed. And that scientific gatherings are meant to uncover the truth, purify the heart from ambiguity, and merely gain benefit. And that it is not proper for a knowledgeable person to engage in competition, for that brings enmity and hatred. A scientific gathering should be based on the sole intention of Allah SWT, in order to achieve benefits in this world and happiness in the hereafter. Once in a while teacher Per cites the following Quranic verse:
“That the truth may appear and falsehood disappear, though the sinners dislike it.” (QS. al-Anfal: 8)
This verse actually gives an understanding that the desire to eliminate the truth and realize falsehood is a sinful act that must be avoided.
Teachers should be adamant in discouraging students who go too far in discussions, who seem adamant in defending their arguments, who are impolite in discussions, who are not satisfied with the truth when it has been raised, who often shout for no purpose, who are disrespectful to the audience or to those who are not present, who are disrespectful to their elders in the assembly, who sleep, who chat with their friends, who laugh, who insult one of the audience, or those who do not heed the etiquette of students in an assembly.
If the teacher is asked about something that he does not know the answer to, then just say “Don’t know” or “Don’t understand”, because in this case the word “Don’t know” is a sign of knowledge. Some scholars said: “Saying that you do not understand is part of knowledge.”
Ibn ‘Abbas said, “If a scholar makes a mistake and says ‘I do not know’, then what he says is correct.” Muhammad ibn al-Hakam said: I asked Imam as-Shaafa’i about Nikah Muth’ah, whether it involves divorce or inheritance, or the obligation of maintenance, or testimony. He replied: “By Allah I do not know.”
Know that saying “I don’t understand” does not bring down one’s level of knowledge like the prejudices of ignorant people. Rather, it elevates one’s level of knowledge because it shows that the person has extensive knowledge, a strong religion, piety towards his Lord, a clean heart, and positive caution in ascertaining things. The stories of previous scholars can serve as examples of this. Those who are reluctant to say, “I don’t understand” are only those whose religion is weak and knowledge is shallow, for they are afraid of their pride falling before the audience. This is a sign of ignorance and thinness of religion. In fact, if their mistakes become known to many people, it will only make them fall into something that they run away from and make their image in the eyes of the public not what they want. Allah Ta’ala has educated scholars with the story of Prophet Moses and Prophet Khidir When Moses did not return knowledge to Allah alone when he was asked, “Is there anyone else more knowledgeable than you?”
The teacher should be polite and friendly to new people who join his recitation, so that they feel at ease. Every new person must feel uncomfortable. Do not pay too much attention to him, as this may embarrass him. If a person of high standing arrives while the teacher is just starting to explain something, then he should stop what he is doing until the person sits down. But if the person comes when the teacher is halfway through explaining something, then he should repeat the explanation from the beginning or just the points. If the person arrives when the recitation is just waiting for the teacher to close it and is expected to coincide with the dispersal of the audience, then the teacher should delay closing the assembly so that the person is not embarrassed because the audience is about to disperse when he himself has just arrived.
The teacher should consider the interests of the congregation in moving the recitation time forward or backward, so long as the teacher is not inconvenienced and inconvenienced. At the end of each lesson, the teacher should say “Allah knows best” (Wallahu A’lam), preceded by words that indicate the end of the lesson, such as “The lesson is over and the next lesson will be in the next meeting, in sha Allah” and other similar words, so that saying “Allah knows best” is pure remembrance of Allah and its meaning is better conveyed. It has already been mentioned that the teacher should begin every lesson with the basmalah, so that the beginning and end of the lesson are filled with the remembrance of Allah. The teacher should not leave the assembly immediately after the audience has stood up to leave. This is because there are several benefits and morals involved in this, such as not crowding the audience, so that if a student has a question he can ask it, and avoiding riding with the audience if the teacher happens to be riding, and so on.
When the teacher wants to leave the assembly, he should pray the supplication listed in the hadith, which is called the supplication of kafaratul majlis, namely:
“Glory be to You, O Allah, and I praise You. There is no god but You. I ask You for forgiveness and I repent to You.”
One should not teach if one is not qualified to teach. Not mentioning a subject that one has not mastered is an act of mockery of religion and disrespect to others. The Prophet said:
“A person who fills himself with something that is not given to him, it is as if he is wearing a garment of falsehood and lies.”
It was narrated from some scholars that, “Whoever rushes to appear before the time comes, then he is welcoming the arrival of humiliation for him.” Imam Abu Hanifah said, “Whoever pursues leadership before the right time comes, then he always bears humiliation for the rest of his life.”
The least damage caused by an incompetent teacher is that the audience will not find a fair middle ground when they disagree, because the person running the assembly does not know what is right to defend and what is wrong to correct.
It was reported to Imam Abu Hanifah that in the mosque there was a group of people discussing fiqh. Abu Hanifah asked, “Is there anyone leading the discussion?” “No” was the reply. Abu Hanifah said, “They will never find understanding.”
Some scholars have commented on teachers who are not fit to teach:
“Many a foolish man has come forward to teach, so that he may be called a teacher:
It is right for the pious to emulate: (the story of) an ancient family that is famous everywhere,
They have slipped into such an obvious error that it is said that even bankrupt people dare to bid for them.”
CHAPTER VII: TEACHER MORALS TOWARDS STUDENTS
In this chapter, fourteen kinds of ethics of a teacher towards his students are explained. ..
First, in teaching and educating them, they should hope for the pleasure of Allah SWT and intend to spread knowledge and emphasize the Shari’a and defend truth and justice and preserve the good of the ummah by multiplying scientists, and expect the reward of the one who completes his study and expect the blessing of their prayers for him and their love and facilitate the entry of knowledge, between the Rosuln and between scholars and consider that a teacher is among those who convey revelations and laws of Allah to his creatures, indeed teaching knowledge is an important matter in religion and a high degree for mu’min people. The Prophet said:
“Verily, Allah and His angels and the inhabitants of the heavens and the earth down to the ant in its hole pray for the one who teaches people goodness.”
By the nature of Your (Allah’s) life this is a great portion, so gaining it is a great benefit. O Allah, do not deprive us of knowledge with a barrier, and we seek Your protection from the things that cut off knowledge, and the things that defile it, and the obstacles that hinder it, and the loss of knowledge.
Secondly, a teacher should not be prevented from teaching his student because of the student’s lack of sincerity of intention. Indeed, good intentions are expected with the blessing of knowledge. Some of the scholars of the salaf said: “We seek knowledge for the sake of other than Allah, so knowledge is rejected except for the sake of Allah.” It is said that the meaning of this vow is that knowledge can be acquired with the intention of Allah, because if sincerity of intention is required when teaching beginners, which is difficult for them to be sincere about, then it will lead to the loss of knowledge from most people. Rather the teacher teaches the beginner with good intentions slowly, whether in word or deed, and tells him that with good intentions he will attain high degrees of knowledge and deeds and obtain good graces, and obtain various kinds of wisdom and lightness of heart and spaciousness of chest, And the teacher should encourage them to love knowledge and to seek it for a long time by mentioning what Allah has given to the scholars in the form of a high rank, and that they are the heirs of the prophets and are on the pulpit of what the prophets and martyrs expected. It is also important to cultivate a love of knowledge in those things that are prescribed for the attainment of knowledge, such as taking the easy and moderate things of the worldly life and the things of the worldly life, and the things that occupy the mind and separate the concerns of the worldly life from the concerns of the worldly life.
So turning away the heart from interacting (connecting) with dependence will be greedy for the world and increase it and feel that it will be separated from it. So combining (uniting) the heart and soul for his religion only or for his glory for his position and less feelings and more importantly for memorizing knowledge and increasing it.
Thirdly, one should love seeking something (knowledge) as much as he himself loves it, as stated in the hadith, and hate something against it as the hadith hates it. And be diligent in the pursuit of good knowledge. He should treat the students as he would his noble children, with love, kindness, patience and endurance for the shortcomings that befall him, and not isolate himself from the company of people. It’s the same manners in some of these times, and making excuses wherever possible. And conditioning all of that with gentle speech advice is not harsh or persecuting him. All of that is aimed at his good upbringing and good manners and behavior. If the way to know their intelligence is by means of signs, then there is no need to use examples, and if they do not understand except by means of signs, then there is nothing wrong with that. And refraining from those who speak ill of them, and speaking kindly and with good manners, and encouraging them to do what is pleasing to them, and giving them advice on good matters and on the rulings of sharee’ah.
Fourth, it should be easier for the students to convey the material as easily as possible in their teaching. And with gentle speech in giving understanding, especially when the students are their own family. Because all of that is only for the sake of good manners and good search for the principle of rules and guarding against rare things. And it is not permissible to conceal (hide) when asked something because it is part of him, because sometimes these things confuse and make the heart indecisive, and turn away the heart and cause anxiety / irritation. Likewise, he should not speak about things that are not his area of expertise, because this can freeze the heart and the understanding. If the student asks a question and does not answer it or tell him about it, he will harm himself and it is not beneficial if he prevents it from the student not out of stinginess but out of love and compassion, then he likes it in earnest and for the sake of getting something he likes or something else. Imam al-Bukhori (may Allah have mercy on him) said in the book of “Ar-Robbani” that he taught people easy knowledge before teaching them difficult knowledge.
Fifth, teachers should be serious in teaching and giving understanding to students by devoting efforts and explaining the material even though it is only close to the meaning, not excessive and not burdensome and beyond the limits of memorization. And explaining something where the heart stops because it has understood the meaning. And finding out how much he has repeated. First of all, describing the matter, then illustrating it with examples and mentioning the evidence that relates to it, and summarizing it by giving examples and making examples for those who are not experts, so that they can understand the examples and the evidence. And mentioning the evidence and taking the evidence from the person who has it. And explaining to the students the meanings of things whose wisdom is unclear. And the reasons for that, and what is relevant to that issue, both in terms of its origin and its branches. The ruling on the matter, the exceptions, and the transfer of examples, in a manner that is good and does not detract from the status of the scholar, and the intention is to clarify the misunderstanding by giving advice and defining the correct transfer. It mentions what is similar to this and then puts it into practice, and what distinguishes it from what is close to it. And explaining which of the two rulings should be taken and the difference between two contradictory issues. And it is not permissible to prevent one person from mentioning a phrase in shame from another. The teacher should give the ruling as clearly as possible, and should not explain it by stating it, but by stating it.
Likewise, if there is a person in the assembly who is not fit to say this phrase because of shyness or ambiguity, then the teacher should make a kinayah for this phrase or something else, because these meanings are different in the hadiths, which usually explain in detail, and sometimes with other kinayahs. When the teacher has finished his lesson, there is nothing wrong with the teacher asking the santri (students) problems related to it in order to test their understanding and memorization of what has been explained. If the students show that they have a strong understanding by repeating the correct answers, then thank them. If the learner does not understand, then the teacher should gently ask him to repeat it. As for the purpose of giving these problems, the students are sometimes embarrassed when they do not understand, sometimes to remove it by repeating it back to the teacher, or to shorten the time, or because they are embarrassed by the people present, or so that they do not fall behind in reading from others because of this embarrassment.
Therefore, the teacher should not ask the student “have you understood?” unless there is no problem with the teacher answering “yes” before the student has understood. Then, if it is not safe for the student, or if it is embarrassing for the student, then do not ask about comprehension, because sometimes the teacher will lie and say “yes” because of something that is obvious for some reason, but the teacher should ask the student the questions mentioned above.
If a teacher asks a student if he has understood something and the student answers “yes” (he has understood), he should not give him a new problem after that, unless it causes the student to be embarrassed by the problem because of the obvious difference in the student’s answer. It is also advisable for the teacher to order the student to learn a lesson that suits him, as well as the information that will come, in sha Allah, and by repeating the lesson after he has finished explaining something between them (students) so that it remains in their hearts and permeates their understanding of the lesson. This is because it encourages seriousness of mind and strengthening of the body in the search for what is right.
Sixthly, he should ask his students to repeat what they have memorized and test their memorization, such as difficult rules and contemporary issues. Also, the teacher should always provide information related to the subject matter or arguments that have been learned. If they give correct answers and are not afraid or nervous, then thank them and praise them in front of their friends so that they will be encouraged to seek additional information.
Likewise, if they are aspiring and not afraid to show off with their minimal abilities, then encourage them by giving the lure of high ideals or positions related to knowledge. Moreover, the admonition can encourage him and eventually he can thank you. You should also repeat the material related to the subject so that the student understands.
Seventh, if there is a student who studies very hard beyond his ability, or within his ability but the teacher is afraid that it will make the student bored, then the teacher advises the student to love himself and reminds him of the Prophet’s words:
“The man who has lost his strength, can neither break the earth nor Hada his mount.”
Guide students to be slow and casual in their learning. If the student looks bored or bored, or there are signs of this, the teacher should tell the student to take a break and be less busy. It is not permissible to advise the student to study something that is beyond his level of understanding and age. Nor is it permissible to write things that the student’s mind is not capable of understanding. If the teacher is asked for advice by a person whose level of understanding and memorization ability is unknown, regarding studying a certain field of knowledge or book, then the teacher does not need to suggest anything until the teacher tests his mind and finds out what kind of condition he is in. If the situation is not possible, then advise him to read easy references in the discipline he wants. And if his mind seems to be able to grasp and his comprehension is good, then advise him to move on to studying books that suit his abilities. But if this is not the case, then do not suggest anything. This is because transferring the student to another book, where the transfer shows that his level of thinking is good, can increase his enthusiasm for learning. On the other hand, if he is transferred to a book where his level of thinking is poor, it may discourage him from learning.
It is impossible for a student to pursue two or more fields of knowledge at once, if he is not able to master them well. He should prioritize the sciences that are more important to learn. If the teacher has a strong belief or suspicion that the student will not succeed in learning a discipline, then advise him to abandon it and move on to another field that he hopes to master successfully.
Eighthly, the teacher should not make the students stand out in front of others by showing them affection and attention, even though they are of the same nature, age and religious knowledge experience, because that is hurtful. However, if one of them is more enthusiastic and has better manners, then show his politeness and explain to them that he is honoring him for that reason, then there is nothing wrong with that.It is not permissible to give precedence to one student over another and do the other’s turn unless there is something in it that adds to the benefit of that turn, if that is understandable.
Ninthly, the teacher should be gentle with the students and mention those who are absent, with great care, knowing their names, lineage, origin and praying for them so that they will always be good, watching their behavior and manners both physically and mentally, if there is something inappropriate among them such as doing something haram or makruh, If there is something unbecoming in them, such as doing something that is haram or makruh, mischief, laziness or disrespectful to the teacher or others, or talking about things that are not beneficial, or associating with someone who is not worth having sex with, then the teacher should prevent them from doing that by directing them and not blaming them. If that does not solve the problem, then he should warn him in private or in front of the two people. If that does not solve the problem, then the teacher should warn him in private or in front of the two of them. If that does not solve the problem, then he should warn him in private or in front of the two of them. If that does not solve the problem, then he should warn him in private or in front of the two of them. If that does not solve the problem, then he should warn him in private and in front of the two of them.
Tenthly, paying attention to things that will nurture interaction between fellow students, such as spreading greetings, speaking kindly, loving each other, helping each other in goodness and piety, and also in achieving common goals while seeking knowledge. In short, in addition to teaching the students things that are beneficial to their religion in worshipping Allah, the teacher also teaches them things that are useful for them in interacting with others in order to perfect their religion and their worldly life.
Eleventh, trying to do good for the students and keep them concentrated. Helping the student by utilizing what the teacher has such as social status and wealth, if the teacher is able to do so and is not in urgent need.
“Verily, Allah will help his servant as long as he helps his neighbor. Whoever helps fulfill the needs of his brother, Allah will fulfill his needs as well. And whoever eases the way for someone who is in trouble, Allah will ease the process of calculating his deeds on the Day of Judgment.”
Especially, if the assistance provided is for the benefit of studying.
Twelfthly, if a student of the class or study participant is unusually absent, the teacher should inquire about him, how he is, and who his relations are. If there is no news about him, then the teacher should send a letter to him or it is better to go to his house directly. If he is sick, visit him. If he is in distress, ease his suffering. If he is traveling, find out who his family is and who is related to him, ask them about the student and try to help meet their needs, and keep in touch with them as much as possible even through prayer.
You see, a good student is far more likely to reward his teacher with good in this world and the next than even the richest person and the teacher’s closest relative. Hence, the early scholars who invited people to Allah and His religion cast a net of earnestness to catch students who would be useful to others in their worldly and afterlife lives. Even if a teacher has just one student whose knowledge, deeds, zuhudan and guidance benefit many people, that one student is enough to be the teacher’s good deed in the sight of Allah. This is because if even a little knowledge is transferred from one person to another so that the other person can benefit from it, then the first transmitter of knowledge will receive a share of the reward, as stated in a sahih hadith from the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him):
“If a servant dies, his deeds are cut off except for three things: jariyah charity, useful knowledge, and righteous children who pray for their parents.”
Well, all three are embodied in a teacher of knowledge. The activity of teaching knowledge and understanding it is included in charity, as the Prophet said about the person who prayed alone, “Who wants to give charity to this person?” That is, by joining the prayer with him in order to obtain the virtue of praying in congregation. The teacher of knowledge brings the virtue of knowledge to his student, where the virtue of knowledge is superior to the virtue of congregational prayer because with knowledge the glory of this world and the hereafter can be achieved. Useful knowledge is clearly in the teacher, because he is the bridge so that knowledge reaches everyone who benefits from it. As for the supplication of a righteous child, according to the customary terminology of the hadith scholars and scholars, it is the same as the supplication of a student for his teachers.
Thirteenth, a teacher should be humble towards a student or anyone who asks about his personal relationship with Allah SWT.
Allah Almighty said to the Prophet Muhammad:
“And humble yourselves to the believers who follow you.” (Q.S. as-Syu’ara: 215)
The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) emphasized that Allah SWT commands His servants to be humble. No one who humbles his heart will be elevated by Allah SWT.
Fourteenth, speak to each student, especially those with strengths, with words that show respect and appreciation. Calling them by their preferred names. Greeting them warmly whenever you meet them and when they come to the teacher. Honoring them when they are sitting together, making a point of asking them how they are and who they are with after answering their greetings. Greeting them with a beaming face, cheerful, full of love and affection. This is especially true for students who can still be expected to succeed and those who have already succeeded in their learning achievements.
In conclusion, how teachers understand the Prophet’s will in the hadith narrated by Abu Sa’id al-Khudri
“Indeed people are following you. And there will be some who come to you to learn the religion. So when they have come to you, then advise them about virtue.”
CHAPTER VIII: THE STUDENT’S MANNERS WITH BOOKS AS TOOLS OF KNOWLEDGE AND IN RELATION TO HOW THEY ARE ACQUIRED
This chapter includes five moral discussions, namely:
First, a student should have the textbooks needed as much as possible, either by buying, renting, or borrowing. This is because textbooks are a means of gaining knowledge. However, having books does not mean that knowledge has been acquired and having a variety of references does not mean that it is proportional to the quality of understanding achieved, as is the case with many students today. How beautiful is the poem of some scholars who say:
then the myriad books you collect are useless # If you can not memorize and understand
while your knowledge is left at home # Do you talk about ignorance in an assembly
If it is possible to buy them, then there is no need to bother copying them. And one should not occupy oneself with copying these books unless there is something that makes it difficult to obtain them, or one does not have the financial means to copy them.
And do not only pay attention to improving the khot (writing) of the book. And also do not borrow it if it is possible to buy or rent it.
Secondly, if there is no objection, it is recommended for the student to lend his book to a friend who will not jeopardize the loan contract. The borrower should thank the owner of the book for the loan. It is not permissible for him to keep a borrowed book with him for too long, and when he no longer needs it, he should return it to the owner as soon as possible when he has finished his business; he should not make any corrections to the text without the owner’s permission; he should not make marginal notes; he should not write anything on the blank pages of the front and back of the book unless he is certain that the owner is happy with that, He should not make the book black, he should not lend it or leave it with others if there is no need for it, he should not copy the writing from the book without the permission of the owner, and if he wants to copy with the permission of the owner, then when writing the copy, he should not put the notebook on top of the book to be copied or overlap the writing, and he should not put the ink container on top of the book to be copied.
Thirdly, when making a copy of a book or reviewing it, do not lay the book on the floor. Instead, place the book propped up by two objects, books or otherwise, or on a small table dedicated to books that we know about. The goal is to prevent the binding of the book from quickly coming loose and unraveling.
If the book is placed on a shelf, then place it on a chair, board, or the like. Do not place them on the floor (without support), so that they will not quickly become damp and damaged. If the book is placed on a board or the like, then put something above and below the book to protect it from things that might knock it down, such as a wall or something else.
Pay attention to the ethics of placing books according to the classification of disciplines and their level of glory, and based on the author and his level of expertise. Thus, books that are higher in nobility than other books should be placed at the top, followed by books of the next level in order. However, the copies of the Quran, if any, should be placed on top by themselves. It is even better if the Mushaf is placed in a bag with a string and hung on a clean and pure nail or peg, and located at the front of the room. Then below the Mushaf, the books of hadith, commentary on the Qur’an, commentary on hadith, creed, ushul fiqh, fiqh, nahwu, shorof, Arabic poetry, and arudh.
The title of the book should be written at the bottom of the last page. The first letters of the title should be written straight in the direction of the basmalah of the book. The function of the title is to identify the book and make it easier to retrieve. When placing a book, the cover should be right behind the basmalah or the beginning of the book, on top. Do not place large books on top of small books. Do not use the book as a storage place for various papers and other objects. Do not make them into pillows or fans. Do not mark the book with small sticks or other dry objects, but use a piece of paper. Do not fold the edges or corners of the book.
Fourth, when borrowing a book or buying one, check the front, back, center, chapter order, and paper carefully.
Fifthly, when copying writings from books containing Islamic sciences, you should be in a state of purity, facing the qiblah, with clean body and clothes, using pure ink. Write the basmalah at the beginning of every book that you intend to write. If the book is to be opened with the author’s preface, which includes praise to Allah and peace and blessings to the Messenger of Allah, then the preface should be written after the basmalah. Similarly, the basmalah should be written at the end of the book and at the end of each volume. After writing the first or second volume, words should be written to indicate that the book is not yet finished (there is still a next volume). For example, the basmalah should be written at the end of the book and at the end of the first or second volume, indicating that the book is not yet finished (there is still a next volume).
Whenever you write the name of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), you should write the words of salawat (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) after it. The scholars from ancient times until now have been accustomed to writing the words shallallahu ‘alaihi wasallam after the name of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). Their aim was to carry out the command
Allah in His word:
Remember not to abbreviate the name shallallhu alaihi wasallam, even if it is repeatedly mentioned, to صلعم or ص م , or any other abbreviation that is inappropriate for the Messenger of Allah, as some people do.
When passing over the name of a Companion, the words radliyallahu’anhu should be added, and rradiiyallahu anhuma if the father of the Companion is mentioned. The same applies when passing over the names of the salaf scholars. Or the words rahmatullahi’alaihi may be substituted for the name of the scholar, especially if a great scholar is mentioned. The words that accompany the names of the Companions and scholars should be written down, even if they are not included in the original book that was copied as a guide, because this is not narration but a prayer. The reader should also read all the words of the supplication, even if they are not included in the original book that he is reading, and should not tire of repeating them, for this is a great kindness and a great virtue.
The book entitled “Adabul ‘Alim wal Muta’allim,” was completed at dawn on Sunday, 21 Jumadal Tsaniyah 1343 AH. Praise be to the Lord of the Worlds. It is He who knows the truth and to Him that all things return.
PRAYERS WHEN STUDYING
Prayers to Lighten the Heart
“O Allah, enlighten my heart with the light of your guidance as you enlighten the earth with your sun forever, O Allah the Merciful. “
Heart Opening Prayer
“O Allah, guide me and keep me safe from my own evil,”
Do’a Before Learning
“O Allah, open upon us Your wisdom and bestow upon us Your treasures, O Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. “
Do’a Review Lesson
“O Allah, keep me away from confusion, ennoble me with the light of knowledge and understanding, open to me Your realization, and make easy for me the doors of Your favor, O Most Merciful of the merciful.”
Prayer for Learning
“O Allah, open the doors of our hearts like the wise ones, grant us the understanding of the Prophets and the inspiration of the Angels who are close to You, with Your Mercy O Gracious, Merciful Lord. “
Prayers When Facing an Examination
“O Allah, make my chest (soul) wide and my affairs easy,”
Prayers for Intelligence of Thought
“O Allah, inspire me with intelligence and protect me from the evil of my lust.”
“O Allah, I bet on You what You have taught me, so restore it to me when I need it and do not make me forget it, O Lord of the Worlds.”
Do’a Before Reciting the Qur’an
“O Allah, open me to Your wisdom and shower me with Your Mercy, and remind me of what I have forgotten, O Allah of Glory.”
Prayers for Seeking Knowledge
“O Allah, the Self-Sustaining Living God, the creator of the heavens and the earth, the Most Great and Glorious God, O Allah, There is no God worthy of worship but You, I ask You that You may revive my heart with Your Nur guidance, O my Merciful and Compassionate Lord.”
Prayer for Ease of Understanding and Memorization of Lessons (Surah Al-Anbiya’: verse 79)
“We made Solomon understand him, and we gave each of them law and knowledge, and we subjected the mountains and birds to him, and it was We who made them. O Allah, Lord of Moses, and Lord of Aaron, Lord of Abraham and Lord of all creatures, grant me sustenance, understanding of knowledge and wisdom, and a mind with You, O Allah, the Merciful.”
Prayers to be kept away from Lazy, Greedy and Cowardly Nature
“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the feeling of sadness and anxiety, and I seek refuge with You from weakness and laziness, and I seek refuge with You from cowardice and greed, and I seek refuge with You from the grip of debt and oppression. “
Prayers for Useful Knowledge
“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from knowledge that is not beneficial, from hearts that are not devoted, from passions that are never satiated, and from supplications that are not accepted.”
“Whoever fears Allah, He will make for him a way out. And provide for him unexpectedly. And whoever puts his trust in Allah, Allah will provide for him. Verily, Allah does what He wills. Indeed, Allah has made provision for everything.”
Atabatul Ghulam’s Prayer: Stimulating Intellect
“O Allah, if You accept my repentance and You forgive my sins then grant me the glory of easy understanding and easy memorization, so that I can memorize everything I hear from science and the Qur’an. O Allah, grant me the glory of a good voice and a good tone of voice, so that whoever hears my recitation will feel compassion and gentleness even if there is someone who is hard-hearted. O Allah, grant me the favor of unprecedented sustenance.”
A Prayer to Enlighten the Heart to Quickly Acquire Vast Knowledge (Surah Al-Kahf: Verses 107-110)
“Verily, those who believe and do righteous deeds, for them is the paradise of Paradise for an abode(107). They will abide therein; they will not wish to depart from it.(108). Say: “If the sea were ink to (write) the words of my Lord, the sea would be exhausted before the words of my Lord were exhausted, even if We were to add to them.”(109). Say: “Verily I am but a man like you, to whom it was revealed: “That verily your Lord is One Lord.” Whoever hopes to meet his Lord, let him do righteous deeds, and let him associate no partner in worship with his Lord.”(110)
Memorization Locking Prayer (Surah Al-A’raaf: Verse 171)
* It is read after studying to lock in the things that have been learned. It may also be written on the first page of the textbook.
“And (remember), when We raised a hill above them as if it were a cloud and they were sure that it would fall on them. (And We said to them): “Hold fast to that which We have given you, and remember (practice) that which is therein, that you may be of the pious.”