Al-Adzkar An-nawawi

INTRODUCTION

 

Praise be to Allah, the One and Only, the Mighty, the Forgiving, the One who ordains and regulates all things, who sets the night after the day for those of understanding and vision to contemplate, who makes aware among His creatures those whom He chooses and then includes them among the good ones. He guides his chosen ones and makes them tajarrub (righteous) and salihin (righteous) and awakens those whom he loves and makes them zahids in this world.

 

They strive to earn his favor, prepare for eternal life and avoid things that incur his anger. They fear the punishment of Hell, so they strive to obey him. They remember him morning and evening, night and day, in all circumstances, so that their hearts shine with brilliant light. I praise him for all his favors and ask for more of his virtues and gifts.

 

I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, the Great and the Sole, the destination, the Mighty and the Wise. I also bear witness that Muhammad is his servant and Messenger, his love and beloved, the foremost and noblest of those who came before and those who are to come. Peace and blessings be upon him and the other prophets, his family and the righteous.

 

Amma ba’du. Allah the Great, Mighty and Wise has said:

 

“So remember Me, and I will remember you….” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah: 152)

 

In other words:

 

“And I did not create the jinn and mankind but that they should worship Me.” (Q.S. Az-Zaariyat: 56)

 

It is known that the best state of a slave is one in which he remembers the Lord of the worlds (Robbul Alamin) and occupies himself with the dhikr narrated from the Messenger of Allah, the leader of the Messengers. Scholars have written about daytime and nighttime practices, supplications and dhikr in books that are well known to readers. However, because there is too much sanad and repetition, there is a lack of enthusiasm to learn them.

 

I intend to make that easier for the willing reader. So I started and organized it in this book in a concise manner. I have left out the sanads for most of them in order to summarize them.

 

Inshallah I will mention something more important than that in place of the sanad and that is the mention of sahih, hasan, dhaif and munkar traditions. This is something that everyone needs to know except a few of the muhaddisin.

 

This section is very important to pay attention to, believe in and should be relied upon by the student on the part of the meticulous memorizers and the clever Imams. I will add a number of valuable issues from the science of hadith, the intricacies of fiqh, important rules, spiritual exercises and procedures that should be known by those who practice them.

 

I mentioned everything clearly, so that it is easy to understand for both the layperson and the person studying it.

 

It has been narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Hurairah , that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever invites to the truth will be rewarded with the same reward as those who follow him, not less than their reward (his reward will not diminish their reward).”

 

So, I want to help the one who loves goodness by facilitating his path, signaling to him and explaining it. In the beginning of the book, I mentioned the important chapters needed by the reviewer of this book and other readers.

 

If a companion is narrated who is not well-known to those who do not know him, then I say: We narrate from so-and-so, as-Sahabi, so that there is no doubt about his friendship.

 

I prioritized this book with traditions from five well-known books, namely: Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasz’i. Sometimes I narrate from other well-known books.

 

As for volumes and narratives, I have not mentioned them except in rare places. I have also rarely mentioned the da’eef and inferior traditions. I have given preference only to the sahih traditions.

 

Therefore, I hope this book will be a reliable source. In any given issue, I have mentioned only those traditions whose dilalah (designation) is clear in that issue.

 

To Allah, the Most Gracious, I ask for guidance, repentance and help. I also ask for guidance, safeguarding and facilitating the good things that I am aiming for. Finally, I hope to attain eternal glory, which will bring me together with my beloved in Paradise, as well as other kinds of pleasure.

 

Allah is sufficient for me and He is the best place to surrender, There is no power except with the help of Allah, the Mighty and Wise. I surrender and seek refuge in him. I ask for help and submit my affairs to him.

 

I entrust my religion and myself, my parents and brothers, my lovers, all those who do me good and all Muslims and all the blessings given to me and to him in the affairs of this world and the Hereafter. Verily, if anything is entrusted to Allah, He will surely guard it, and He is the best of guardians. Abdullah is the best of people.

 

Exhortation to sincerity and good intentions in all visible and invisible practices

 Allah said:

 

“And they were not commanded except that they should worship Allah with pure obedience to Him in (practicing) the straight religion…” (Q.S. Al-Bayyinah:5)

 

In other words:

 

“Neither the meat (of the sacrificial animal) nor its blood reaches Allah, but what reaches Him is piety…” (Q.S. Al-Hajj:37)

 

Ibn Abbas said: The meaning is: “However, it is the intention that gets it.”

 

Through Umar bin Khattab, Muslim narrates that the Prophet said:

 

“Verily, every deed must have an intention, and each person’s actions take place according to what he intends. Whoever migrates for the sake of Allah and His Messenger, his migration will be for the sake of Allah and His Messenger. Whoever makes Hijrah for the pleasure of this world or the woman he wants to marry, his Hijrah is limited to what he intends.”

 

This Hadīth is agreed upon for its authenticity, greatness and majesty. It is one of the traditions that constitute the core of Islam.

 

The salaf scholars and their followers liked to open their essays with this hadith to remind the reader of their intentions and to draw his attention to them.

 

Imam Abi Said ‘Abdur-Rahman b. Mahdi recommended: Whoever wants to compose a book should start with this hadith.

 

Imam Abu Sulaiman Al-Khattabi said: Our earlier teachers favored the introduction of the hadith “practice with intention” in front of everything that is composed and started in religious matters because of the general necessity of it in all kinds.

 

It has reached us from Ibn ‘Abbas that he said: Verily, a person is kept according to the degree of his intention. And another said: Verily, man is rewarded according to the degree of his intention.

 

Fudhail bin Iyadh explained: Abandoning charity for the sake of people is riya’ and doing charity for the sake of people is shirk, while sincerity means that Allah frees you from both (riya’ and shirk).

 

Imam Haris Al-Muhasibi, said: The righteous man is the one who does not care if anything that is determined for him in the hearts of people comes out for the good of his heart, and does not like people knowing the goodness of his deeds at all, and does not hate it when people know the badness of his deeds.

 

Hudzaifah Al-Mar’asi said: Sincerity is when a person’s actions are the same inwardly and outwardly.

 

Al-Qusyairi, said: Ikhlas is the dedication to Allah in obedience with a purpose. That is, with his obedience he wants to get closer to Allah alone, without pretending to creatures, hoping for a position among people, wanting praise from people, or anything else that is not an approach to him.

 

Sahal At-Tastari said: The wise men who investigate the interpretation of sincerity find nothing but this: His movements and quietness, whether in secrecy or openly, are only for Allah and are not interfered with by lust and worldly affairs.

 

Ali Ad-Daggag said: Sincerity is keeping oneself away from human scrutiny. Righteousness is abstaining from obedience to the passions. The muhlis does not recognize riya and the righteous is not arrogant.

 

Zinnun Al-Misri explains: Three things are signs of sincerity: The similarity between praise and blame from the common people, forgetting to look at the deed in doing the deed and wanting the reward of the deed in the Hereafter.

 

Al-Qusyairi also mentioned: At the very least, the truth is the similarity between secrecy and overt action.

 

Sahal At-Tastari also said: People who pretend to themselves and others do not smell the smell of truth.

 

There are many more sayings on this subject. What I have mentioned is sufficient for those who understand.

 

It is proper for the one who knows the main practices to do them, even once, so that he will be among the experts, and it is not proper for him to abandon them altogether. Rather, he should do what is easy, as the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said in a Sahih Hadīth:

 

“If I order you to do something, then do it according to your ability.”

 

The scholars, hadith scholars, fugaha and others said: It is permissible and advisable to practice a da’eef hadith about the main practices and recommendations of worship and the threat of sin, provided that it is not a maudhu’ (false) or a very da’eef hadith, such as that narrated by a liar and despicable person. The experience of a da’eef hadith has two conditions: that there is a shahid (testimony) to corroborate it, such as its position as a general rule, and that when it is practiced, it is not believed to be correct but only out of caution.

 

As for the rulings on halaal and haraam, buying and selling, marriage and divorce and so on, they are not to be followed except by sahih or hasan traditions, except to be cautious in such matters.

 

For example, if there is a da’eef hadith that disfavors some kinds of buying and selling or marriage, it is recommended to abstain from them, but it is not obligatory.

 

I am mentioning this because in this book there are traditions in which I have mentioned their sahih, hasan or dhaif. Or I have left it out for some reason. I want this rule to remain with the reviewers of this book.

 

You should know that just as it is recommended to do dhikr, it is also recommended to sit in the assembly of dhikr.

 

Ibn Umar mentioned his words:

 

“When you pass by the garden of Paradise, then spread out there. The Companions asked: What is the garden of Paradise, O Messenger of Allah? The Messenger of Allah replied: The assembly of remembrance. Verily, Allah has many angels who seek out the assemblies of remembrance. When they come to the people of dhikr, they surround the assembly.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Muawiyah who said: The Messenger of Allah came to a group of dhikr from his companions and said: :

 

“What caused you to sit down? They replied: We sit in remembrance of Allah and praise him for the guidance and mercy given to us in the form of Islam. Behau asked: By Allah, is that all you sit for? Verily I did not order kahan to swear as an accusation against the kalhtan, but Gabriel forbade me and informed me that Allah boasts about you to the angels.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abi Said Al-Khudri and Abu Hurairah , that both witnessed the Messenger of Allah saying:

 

“No people sit in remembrance of Allah but they are surrounded by angels and are overwhelmed with mercy. Peace descends upon them. Those people are called by Allah among His angels.”

 

Dhikr is done in the heart and with the tongue, while the best is with the heart and tongue together. If it is done with one of the two then the heart is the best. It is not appropriate to abandon the remembrance with the tongue and the heart for fear of being accused of riya. Rather, the remembrance should be done together with both of them, and the pleasure of Allah should be expected from the remembrance.

 

We have stated from al-Fudhail that giving up charity for the sake of people is riya’. If a person were to allow himself to be observed by others and to guard himself against false assumptions, most of the doors of goodness would be closed. He would be wasting a great deal of the duties of religion upon himself, and this is not the behavior of those who understand.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from ‘Aisha who said: This verse was revealed regarding prayer:

 

“..And do not raise your voice in prayer and do not lower it….” (Q.S. Al-Isra’: 110)

 

Said ibn Jubayr and other scholars said that the virtue of dhikr is not limited to tasbih, tahlil, tahmid, takbir and the like. Rather, anyone who does deeds for the sake of Allah, may he also remember Him.

 

Atha’ said: The assembly of dhikr is the assembly of the lawful and unlawful. That is, how you buy and sell, pray and fast, marry and divorce, go on Hajj, and so on.

 

Allah said:

 

“Indeed, the Muslims and the mushmat… (Until the word of Allah) and those men and women who remember much of the name of Allah, Allah has prepared for them forgiveness and a great reward.” (Q.S. Al-Ahzab:35)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Hurairah , that the Messenger said:

 

“Fortunate are those who deify. The sahabas asked: Who are the people who glorify, O Messenger of Allah?”. Behau replied: Those who remember Allah a lot, both men and women.”

 

The reviewer of this book should pay attention to the understanding of the above argument. There have been differences concerning it. Al-Wahidi, quoting Ibn ‘Abbas, said that what is meant is those who remember Allah after prayer, morning and evening, in bed and when they get up, and when they leave or return to their homes.

 

Mujahid said: No man or woman is among those who remember Allah much unless he or she remembers Allah standing, sitting and lying down.

 

Atha’ stated: Whoever performs the five daily prayers perfectly is included in the word of Allah:

 

and men who remember Allah much and women who remember him much)…” (Q.S. Al-Ahzab:35)

 

Abu Daud, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah narrated from Abi Said AlKhudri, that the Messenger said:

 

“If a man wakes up his wife during the night and they pray two rak’ahs together, they will be written as a man and a woman who remember Allah a lot.”

 

Abu Amr ibn Solah was asked about the level that qualifies one to be among those who remember a lot. He replied: If a person always performs the clear remembrance of the Messenger of Allah, which has been described in the Book of Remembrance day and night, in the morning and evening, day and night, and at various times and in different circumstances, then he is among those men and women who remember Allah a lot.

 

The scholars are unanimous on the permissibility of Dhikr with the heart and the tongue for the one who is in ablution, the junub, menstruating women and postpartum women. This includes tasbih, tahlil, tahmid, takbir, and salawat for the Messenger of Allah, as well as supplications and other things.

 

However, reading the Qur’an is forbidden for janaabah, menstruating women and postpartum women, whether they read a little or a lot, or just one verse. It is permissible for them to read the Qur’an in their hearts, as well as to look at the verses of the Qur’an in the Mushaf and ponder over them.

 

The companions of Imam Nawawi said: It is permissible for the junub and the menstruating woman to say when they are in calamity:

 

“Verily we belong to Allah and to Him we return.”

 

When boarding a vehicle then say?

 

“Glory be to Allah who has subdued all this for us when we were not able to reach it before.”

 

When praying, say’:

 

“O our Lord, grant us good in this world and the next, and protect us from the torment of hellfire.”

 

The junub and the menstruating woman may say it, provided they do not intend to recite the Qur’an. It is also permissible for both kinds of people to say “Bismillah wal Hamdulillah” if they do not intend to recite the Qur’an, whether they intend remembrance or not.

 

It is permissible for both of them to recite recitations that have been canceled, such as:

 

“If a man’s parents and a woman’s parents commit adultery, then stone them both.”

 

When they speak to someone’:

 

“Take the Book (of the Torah) seriously.” orf: “Enter into it with prosperity and security.” and the like, if they are not intending to recite the Qur’an, then it is not haraam.

 

If they cannot find water, they should do tayammum and then they may recite the Qur’an. If he becomes impure after that, it is not forbidden for him to recite the Qur’an, such as: Suppose he takes a bath and then becomes impure.

 

There is no difference between doing tayammum when there is no water at home or when one is traveling, and reciting the Qur’an afterwards, even if one has wudoo’. Some of the companions of Imam Nawawi said: If he is not traveling, he may pray with it and recite Qur’an during prayer, but it is not permissible to recite it outside of prayer. The correct view is that it is permissible, as we have stated, because his tayammum is a substitute for ghusl.

 

If a junub person does tayammum and then sees water, he should use it, because it is haraam for him to recite the Qur’an and all that is haraam for a junub person, until he takes a bath. If he does tayammum, prays and recites Qur’an, then he wants to do tayammum because he has a wudoo’ or something else, it is not haraam for him to recite Qur’an:

 

This is the correct and chosen madhhab. There is a view of one of Imam Nawawi’s companions that it is haraam. This opinion is weak. If the junub person cannot find water or soil, then he should pray in honor of the time according to his situation. It is haraam for him to recite the Qur’an outside of prayer. It is also haraam for him to recite more than al-Fatihah in prayer.

 

The question arises: Is it haraam to recite Surah al-Fatihah? There are two opinions: The correct view is that it is not haraam, rather it is obligatory, because the prayer is not valid except by reciting Surah al-Fatihah. Just as it is permissible to pray out of necessity, so it is permissible to recite it. The second opinion is that it is haraam. But it is permissible for him to say the remembrances that a person who does not know the Qur’an may say.

 

This furu’ needs to be mentioned, because it is relevant to the discussion. So I have mentioned it briefly, or it can be found in full in the books of fiqh with their evidence.

 

The one who does dhikr should be in the best of circumstances. If he is sitting in a place, then he should face the qiblah and sit humbly with solemnity and calmness and reverence while bowing his head.

 

If he does not do dhikr in this way, it is permissible, and it is not makrooh for him to do it. But if there is no excuse, then leaving something is preferable. The evidence for the absence of reproach is what Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):

 

“Surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the difference between the night and the day are signs for the people of understanding. Who remember Allah while standing, sitting or lying down, and think about the creation of the heavens and the earth….” (Q.S. Ali Imran: 190-191).

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from ‘Aisha who said:

 

“The Messenger of Allah used to hold on to my lap while I was menstruating, and he would recite the Qur’an.”

 

In one narration: “His head was in my lap while I was hard.”

 

Aisha ag also said: “I recite hizib (dhikr) while lying on my bed.”

 

It is more appropriate to perform dhikr in a quiet and clean place, as that is more important in honoring Allah. Hence, it is praised that dhikr is performed in mosques and other holy places.

 

Abi Maisaroh said: It is not proper to remember Allah except in a good place. The mouth should be clean. If there is an unpleasant odor, he removes it with the miswak. If there is anything unclean, he should wash it with water. If this is not done, it is makrooh.

 

It should be noted that remembrance is favored in all circumstances, except for those that are excluded by sharee’ah. Among these are that it is makrooh or permissible to remember while sitting while relieving oneself, while having intercourse, while listening to the voice of the preacher, while standing in prayer except for the recitation, and while drowsy. It is not makrooh to do dhikr on the road or in a sauna.

 

What is meant by dhikr is concentration of the heart. This should be the aim of the one who is making dhikr, so that he will attain the results and reflect on the dhikr he is saying and understand its meaning. Reflection during dhikr is required just as it is required during recitation, because the two are allied in their intended meaning. Hence, it is recommended for the one who is making dhikr to lengthen the words:

 

“Laa ilaha Illallah”, because it may cause reflection. The opinion of the scholars and imams in this regard is well known.

 

If a person is accustomed to doing dhikr at any time of the day or night, after prayer or in any other situation, then he misses it, he should catch up on it and do it if possible. If one is accustomed to doing it, he should not leave it behind. If one takes it lightly, it will be easy for him to waste his time. It is narrated in Sahih Muslim from ‘Umar ibn Khattab that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever sleeps and leaves out the hizib (remembrance) or part of it, and then recites it between the Fajr and Zuhr prayers, it is as if he recited it during the night.”

 

Stopping dhikr when distracted

 

Among them:

 

  1. When someone greets you, you should answer his greeting and then do dhikr again.
  2. If someone sneezes, say “yarhamukallah”, then make dhikr again.
  3. When the preacher is preaching.
  4. When you hear the voice of the muezzin, answer with the words of the Adhan and Iqama, and return to dhikr.
  5. If there is an evil, he prevents it or shows the way of goodness, then recites dhikr again.
  6. When sleepy. And so on.

 

It should be noted that the remembrances prescribed in prayer and so on, whether obligatory or voluntary, do not count for anything and do not count as having been uttered so that he can hear if his hearing is good.

 

You should know that a number of Imams have written valuable books on morning and evening practices. They narrated it with a chain of transmission and they wrote down the paths. Among them is the work of Imam Abi ‘Abdur-Rahman An-Nasz’. More numerous, good and excellent are those written by Imam Abu Bakr bin Muhammad bin Ishaq As-Sunni.

 

I have heard all the books of Ibn Sunni from our teacher, Al-Imam Al-Hafidh Abi Al-Baqo’ Khalid bin Yusuf bin Saad bin Hasan. He said:

 

It was narrated to us by Al-Imam Al-Allamah Abu Al-Yaman Zaid ibn Al-Hasan ibn Zaid ibn Al-Hasan Al-Kindi in the year 602 who said:

 

It was narrated to us by As-Sheikh Al-Imam Abu Al-Hasan Sadu Al-Khair Muhammad ibn Sahl Al-Anshari who said:

 

It was narrated to us by As-Sheikh Al-Imam Abu Muhammad Abdurrahman bin Saad bin Ahmad ibn Al-Hasan Ad-Duni who said:

 

It was narrated to us by Al-Qadhi Abu Nashr Ahmad ibn Al-Husein ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Kassar Ad-Dainuri who said:

 

Given to us by As-Sheikh Al-Imam Abu Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Ishaq As-Sunni .

 

In fact, this is mentioned here because some narrations will be quoted from the book of Ibn Sunni. Hence the snad comes first. This is agreed upon by the Imams of Hadith and others.

 

I specialize in mentioning the isnad of this book, because it is the most comprehensive book in its field. The hadiths that I have mentioned are Sahih narrations that I have obtained by chain of transmission, with the exception of a few. I have quoted from the books that are the sources of Islam, namely Saksh Bukhari and Muslim, Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasz’i. Also from the books of Masanid’ and Sunan, such as Al-Muwaththa’ by Imam Malik, Musnad of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal and Abi Uwanah, Sunan Ibn Majah, Daruguthni, Baihaqi and others.

 

You should know that I have linked the traditions in this book to the well-known books and others. With the exception of Sahih Bukhari and Muslim or one of them, I have left the references to these two books because the goal has been achieved, namely their validity.

 

Please note that Sunan Abu Daud is one of the largest books that I quote from. Abu Daud said: I have mentioned Sahih and similar traditions and those that are close to them. What I have not mentioned at all is hasan, and some of them are more Sahih than others. Those that Abu Daud narrated in his Sunan and did not mention their weaknesses are either Sahih or hasan, and they are used as evidence in many rulings, especially in the major practices.

 

If this is the case, then if there is a narration of Abu Daud that has no commentary on its weakness, then he has not weakened it.

 

I started with a chapter on the virtues of dhikr. I give an introductory sentence for what follows, then I state the purpose of the book in its chapters. The end of the book is about istighfar (asking for forgiveness), hoping that Allah will end our lives with it. It is Allah who gives us guidance, in whom we believe, put our trust and rely.

 

The virtue of dhikr without being bound by time

 Allah said:

 

And (know that) the remembrance of Allah (prayer) is greater (in virtue) than other acts of worship…” (Q.S. Al-Ankabut: 45)

 

In other words:

 

“So you remember Me, I will remember you….” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah:152)

 

In Surah Ash-Shaffat, verses 143-144, Allah explains:

 

“Had he (Prophet Yunus) not been one of those who prophesied, he would have remained in his belly (the fish) until the Day of Resurrection.”

 

Allah also said:

 

“They glorify night and day without ceasing.” (Q.S. Al-Anbiya’: 20)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Apostle mentioned:

 

“Two words that are light in speech, heavy in weight and favored by the Most Merciful Subhanallah wa Bihamdihi (Glory be to Allah with all praise to Him), Subhanallah Al-Adhim (Glory be to Allah, the Most Great).” The Messenger of Allah said to Abu Dhar:

 

“Shall I tell you of the most favorable speech of Allah, Verily the most favorable speech is: Subhanallah wa Bihamdih. In one narration: The Messenger of Allah was asked: Which is the most excellent speech? He replied: The one that Allah chooses for the angels or his servants: Subhanallah wa Bihamdihi.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Muslim bin Jundub, that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The words that Allah likes the most & there are four: Subhanallah (Glory be to Allah), wal Hamdhulillah (and all praise be to Allah), wa laa ilaaha Illallah (and there is no God but Allah), wallahu Akbar (and Allah is the Greatest), do not disturb you with which you started.” Through Malik al-Ashari, Muslim narrates his words:

 

“Purity is part of faith, Alhamdulillah is filling the scales (in the Hereafter) and Subhanallah wal Hamdulillah is filling the scales or filling between heaven and earth.”

 

One day, the Prophet came out of his house for Fajr prayer. At that time, Juwairiyah was in her place of prayer. Then the Prophet returned after the Duha prayer. When he saw Juwairiyah still in her place, the Prophet said:

 

“You are still in the state you were in when I left you?

 

Juwairiyah replied: Yes. So, he said: I have spoken four words since this morning, three times. If you were to weigh them against what you have said since this morning, they would balance it, namely: Subhanallah wa Bihamdihi (Glory be to Allah with all praise due to Him) as much as His creatures, as much as His pleasure, as much as the weight of His Throne and as much as the ink of His words.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

In one narration: “Subhanallah (Glory be to Allah) as much as his creatures, Subhanallah as much as his pleasure, Subhanallah as much as the scales of his Throne, Subhanallah as much as the ink of his sentences.”

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi that the Messenger of Allah said to Juwairiyah:

 

“Shall I teach you some words that you need to say? Glory be to Allah as much as His creatures, three times, Glory be to Allah as much as His pleasure, three times, Glory be to Allah as much as the scales of His Throne, three times, Glory be to Allah as much as the ink of His words, three times.” Through Abu Hurairah, Muslim narrates his words:

 

“Saying Subhanallah, wal Hamduhilah wa laa ilaaha Illallah, wallahu Akbar, is preferable to the place where the sun rises (this dunta).

 

Abu Ayyub Al-Anshari mentioned the Apostle’s words:

 

“Whoever says: “There is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner, to Him belongs all authority, and praise, and He is over all ten times, then it is as if he has freed four of the children of Ishmael.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, Abu Hurairah mentions the Apostle’s words:

 

“Whoever says: “There is no god but Allah, with whom there is no partner, to Him belongs all power and praise, and He is the Lord of all things,” a hundred times a day is like freeing ten slaves. One hundred good deeds are written for him and one hundred bad deeds are erased from him, and he is protected from the devil that day until evening. No one can do more than that, except the one who does more than that.”

 

In another saying:

 

“Whoever says: Subhanallah wa Bihamdihi: a hundred times a day, his sins will be wiped out, even if they are as many as the foam of the sea.”

 

It was narrated in Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah from Jabir ibn Abdillah who heard him say: ,

 

“The most important dhikr is Laa ilaaha Ilallah.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith. The Prophet emphasized:

 

“The example of the one who remembers his Lord (dhikr) and the one who does not remember him is like a living person and a dead person.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Saad bin Abi Waqqash narrated: A hillbilly came to the Prophet and said: Teach me the words that I speak. He said: Say it:

 

“There is no God but Allah, with whom there are no partners, Allah is the Greatest, praise be to Him, Glory be to Allah, Lord of the worlds, there is no power but by the help of Him who is Mighty and Wise.” The villager said: All this is for my Lord, where is my share? The Messenger of Allah taught:

 

“Say, O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me and provide for me.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

Saad bin Abi Waqqash also narrated: We were with the Prophet when he said:

 

“Can’t one of you produce a thousand good deeds every day? One of those sitting there asked: “How can one do a thousand good deeds? He said: By saying one hundred blessings, one thousand good deeds will be written for him or one thousand sins will be erased from him.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

In Sahik Muslim, Abu Dhar mentions the Apostle’s words:

 

“Every limb of yours is a charity, every tasbih is a charity, every tahmid is a charity, every tahhl is a charity, every takbir is a charity, enjoining good is a charity, forbidding evil is a charity, and all of that can be fulfilled by praying two rak’ahs of Duha.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abi Musa AlAshari that the Prophet said:

 

“Shall I show you one of the hidden things in heaven? I said: Of course, O Messenger of Allah. He said: Say: There is no power to extinguish with the help of Allah.”

 

It is narrated in Suman Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, that Saad bin Abi Wagash came with the Messenger of Allah to a woman who was intoning using date seeds or small stones. At that time, the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Shall I tell you something that is easier and more excellent? Then he said: Glory be to Allah as much as His creatures in the heavens, Glory be to Allah as much as His creatures in the earth, Glory be to Allah as much as His creatures between the heavens and the earth, Glory be to Allah as much as His creatures. Allah is the Greatest like that, all praise be to Allah like that: there is no God but Allah like that, no power but with the help of Allah like that.” Tirmidhi classifies it as a hasan Hadith.

 

With a hasan isnad, Abu Daud and Tirmidhi narrated from Yusairah (a female companion from among the Muhajirin) that the Prophet told them to say takbir (Allahu Akbar), tagdis (Subhanallah), and tahhil (Laa Ilaaha Illalah), and to count them on their fingers, because the fingers would be asked and told to speak.

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i, with a hasan narration from Abdullah ibn Umar “: “I saw the Messenger of Allah counting the tasbeeh, In one narration, it is added: “With his right hand.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Abi Said Al-Khudri that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever says: “I accept Allah as Lord, Islam as religion and Muhammad as Messenger, Paradise is obligatory for him.”

 

Through Abdullah bin Busrin (a companion of the Prophet), Tirmidhi relates that a man asked: “O Messenger of Allah, indeed the laws of Islam have been much for me, so tell me about something that I can hold on to.” Upon hearing this, the Prophet said:

 

 

“When your tongue is always wet with the remembrance of Allah.”

 

Tirmidhi classifies it as a hasan tradition.

 

Abi Said Al-Khudri mentioned that the Prophet was asked: Which act of worship will have the highest status with Allah on the Day of Resurrection? He replied: Those who remember a lot. Abi Said asked: “O Messenger of Allah, is it better than those who fight in the cause of Allah” He replied:

 

“If a man were to strike with his sword against the disbelievers and polytheists so that it were broken and bloodied, surely those who remember Allah would be better than him.” (HR:Tirmidhi)

 

Ibn Majah narrated from Abi Darda that the Messenger said:

 

“Shall I tell you about your best and holiest deed in the sight of God, which is of the highest degree, which is better than spending gold and money, which is better than facing your enemies while cutting their throats and they cutting your throats! The companions replied: Of course. He said: Dhikr of Allah.”

 

Al-Hakim classifies it as a Sahih isnad.

 

It was narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, from Ibn Mas’ud , that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“I met Abraham on the night of Isra”, then he said: O Muhammad, convey my greetings to your people and tell them that Paradise is good in soil, fresh in water, and it is a flat arrow, and the provision for entering it is: Glory be to Allah, praise be to Allah, there is no God but Allah, and Allah is the Greatest.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith. Through Jabir, Tirmidhi also relates the words of the Prophet:

 

“Whoever says: “Glory be to Allah, praise be to Him,” a date palm tree will be planted for him in Paradise.” Tirmidhi

 

classifies it as a hasan tradition. Tirmidhi narrates Abu Dhar’s question: O Messenger of Allah, what is the most favorable word to Allah?

 

“Which Allah has chosen for His angels, namely: Glory be to my Lord, with praise be to Him, Glory be to my Lord, with praise be to Him.”

 

Tirmidhi classifies it as a hasan tradition.

 

Remarks when waking up

 

The Apostle said:

 

“If one of you sleeps, the devil binds the back of the head with three knots. He strikes each knot in its place, saying: The night is still long, continue to sleep: When he wakes up and remembers Allah, his bonds are loosened. When he performs ablution, his bonds are untied. When he goes out to sunbathe, all his bonds are loosed, so that he becomes active and good in spirit. Otherwise, his soul becomes bad and lazy.” (H.R.Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Through Hudzaifah ibn Al-Yaman and Abu Dzar, Bukhari narrated that when going to sleep, the Prophet said:

 

“O Allah, by Your name I live and die.” If you wake up from sleep, then say:

 

 

“Praise be to Allah who revives us after putting us to death and to him we shall be resurrected.”

 

With a sahih isnad, Ibn Sunni narrated from Abu Hurairah , that he said:

 

“When any of you awakes from sleep, let him say: Praise be to Allah who restored my soul and gave health to my body and allowed me to remember Him.”

 

Through Aisha , Ibn Sunni also narrated his saying:

 

“There is no servant who, when Allah returns his soul (wakes up from sleep), says: There is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner, He has all authority, and to Him belongs all praise, and He is all-powerful over all things, but Allah will forgive his sins, even as much as the foam of the sea.”

 

The Prophet also said:

 

“Whoever wakes up from sleep and says: “Praise be to Allah who created sleep and consciousness, praise be to Allah who resurrected me safe and sound, I testify that Allah revives the dead and that He is over all things.” So Allah said: My servant is right.” (H.R.Ibn Sunni)

 

Aisha said:

 

“That when the Messenger of Allah woke up at night, he would say Takbir ten times, praise Allah ten times, say Subhanallah wa Bihamdihi ten times, say Subhana Al-Quduus ten times, and make Istighfar ten times, and make Tawheed ten times. Then he said: O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the narrowness of this world and the narrowness of the Day of Resurrection, ten times, then he would start the prayer.” (H.R. AbuDaud)

 

Through Aisha Abu Daud narrates that the Prophet woke up at night, he said:

 

“There is no God but Allah. Glory be to You, O Allah. I ask You for forgiveness for my sins and ask You for mercy. O Allah, increase me in knowledge and do not misguide my heart after You have guided it. Grant me mercy from Your side. Verily, You are the giver of all things.

 

Speech when wearing clothes

 

It is recommended to say Bismillah. In every practice, it is also recommended to say the same.

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Abi Said Al-Khudri, that if the Prophet wore a robe, sash or turban, he would say:

 

“O Allah, I ask You for its goodness and the goodness of the body that wears it. I seek refuge with You from its evil and the evil of the body that eats it.”

 

In the same book, Muadz bin Anas mentions his words:

 

“Whoever puts on a new shirt and says: “Praise be to Allah who clothed me with this shirt and gave it to me as a provision without any power or strength on my part, Allah will forgive his previous sins.”

 

Sayings when wearing new clothes, sandals and the like

 

It is recommended to say the words mentioned above Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i narrated from Abi Said Al-Khudri that when the Prophet put on a new shirt, he would mention it according to its type, such as a surban, robe or sash, and then say: 

 

“O Allah, all praise be to You. You put it on me. I ask for its goodness and the goodness of the body that wears it. I seek refuge with You from its evil and the evil of the body that wears it.” Tirmidhi classifies it as a hasan hadith. Through ‘Umar Tirmidhi also relates the saying of the Prophet:

 

“Whoever puts on new clothes and says: “Praise be to Allah, who has clothed me with a garment that covers my nakedness and which I wear for the file of my life.” Then he takes his old garment and gives it in charity, then he is in the care of Allah and in His provision. He is on the path of Allah, in life and in death.”

 

Greetings when friends wear new clothes

 

It was narrated in Ibn Majah and Ibn Sunni, from Ibn Umar that the Prophet saw Umar wearing a shirt, then said:

 

“Is it new or has it been stolen (old)? Umar replied: It has been washed. He said: Wear the new one, live a praiseworthy life, and march (as) a martyr.”

 

How to wear clothes and sandals

 

When putting on clothes, sandals, pants and so on, it is recommended to start with the right, and take off the left and then the right.

 

Similarly, putting on kohl, shaving the toothpaste, clipping the nails, trimming the moustache, plucking the armpit hair, shaving the head, greeting in prayer, entering the mosque, exiting the restroom, performing ablution, bathing, eating, drinking, shaking hands, kissing the Hajar Aswad, taking something from someone and handing it over and so on, all of these begin with the right and vice versa with the left.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from ‘Aisha who said: “The Messenger of Allah liked to give precedence to the right side in all his affairs, in purifying himself and putting something on his feet.”

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud and others narrated from Aisha who said: “The Messenger of Allah used his right hand for purification and eating, and his left hand for defecation and excrement.”

 

Abu Daud and Baihaqi narrate Hafsah’s testimony: “The Messenger of Allah used his right hand for eating, drinking and dressing. He used his left hand for everything else.”

 

Through Abu Hurairah, Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Ibn Majah and Baihaqi mentioned his words:

 

“If you put on something and if you perform ablution, then start with the right side.” (Hasan Hadith)

 

Speech when undressing for bathing, sleeping, etc.

 

It was narrated by Ibn Sunni from Anas that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The difference between the eyes of the jinn and the aurat of the son of Adam (man) is that when a Muslim wants to take off his clothes, he says: In the name of Allah, there is no god but He.”

 

 

Speech when leaving and entering the house

 

  1. When leaving the house It was narrated by Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah, from Umm Salamah that if the Prophet went out and the house, he said:

 

“In the name of Allah, I put my trust in him. O Allah, I seek refuge in You so as not to go astray or be misled, to slip or be derailed, to mistreat or be mistreated, to be ignorant or to be ignored.”

 

Through Anas Abu Daud, Tirmizi, Nasa’i and others also narrated his words:

 

“Whoever, when leaving his house, says: “In the name of Allah, I put my trust in Him, and there is no power but in His help.” then it will be said to him: “You have been guided, protected and guarded, and the devil has withdrawn from you.”

 

Tirmidhi classifies it as a hasan tradition.

 

In his narration, Abu Daud adds: “So the one demon said to the other: How do you act towards the one who is guided, guarded and protected?”

 

It was narrated by Ibn Majah and Ibn Sunni, from Abu Hurairah , that when the Prophet went out of his house, he said:

 

“In the name of Allah, I put my trust in him. There is no power except with His help.”

 

  1. When entering the house When entering the house, it is recommended to say “Bismillah” and increase the remembrance of Allah He is also recommended to say greetings, whether there are people in the house or not. Allah says:

 

“.. When you enter houses, greet (the occupants, which means greeting) yourselves, with a greeting that is blessed and good in the sight of Allah…” (Q.S. An-Nur: 61).

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi that the Messenger of Allah taught Anas :

 

“O my son, when you enter the house of your family, say the greeting of peace, for it will bring blessings upon you and your householders.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan Sahih Hadith.

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Abi Malik Ashari that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“When a person enters his house, he should say: “O Allah, I ask You for good when entering and when leaving the house. In the name of Allah we enter and in his name we leave.” To Allah we put our trust. Then, he should greet the occupants with peace.”

 

Through Abu Umamah Al-Bahili?  Abu Daud also narrated his words:

 

“Three kinds of people are all secured in the sight of Allah : The one who fights in the cause of Allah, then he is secured with Him, so that Allah kills him and puts him in Paradise, or presents him with rewards and spoils of war. The one who goes to the mosque, he is secure with Allah until He draws him and sends him to Paradise, or sends him home with rewards and spoils. He who enters his house with the greeting of peace is assured with Allah.”

 

Muslim narrated from Jabir who heard the Prophet say:

 

“When a man enters his house and remembers Allah when he enters and when he eats, the devil says to his companion: There is no lodging for you and no food. If he enters without the remembrance of Allah at the time of entry, the devil says to his companion: You have found a place to spend the night. If he does not remember Allah at the time of eating, the devil says: You have found lodging and food.”

 

In the book of Ibn Sunni, Amr ibn Al-Ash said that when the Messenger returned to his house in the afternoon, he said:

 

“Praise be to Allah who guards me and gives me a home. Praise be to Allah who feeds and drinks me. Praise be to Allah, who has favored me. I seek refuge from the Fire.” The isnaad is da’eef.

 

Imam Malik mentioned in his book, Al-Muwaththa’, that when entering a house that is not occupied, it is recommended to say:

 

“May salvation be upon us and His righteous servants.”

 

Remarks when getting up at night and leaving the house

 

When you wake up at night and come out of your house, it is recommended to look up at the sky and recite Surah ‘Ali Imran, starting from verse 190 until the end of the surah.

 

In the narration of Bukhari and Muslim, Ibn Abbas said that the Prophet did the above practice. Except for the phrase “looking up to the sky”, it is only found in Sahsh Bukhari.

 

Bukhari and Muslim also narrated from Ibn Abbas, that when he woke up at night, the Prophet would make tahajj and say:

 

“O Allah, all praise is due to You, You who take care of the heavens and the earth and their contents. Praise be to You, You who have dominion over the heavens and the earth and their inhabitants. Praise be to You, You are the light of heaven and earth and their inhabitants. Praise be to You, You are the truth, Your promise is true, meeting You is true, Your words are true, heaven is true, hellfire is true, Muhammad is true, the Day of Judgment is true”

 

“O Allah, to You I surrender, to You I believe, to You I surrender, to You I repent, for Your sake I fight: to You I complain, so forgive my past and future sins, those I conceal and those I reveal, You who advance and You who cut off, there is no God but You.”

 

In one narration, it is added: “And there is no power except with the help of Allah.”

 

Speech about going to the restroom

In Sahihain!, Anas mentions that when entering the restroom, the Prophet said:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the male and female devils.”

 

In another saying:

 

“In the name of Allah. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the temptation of the male and female devils.” In the narration of Tirmidhi, Ali mentions his words:

 

“The veil between the eyes of the jinn and the private parts of the son of Adam (man) is, when entering the restroom, saying Bismillah.”

 

A dhaif hadith. The companions of Imam Nawawi said: Dhikr is recommended, both inside buildings and in the field. Through Umar , Ibn Sunni and Thabrani narrated that, when entering the restroom, he would say:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the unclean, vile and abominable filth, (and from) the accursed devil.”

 

Prohibition of dhikr and talking in the restroom

 

It is makrooh to dhikr and talk while relieving oneself, whether on the ground or inside a building.

 

All remembrances and words are the same in that regard, except in cases of emergency. So it is said that the sneezer does not have to say Alhamdulillah, and he does not have to pray for the sneezer, and he does not answer the greeting, and he does not answer the call to prayer, and the Muslim is deprived of his rights because he does not receive an answer. All of these words are makrooh because they are tansih. If he sneezes and says Alhamdulillah in his heart and does not move his tongue, then it is permissible. The same applies if he does it during intercourse.

 

Muslim narrated from Ibn Umar: A man passed in front of the Prophet while he was urinating. The man greeted him and he did not reply.

 

Abu Daud, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah narrated from Muhajir bin Ounfudz who said: I came to the Prophet when he was urinating I greeted him, but he did not answer, until he made ablution. After that, he said:

 

“I don’t like the remembrance of Allah & I’m already in a state of purity”

 

Prohibition of greeting people who are relieving themselves

 

The companions of Imam Nawawi said: It is makrooh to greet a person who is relieving himself. If the greeting is said, it should not be answered. This view is in accordance with the hadith of Ibn ‘Umar and Muhajir mentioned in the previous section.

 

Speech when coming out of the restroom

 

“O Allah, I seek your forgiveness. Praise be to You for taking away my troubles and giving me health.”

 

In the narration of Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, the Prophet said “ghufraanaka”. Nasa’i and Ibn Majah narrated the rest.

 

Ibn Sunni and Thabrani narrated the words of Ibn Umar : When leaving the restroom, the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“All praise is due to Allah who has given me delicacy and given me his strength and removed his troubles from me.”

 

Speech when pouring wudu water or pouring it

 

It is recommended to read:

 

“In the name of Allah.”

 

Speech during wudlu

It is recommended to say “Bismillahirrahmanirrahim” at the beginning of wudu. If you just say Bismillah, it is sufficient. If you forget to say it at the beginning, then you should say it in the middle of wudu.

 

If he omits to say the basmalah until he has finished it, then he has missed the opportunity to do it, and he cannot do it, but his wudoo’ is valid, whether he omits it deliberately or because he forgot. This is our view and the view of most of the scholars.

 

There are many da’eef traditions about tasmiyah (saying the basmalah). Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: I have not found a strong tradition about tasmiyah during ablution:

 

Abu Daud and others narrated from Abu Hurairah , that the Prophet said”:

 

“There is no ablution for anyone who does not mention the name of Allah over it.” After performing ablution, then say:

 

“I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner. I also bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.” O Allah, make me among those who repent and make me among those who are pure. Glory be to You with all praise to You. I testify that there is no God but You. I seek forgiveness from You and repent to You.”

 

In his Sahih, Muslim narrated from Umar bin Khattab, that he said:

 

“Whoever performs ablution and then says: I bear witness that there is no god but Allah with whom there is no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, then the eight doors of Paradise will be opened for him. He may enter from whichever one he wishes.”

 

In the narration of Tirmidhi, there is an addition:

 

“O Allah, make me among those who repent and make me among those who are pure.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Daruguthni, from Ibn Umar , that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever finishes wudu says: I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, with whom there is no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, before speaking, his sins will be forgiven between two ablutions.” The isnaad is da’eef.

 

Through Anas, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Ibn Majah, Ibn Sunni, narrated his words:

 

“Whoever performs ablution and makes it right, then says three times I bear witness that there is no god but Allah with whom there is no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, then the eight gates of Paradise will be opened for him and he can enter from wherever he wishes.” The isnaad is da’eef.

 

Abu Musa Al-Ashari said: I brought water for the Prophet’s ablution, so he performed ablution. I heard him say:

 

“O Allah, forgive my sins, make my house spacious and bless my provision.”

 

Then I said: O Prophet of Allah, I heard you praying such and such. He replied: Does prayer leave anything behind? (H.R.Nasai and Ibn Sunni)

 

Speech when bathing

It is recommended for the one who is doing ghusl to say all that we mentioned in the section on ablution, such as the basmalah and so on. There is no difference in this regard between someone who is junub, menstruating and so on.

 

Some companions of Imam Nawawi said: When one is junub or menstruating, it is not permissible to say the basmalah. What is well known is that it is recommended for both of them like others. However, one should not intend to recite the Qur’an.

 

Speech during tayammum

 

It is recommended to say Bismillah at the beginning. If you are junub or menstruating, then you should do it as if you were bathing. With regard to the tashahhud afterwards and other remembrances, such as those mentioned in the section on ablution, or the supplication when wiping the face and palms, I have not found any opinion on that. What is clear is that the ruling is like what we mentioned about wudoo’, because tayammum is an act of worship like wudoo’.

 

Speech when heading to the mosque

 

We have mentioned what to say when leaving the house to go somewhere. When going out to the mosque, it is recommended to add the supplication narrated in Sahih Muslim from Ibn ‘Abbas while staying at the house of his aunt Maimunah. The Hadith mentions the Prophet’s tahajjud, then it says: So the caller to prayer (muezzin) called the call to prayer for Fajr, then he went to prayer, saying:

 

“O Allah, give me light in my heart, light in my tongue, light in my hearing, light in my sight, light from behind me, light from before me, light from above me, and light from below me. O Allah, give me light.”

 

It was narrated by Ibn Sunni that Bilal 4g said: When he went out to pray, the Prophet would say!’:

 

“By the name of Allah, I believe in him, I surrender to him, there is no power except with his help. O Allah, by the right of those who invoke You and by the right of my departure, I do not go out arrogantly, conceitedly, seeking praise or fame. I go out seeking Your pleasure and fearing Your anger. I ask for Your protection from the fire of hell. And may You include me in Your Paradise.”

 

Speech when entering and leaving the mosque

 

It is recommended to say:

 

“I seek refuge in Allah, the Most Glorious, in His glorious face and everlasting power, from the accursed devil, praise be to Allah. O Allah, pour salawat and salam upon the Prophet Muhammad and his family. O Allah, forgive my sins and open for me the doors of your mercy.”

 

Then saying “bismillah” and putting the right foot first when entering and vice versa, while saying the same recitation. However, the words of the door of your mercy (abwaaba rahmatika) are replaced with the door of your virtue (abwaaba fadhlika).

 

With a sahih isnad, Muslim, Abu Daud, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and others narrated from Abi Humaid that the Prophet said:

 

“When one of you enters the mosque, let him greet the Prophet and then say: O Allah, open for me the door of your mercy. When he goes out, he should say: O Allah, I ask for your favor.” In his narration, Ibn Sunni adds:

 

“When you leave the mosque, you should greet the Prophet and say: O Allah, protect me from the accursed devil.” With a jayyid isnad, Abu Daud narrated from Abdullah bin Amr bin Ash who said When entering the mosque, the Prophet said: 

 

“I seek refuge in Allah, the Exalted, His glorious face and His eternal power, from the accursed devil. He said: When a person says that, the devil says it: He is awake from me for the rest of the day.”

 

In the book of Ibn Sunni, it is mentioned that Anas said:” When entering the mosque, the Prophet said: Bismillaah, Allahumma shalih ala muhammad. When leaving, he would say: Bismillaah, Allahumma shalli ala Muhammad.” It was also narrated from Ibn Umar regarding salawat to the Prophet when entering and leaving the mosque.

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni from Abdullah ibn Hasan, from his mother, from his grandmother who said: When entering the mosque the Messenger of Allah said Alhamdulillah and Bismillah, then said:

 

“O Allah, forgive me and open for me the doors of your mercy. When going out, say this and more: O Allah, open for me the doors of your favor.”

 

Through Abu Umamah Ibn Sunni also narrated his words:

 

“Verily, when any one of you goes out of the mosque, the host of the devil rises up and gathers around its leader. So, when one of you stands at the door of the mosque, let him say: O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the devil and his army. When he says that, the devil cannot harm him.

 

Speech in the mosque

 

It is recommended to increase the remembrance of Allah Tasbih, tahhl, tahmid and takbir and other dhikr. It is also recommended to read the Qur’an. We are also encouraged to read the hadith of the Prophet and the science of fiqh and some other Sharia sciences.

 

Allah said:

 

“(The light is) in the houses in which Allah has commanded the glorification and mention of His name; there is praise of His name in the morning and evening. Those who are not distracted by trade and buying and selling from remembering Allah…” (Q.S. An-Nuur: 36-37)

 

In other words:

 

“And whoever glorifies the signs of Allah’s greatness, then surely that is among the piety of the heart.” (Q.S. Al-Hajj: 32)

 

In the same Surah, verse 30, Allah explains:

 

“And whoever honors the sanctity of Allah is better for him in the sight of his Lord…” (Q.S. Al-Hajj: 30)

 

Through Buraydah, Muslim mentions the Prophet’s words:

 

“Mosques are only built for prayer and remembrance:”

 

When a villager urinated in the mosque, the Apostle said to him:

 

“Verily, this mosque should not be exposed to any of this urine and excrement. It is to be used only for the remembrance of Allah and the recitation of the Qur’an.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

The one who sits in the mosque should intend to do iktikaf even if it is only for a short while. The Companion of Imam Nawawi said: It is valid to make iktikaaf on the part of one who enters the mosque while passing by and does not stay. So, the one who passes by should also intend to do iktikaf so that he will get the reward.

 

It is better to pause for a while and then pass on. It is also appropriate for the person sitting there to enjoin good and forbid evil, even though people are also encouraged to do so outside the mosque. However, it is preferable to do this inside the mosque in order to protect and glorify and honor its existence.

 

One of Imam Nawawi’s companions said: Whoever enters the mosque and is unable to pray tahiyat of the mosque due to impurity or something else, it is recommended to say: Subhanallah Wal Hamdulillah, Wa Laa Ilaha Illallah, Wallahu Akbar, four times.

 

The Prophet’s denial and censure of those who search for lost items in the mosque and sell in it

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Hurairah , that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever hears someone looking for a lost item in the mosque, let him say: Allah will not return it to you, for the mosque was not built for this.”

 

Also in Sahih Muslim, Buraidah 38 mentions that a man was looking for something in the mosque, and asked: Who got the red camel? So, said the Messenger of Allah &:

 

“You will not get it, because the mosque is only for prayer and dhikr.”

 

At the end of the book on buying and selling, Tirmidhi narrates from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

If you see anyone selling or buying something in the mosque, then say: Allah will bring no profit to your trade. And if you see anyone searching for a lost item in it, then say: Allah will not return it to you.” (Hadith hasan)

 

The Prophet’s condemnation of those who sing verses that are not in praise of Islam and do not encourage good behavior in the mosque

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Tsauban , that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever sees someone reciting verses in the mosque, then say to him: may Allah tear your mouth three times.

 

The virtue of the call to prayer

 

Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Abu Hurairah, that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“If people knew the virtues of the Adhan and the first row, and that there was no way to obtain them except by lot, they would do so.”

 

Still through Abu Hurairah, Bukhari and Muslim also narrated his words:

 

“When the call to prayer is made, the devil flees and farts so that he does not hear the call to prayer.”

 

In a narration by Bukhari, Abi Said Al-Khudri said: I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“No jinn or man or anything else will hear the caller’s voice except that he will witness for him on the Day of Resurrection.”

 

The nature of the call to prayer

 

Note that the phrases are well known, and tarji’ is Sunnah according to us. That is, when he calls out in a high voice: Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, then he says it slowly so that he himself hears and those who are near him, namely: Ashhadu An Laa Ilaaha Illallah, Ashhadu An Laa Ilaaha Illallah, Ashhadu Anna Muhammad Rasulullah, Ashhadu Anna Muhammad Rasulullah. Then he again raised his voice to say: Ashhadu An Laa Ilaha Illailah, Ashhadu An Laa Ilaha Illallah, Ashhadu Anna Muhammad Rasulullah, Ashhadu Anna Muhammad Rasulullah.

 

According to us, taswib is also Sunnah. It is to say Ash-Shalatu khatr minan naum (twice) after the words hayya ala Falah. This applies to the Fajr adhan.

 

There is a well-known hadith about both of them. If the caller had left out !aryi’ and faswib, his call would still be valid, but he would have left out something more important.

 

The call to prayer of a child who cannot distinguish between a woman and a disbeliever is not valid.

 

If a disbeliever calls out the call to prayer and then converts to Islam, it is assumed that he was already Muslim when he called out the call to prayer. This is the correct and most correct view.

 

One of Imam Nawawi’s companions said: He is not considered Muslim and there is no dispute that his call to prayer is not valid, because he was not considered Muslim to begin with.

 

This chapter contains many branches that are specified in the books of fiqh. It is not possible to discuss them in this book.

 

The nature of friendship

 

The correct and preferred school of thought states that the ikamah consists of eleven words: Allahu Akbar, twice, Ashhadu an laa Ilaha Illallah,

 

Ashhadu anna Muhammad Rasulullah, hayya alas salat, hayya alal falah, qad qamatis solat, twice each, Allahu Akbar, twice, Laa ilaha Ilallah.

 

You should know that the Adhan and Iqama are Sunnah. This is the view of the Sahih and preferred madhhab, whether it is the call to prayer on Friday or otherwise. Some scholars said it is fard. Others said that it is fard with regard to the call to prayer on Friday, not with regard to anything else. So, if we say Jardu kifayah: If it is abandoned by the people of a country or place, they will be fought for abandoning it. If we say that it is Sunnah, then they will not be fought according to the sound and correct madhhab, just as they will not be fought for missing the Sunnah of Zuhr and so on.

 

Some of the companions of Imam Nawawi said: They are to be fought, because it is a real shariah.

 

It is recommended to make the call to prayer loud and clear. It is also recommended to hasten the Iqāmah. The voice should be lower than the call to prayer.

 

For the muezzin, it is recommended to have a good voice, be trustworthy, understand the time and be smart.

 

It is recommended to call the adhan from a high place while standing in a state of purity and facing the qiblah.

 

It is makrooh to call the adhan or ikamah with one’s back to the qiblah, while sitting, lying down, in a state of impurity, or in a state of janaabah. The disgrace of being junub is greater than that of being in minor impurity, and the disgrace of Iqama is greater.

 

The Azan is not prescribed except for the five daily prayers: Fajr, Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha. It is the same for those who are staying and those who are traveling, as well as those who are praying alone or in congregation.

 

If one person calls out the adhan, it is sufficient for the others. If a person makes up the remaining prayers at one time, he should call the Adhan for the first one only, and call the Iqāmah for each prayer.

 

If a person is combining two prayers, he should call for the first call to prayer only, and call for the Iqāmah for each prayer.

 

Apart from the five daily prayers, there is no call to prayer. There is no dispute about this.

 

In congregational prayers, some of them are recommended to say: As-salatu jaami’atan, such as the Eid prayer, Kusuf (solar eclipse) and /srisga (asking for rain).

 

Such speech is not recommended in the Sunnah and nawafi/ absolute prayers. There is a dispute when praying Tarawih and the funeral prayer. The correct view is that it should be said during the Tarawih prayer, and not during the funeral prayer.

 

It is not valid to call to prayer unless the time for prayer has come and one is about to pray. Apart from Fajr, the call to prayer is not valid except after the time for prayer has entered. This is because the call to prayer at Fajr may be made before the time has entered.

 

There is some dispute as to when it is permissible to do it. The most correct view is that it is permissible after midnight. Some say at dawn, throughout the night, and after two-thirds of the night. The first of these is preferred.

 

Women and those who have two genitals from birth may only call out the Iqāmah, as it is forbidden for them to raise their voices.

 

The speech of one who hears the call to prayer and the Iqāmah

 

The one who hears the call to prayer and the Iqāmah is encouraged to imitate the words, except for the words: Hayya alas salat, hayya alal falah, then the listener should say: laa haula walaa quwwata illa Billah.

 

In saying: Ash-Shalar khairu minan naum (prayer is better than sleep), then the listener says: shadagta wa bararta (you speak the truth and do good). Some say, the listener says: Shadaga Rasulullah ash-shalat khairu minan naum (it is true of the Messenger of Allah that prayer is better than sleep).

 

When hearing the two words of ikamah, the listener says: Agamahallahu wa adaamaha (may Allah establish and maintain it). After saying: Ashhadu anna Muhammad Rasulullah, the listener says: Wa ana ashhadu anna Muhammad Rasulullah. Then the listener says: Radhitu Billahi Rabba (I let Allah be my Lord) Muhammad Rasulallah (and Muhammad as Messenger) wa bil Islami dinan (and Islam as religion).

 

When the entire call to prayer is finished, the listener says salawat to the Prophet and then prays:

 

“O Allah who owns this perfect calling and upright prayer, grant Muhammad intercession and virtue, raise him to the praiseworthy position you promised him.”

 

Then the listener prays to his heart’s content for the benefit of this world and the next.

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abi Said AlKhudri that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“When you hear the call to prayer, pronounce it as you would pronounce it.”

 

In his Sagih, Muslim relates the testimony of Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-Ash who said: I heard the Prophet say:

 

“When you hear the muezzin call for the Adhan, say it as he says it, then say salawat for me. For whoever says salawat for me once, Allah will salawat for him ten times. Then, intercede for me, for this is a position in Paradise that does not deserve one of Allah’s servants, and I hope to attain it. So, whoever intercedes for me is entitled to my intercession.”

 

Through Umar bin Khattab, Muslim also narrates his words:

 

“When the muezzin says: Allahu Akbar, two then one of you says Allahu Akbar, two. After that the muezzin says: Ashhadu an laa ilaha Iilallahu, then the listener also says, Ashhadu an laa Haha Ilallahu. Then the muezzin says: Ashhadu anna Muhammad Rasulullah and the listener says: Ashhadu anna Muhammad Rasulullah. Then the muezzin says: Hayya alas salat, and the listener says: Laa haula wa laa guwwata illa Billah. Then the muezzin says: Hayya alal falah, then the listener says: Laa haula walaa guwata illa Billah. Then the muezzin says: Allahu Akbar, twice and then the listener says: Allahu Akbar, twice. Then the muezzin says: Laa Ilaha ilallah, then the listener says: Laa Haha Illailah, from his heart, and he enters Paradise.”

 

Muslim narrated from Saad bin Abi Waqqash , that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever, when he hears the call to prayer, says: I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner. I also bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. I accept Allah as my Lord, Muhammad as my Messenger and Islam as my religion. Undoubtedly his sins will be forgiven.”

 

In one narration: “Whoever hears the call to prayer says: And I bear witness.”

 

With a sahih israd, Abu Daud narrated from ‘Aa’ishah that when the Messenger of Allah heard the call to prayer, he would make tashahhud and say: “And I, and I.”

 

In his Sahih, Bukhari narrated from Jabir that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever, when hearing the call to prayer, says: “O Allah who owns this perfect call and upright prayer, grant Muhammad honor and virtue, and raise him to the praiseworthy position You promised him, then he will be entitled to my intercession on the Day of Resurrection.”

 

It is narrated in Ibn Sunni’s book from Muawiyah that when he heard the muezzin say: hayya alal falah (let’s go to victory), he would pray:

 

“O Allah, make us among the victorious.”

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from a man, from Shahr bin Hausyab, from Abu Umamah , that Bilal , said the Iqama. When he came to the words:

 

(The time for prayer has come). So the Prophet said:  (May Allah establish and maintain it).

 

If a person hears the muezzin or someone saying the Iqama while he is in prayer, he does not have to answer. When the salam is said, he should answer it as usual. If he answers during one prayer, his prayer is not invalidated but it is makrooh. Likewise, if he hears it while he is in the restroom, he does not have to answer. When he comes out, he should answer.

 

When a person recites the Qur’an, glorifies, reads hadith or other knowledge, he stops all this and answers the muezzin, then returns to his original activity. This is because the ‘jabah has passed and the activity has been postponed. If the muezzin has finished his call, but he does not answer at that time, it is recommended to follow him, so long as the time is not too long.

 

Prayer after the Adhan

 

Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i, and Ibn Sunni, narrated from Anas, that the Messenger said:

 

“The call to prayer and the Iqāmah are not rejected.”

 

In the narration of Tirmidhi, there is an addition: .

 

“What do we say (after the adhan), O Messenger of Allah? Behau replied: Ask Allah for salvation in this world and the Hereafter.” Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-Ash said that a man asked: O Messenger of Allah, are the muezzins superior to us? The Messenger of Allah replied:

 

“Say as they say. When you have finished, ask (of Allah) surely you will be given.” (H.R.Abu Daud)

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud narrated from Sahal bin Saad that the Prophet said: –

 

“Two things that are not rejected or rarely rejected: Prayer at the time of the call to prayer and at the time of battle, when people are crowded together.”

 

Recitation after two rak’ahs of the Fajr sunnah

 It was narrated in Ibn Sunni from Abi Malih”, from his father, that the Messenger of Allah prayed two rak’ahs of sunnah at dawn. Then he was heard to say while sitting:

 

“Allah, Lord of Jibril, Israfil, and Mikail and Muhammad H&, I seek refuge with You from the fire of hell, said three times.”

 

In other words:

 

“Whoever on Friday before the Fajr prayer says: “I ask forgiveness of Allah, the Lord of the universe, who lives and takes care of His creatures, and I repent to Him three times, Allah will forgive his sins, even if they are as numerous as the foam of the sea.”

 

Remarks when arriving at the safari

 

It was narrated by Nasa’i, Ibn Sunni and Bukhari, that Saad bin Abi Waqqash said: While the Messenger of Allah was praying, a man came to do the same. When he arrived at the safari, he said: O Allah, give me the best that You give to Your righteous servants. When he finished praying, the Prophet asked: Who was it that prayed earlier? The man replied: I am the Messenger of Allah. Hearing this confession, he said:

 

“Then it is as if your horse was killed and you died in the way of Allah.”

 

Saying when going to prayer

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, and Umm Rafi who said: O Messenger of Allah, show me the deed for which Allah will reward me. He said:

 

“O Ummi Rafi, if you are about to pray, then glorify ten times, say tahlil (Laa ilaha Illallah) ten times, tahmid (say Alhamdulillah) ten times, takbir (say Allahu Akbar) ten times and repent ten times.” When you glorify, Allah says: “This is for Me, when you do tahlil, Allah says: This is for Me, when you do tahmid, Allah says: This is for Me, when you do takbir, Allah says: This is for Me, and when you do istighfar, Allah says: I have forgiven.”

 

Prayer when starting the Iqama

 

In his book, Al-Umm, Imam Shafi’i narrates a mursar hadith?

 

“Seek istijabah (fulfillment) of supplication at the time of the meeting of armies and the time of prayer (ikamah) and the rain.”

 

As-Shaafa’i said: I have memorized from many people about seeking yabah when it rains and about to enter prayer (ikamah).

 

Takbiratul ihram

 

You should know that the prayer is not valid except with takbiratul ihram, whether it is an obligatory or nafilah (voluntary) prayer.

 

Takbir according to As-Shafi’i and most scholars is part of the prayer and one of its pillars. According to Abu Hanifah: It is a condition that is not part of the prayer.

 

It is important to know that takbir is saying Allahu Akbar or Allahu! Akbar. Both of these are permissible according to As-Shaafa’i and Abu Hanifah and others, while Malik forbade the latter. To be on the safe side, one should say the former, so as to avoid a dispute.

 

It is not permissible to say Takbir without these two phrases. If you say: Allahu Adhim, Allahu Muta’al, Allahu A’dham, AWazzu, or Ajallu, and so on, according to As-Shaff’i and most scholars, the prayer is not valid. Abu Hanifah says it is valid.

 

For those who are able to speak Arabic, no takbeer is valid except in that language. For those who cannot, it is permissible and obligatory for them to learn Arabic.

 

Recitation after Takbiratul ihram

 

There are many traditions about the recitation after takbiratul ihram.

 

The whole thing is:

 

“Allah is the Greatest, unceasing praise be to Allah, Glory be to Allah morning and evening. I set my face straight to Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and I am a Muslim, and I am not one of the polytheists.”

 

“Verily, my prayer, my worship, my life and my death are for Allah, the Lord of the worlds, there is no partner for Him, and with that I am commanded and I am among the believers.”

 

And say:

 

“O Allah, You are the Lord. There is no God that I worship but You. I am Your servant, I have wronged myself and I confess my sins, so forgive all my sins. Indeed, no one can forgive sins except You. Guide me to good character; no one can guide me to the best character but You. Take away bad character from me, no one can take it away except You. I welcome You and the good is entirely in Your hands, while the bad does not lead to You. I depend on You and surrender to You, Most Holy and Most High. I ask forgiveness and repent to You. Also say:

 

“O Allah, keep me away from my sins as You keep between the east and the west. O Allah, cleanse me from my sins as a white shirt is cleansed from dirt. O Allah, wash me from my sins with ice and dew.”

 

In this section, there are other traditions, among which have been reported by Tirmidhi, Abu Daud and Ibn Majah, with a weak isnad, that Aisha said: When starting the prayer, the Prophet would say:

 

“Glory be to You O Allah and all praise be to You. Glory be to Your name, Glory be to Your power and there is no God but You.” Baihaqi said: The most authentic narration is from Umar bin Khattab, namely: The Messenger of Allah said Takbir, then said:

 

“Glory be to You O Allah with all praise be to You, Glory be to Your name, Glory be to Your power and there is no God but You.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Baihaqi, from Al-Harith, that ‘Ali said: When starting the prayer, the Prophet said :

 

“There is no God but You, Glory be to You. I have wronged myself and done evil, so forgive me my sin. Verily, none can forgive sins but You. I set my face… (until the end).”

 

As for the Prophet’s statement: With regard to the Prophet’s statement: “The evil is not attributed to You,” it is known that the correct view of the Muhaddisin, the Fugaha and the Mutaktallimin, the Companions, the Tabiin and the Muslim scholars who came after them, is that everything that is good and bad, beneficial and harmful, comes from Allah by His will and decree.

 

When it becomes clear that this is the case then this tradition should be offered. AnNudhar b. Shumail and the Imams after him gave an explanation of the meaning of the Hadith:

 

  1. Evil is not a tool to get closer to You.

 

  1. Evil does not lead to you, only good words lead to you.

 

  1. The evil is not attributed to you. As a matter of courtesy, it is not said: O Creator of evil, although it is He who created it, just as it is not said: O Creator of swine, though it is He who created them.

 

  1. The evil is not seen in terms of it being Your wisdom, and You have not created anything in vain.

 

Taawud after Istiftah Prayer

It should be noted that taawwud (seeking refuge with Allah) after the iftah prayer is Sunnah according to consensus, and it is the beginning of the recitation. Allah said:

 

“When you recite the Qur’an, then seek refuge with Allah from the accursed devil.” (Q.S. An-Nahl:98)

 

According to most scholars, the meaning is: When you are about to start reciting the Qur’an, seek refuge in Allah.

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and Baihaqi, that before starting the recitation in prayer, the Prophet said:

 

“I seek refuge with Allah from the accursed Satan, from his arrogance and his sorcery and temptation.”

 

In a narration:

 

“I seek refuge in Allah, the All-Hearing and All-Knowing, from the temptation of the devil and his arrogance and sorcery.”

 

Taawud is recommended, and if it is left out, there is no sin and the prayer is not invalidated, either intentionally or by forgetting. He does not need to do prostration. Taawud is recommended in all obligatory and voluntary prayers.

 

According to the most correct madhhab, taawud is also recommended in the funeral prayer and for those who recite outside the prayer.

 

Recitation after Taawud

 

According to the majority of scholars, reciting Al-Fatihah is obligatory in prayer. It is not sufficient to recite anything else for those who are able to recite it.

 

With sahih isnad, Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibban narrated the words of the Apostle:

 

“A prayer in which the Fatihul Kitab is not recited is not sufficient.”

 

In another saying:

 

“No prayer is valid without reciting Fatiharul Kitab.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

If he is not able to recite Al-Fatihah, he should recite others according to their levels. If he cannot recite the verses of the Qur’an, he should recite Dhikr, such as tasbih and tahlil, according to the length of the verses of Al-Fatihah. If it is difficult to learn them, he should stand up according to the length of the recitation, then bow. This is sufficient for the prayer, provided that he is not careless in his study. If he is careless, he must repeat it.

 

To sum up, if one learns, he must learn to recite Surah al-Fatihah. If he is not able to recite it in Arabic, then it is not permissible for him to recite it in any other language. If he is not able to recite it in Arabic, then he is not allowed to recite it in any other language, so he is considered incompetent and must replace it with what we have mentioned.

 

After Surah Al-Fatihah, a Surah of the Quran or part of it is recited. This recitation is sunnah. If it is omitted, the prayer is valid and there is no need to do prostration, whether the prayer is obligatory or nafilah (sunnah).

 

According to the most correct view, it is not recommended to recite surahs during the congregational prayer, because of the nafi/ah (mitigation).

 

It is permissible to choose between reading a surah or part of it. A short surah is preferable to a long one. It is advisable to recite in the order in which it appears in the Mushaf.

 

It is a Sunnah to recite a Surah after Al-Fatihah. If it is recited before, it does not count as reciting the Surah.

 

It should be noted that the recommendation to recite surahs is for the imam and the congregation when the imam recites surahs softly. When the imam recites loudly, the congregation should do no more than recite Surah al-Fatihah.

 

According to the most correct opinion, if he does not hear or hears the imam’s voice less clearly, it is recommended for him to recite the Surah.

 

In the Fajr and Zuhr prayers, it is Sunnah to read a long surah In the ‘Asr and ‘Isha prayers, it is recommended to read a medium surah Reading a short surah is Sunnah in the Maghrib prayer. If he is the imam, he should make it easy for him to do so, unless it is known that the congregation prefers long surahs.

 

When praying Fajr on Friday, it is recommended to recite Surah As-Sajdah in the first rak’ah. In the second rak’ah, recite Surah Al-Mursalat. Both are to be recited in their entirety. Some people recite only part of it, which is against the Sunnah.

 

In the Eid and /stisga’ prayers, it is recommended to read Surah Oaaf in the first rak’ah, the second rak’ah is recommended to read Surah Al-Oamar. It is also possible to recite Surah Al-A’la in the first rak’ah, in the second rak’ah recite Surah Al-Ghasiyah.

 

During the Friday prayer, in the first rak’ah recite Surah Al-Jumw’ah, and in the second rak’ah recite Surah Al-Munafigun. Or Surah Al-A’la in the first rak’ah, and Surah Al-Ghasiyah in the second rak’ah. This is also Sunnah.

 

In the two rak’ahs of the Fajr sunnah, it is recommended to recite in the first rak’ah Surah Al-Baqarah, verse 136, the second rak’ah Surah Ali Imran, verse 64. It is also permissible to recite in the first rak’ah Surah AlKafirun, the second rak’ah Surah Al-Ikhlas. In the two rak’ahs of the sunnah of Maghrib, sunnah Tawaf and Istikharah, the first rak’ah is Surah Al-Kafirun, the second rak’ah Surah Al-Ikhlas.

 

As for the Witr prayer, which consists of three Rak’ahs, the first Rak’ah recites Surah Al-A’la, the second Rak’ah Surah Al-Kafirun, and the third Rak’ah Al-Ikhlas, Al-Falag and An-Naas. These are all found in authentic and well-known traditions.

 

The scholars are unanimously agreed on reciting loudly in the Fajr prayer and the first two rak’ahs of the Maghrib and Isyak prayers, and reciting softly in the Zuhr and ‘Asr prayers, the third rak’ah of the Maghrib prayer and the third and fourth rak’ahs of the Isha prayer, and raising the voice in the Friday, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha prayers, and Tarawih and Witr prayers afterwards. This is recommended for the imam and the one praying alone (munfarid), while the congregation should not raise their voices.

 

It is mustahabb to raise one’s voice in the lunar eclipse prayer, and to recite israr in the solar eclipse prayer, and to raise one’s voice in the Istisqa’ prayer, and to recite softly in the funeral prayer, both during the day and at night, and not to raise one’s voice in the voluntary daytime prayers other than the Eid and Istisqa’ prayers.

 

There is a difference of opinion regarding praying the rawafib (independent Sunnah) prayer at night. Some say that the recitation should not be loud. Others say that it should be recited loudly. The most correct view has been stated by al-Qadhi Husein and Baghawi, namely: between yahar (loud voice) and israr (low voice).

 

Note that jahar and israr are Sunnah. If a person raises his voice where it is supposed to be said softly or reads softly where it is supposed to be said loudly, then his prayer is valid, but he has done something makrooh karohah tanzih and does not have to prostrate himself.

 

We have stated that the one who recites the prayers and the dhikr that are prescribed in them must be able to hear them to himself. If he cannot hear them without any obstacle, then neither the recitation nor the dhikr is valid. When one finishes reciting Surah Al-Fatihah, it is recommended to say amen. There are many sahih traditions about the virtue and great reward of saying amen. It is recommended for everyone, whether in prayer or outside of it.

 

The imam and the congregation should say amen loudly, whether the congregation is small or large. It is recommended that the words of the congregation should coincide with the words of the imam. There is nothing in prayer where the words of the congregation and the imam are joined except in this case.

 

It is mustahabb for anyone who recites a verse in prayer or otherwise, if he comes across a verse about mercy, he should ask Allah for its favor. If he comes across a verse about punishment, he should ask Allah to protect him from Hellfire and its punishments, from evil, or from things that he dislikes. Then, it is said:

 

“O Allah, I ask for your salvation.”

 

If you find a verse that sanctifies Allah, you say: Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, or: Tabaraakallahu Rabbul Alamin. It is recommended to say tasbeeh and seek refuge with the reader in prayer and so on, for the imam and the congregation as well as for those who are silent, because this is supplication. This means that they are the same in this regard as saying amen.

 

Recommended for those who read:

 

to say:

 

When reading:

 

then it is spoken:

 

When reading:

 

then it is spoken:

 

When reading:

 

then it is spoken:

 

All of this is said in prayer and so on. The evidence for this has been explained by Imam Nawawi in his book At-Tibyan fi Adabi Hamalat Al-Gur”an.

 

Dhikr in bowing

 

It has been reported that the Prophet used to say Takbir when he bowed. This means that it is Sunnah. If it is omitted, the ruling is makrooh karohah tanzih; the prayer is not invalidated and prostration is not required. All takbirats in the prayer are like that, except takbiratul ihram, because it is a pillar without which the prayer is not valid. There is a report from Imam Ahmad that all of these takbirs are obligatory.

 

When it has bowed, it is said:

 

“Glory be to my great God, three.”

 

In Sahih Muslim it is mentioned that Hudhayfah saw the Messenger bowing by saying: Subhana Rabbi Al-Adhim.

 

The Prophet said:

 

“When one of you says Subhana Robbi AlAdhim three times, his bowing is complete.” (H.R. Sunan Group)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from ‘Aisha that the Messenger of Allah said in his bowing and prostration:

 

“Glory be to You, O Allah our Lord, and all praise be to You. O Allah, forgive me.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from ‘Ali , that when bowing, the Prophet said:

 

“O Allah, I bow to You and I believe in You. I submit myself to You, my hearing, my sight, my mind, my bones and my nerves to You.”

 

Mentioned in the books of Sunan:

 

“My hearing, my sight, my mind, my bones and the sinews of my feet are devoted to Allah, the Lord of all worlds.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim from ‘Aisha that the Prophet said in his bowing and prostration:

 

“Worthy of sanctification, Glory be to the Lord of angels and spirits.”

 

Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i narrated from Auf bin Malik who said: I stood with the Messenger of Allah reciting Surah Al-Baqarah. When he reached the verse about mercy, he stopped and begged. When he came to the verse about punishment, he stopped and took refuge. Then he bowed according to the length of his standing, and said in his bowing:

 

“Glory be to God who has power, authority, greatness and majesty.”

 

Then he said this in prostration. It was narrated in Saghih Muslim from Ibn ‘Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“As for bowing, then glorify God in it.”

 

The last Hadīth is the point of this chapter, which is to glorify Allah, the Exalted, in bowing, with any recitation. However, it is best to combine these remembrances and give precedence to the tasbeeh. If you want to shorten it, then tasbeeh is sufficient. The minimum perfection is three tasbihs. If it is recited only once, then that is the original.

 

You should know that remembrance during bowing is Sunnah. If it is left out intentionally or because of forgetfulness, the prayer is not invalidated and there is no sin, nor is there any need to perform prostration.

 

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal and a group of scholars are of the view that it is obligatory. So it is proper for the one who performs the prayer to guard it according to the clear and sound traditions that instruct him to do so, such as the one mentioned by Ibn ‘Abbas.

 

It is makrooh to recite the Qur’an while bowing and prostrating. In Sahih Muslim, ‘Ali said: “I was forbidden by the Messenger of Allah to recite Qur’anic verses while bowing or prostrating.”

 

Through Ibn Abbas, Muslim also narrated his words:

 

“Behold, it is forbidden for me to recite the Qur’an while bowing or prostrating.”

 

Speech when raising the head from Rukuk and in the state of Iktidal

 

When raising the head from bowing, it is sunnah to say:

 

“Allah hears whoever praises Him.” It is also permissible to say:

 

“Whoever praises Allah, He hears him.”

 

In his book, Al-Umm, Imam Syafii states: When standing upright (iktidal), say:

 

“Our Lord, all praise be to You who are many and good and blessed as full as the heavens and the evidence and as full between them and as full as You will thereafter. You are worthy of praise and glory, the most appropriate utterance from me. We are all Your servants.” There is no barrier to what You give and no giver to what You hinder, and no one’s efforts are worthwhile except by Your providence.”

 

Standing up from bowing, the Apostle said:

 

“Our Lord, all praise be to You. In another narration: And all praise be to You, with the addition of “wawu.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim).

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Ali and Ibn Abi Aufa, that when the Messenger of Allah raised his head from bowing, he would say:

 

“Allah hears whoever praises Him: Our Lord, praise be to You for the whole of the heavens and the whole of the earth and all that You will thereafter.”

 

Through Abi Said Al-Khudri, Muslim also narrated that

 

When the Prophet raised his head from bowing, he would say: –

 

“Ygla Allah, our Lord, all praise be to You for the heavens and the earth and all that You will thereafter. You are worthy of praise and glory, the most appropriate utterance from me and we are all Your servants. O Allah, there is no barrier to what You give and no giver to what You hinder and no one’s efforts are worthwhile except by Your decree.”

 

Narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Rifaah bin Abi Rafi Az-Zargi : One day, we prayed behind the Prophet. When he raised his head from bowing, he said:

 

“God hears those who praise Him.”

 

So a man behind him said:

 

“Our Lord, all praise be to you, much praise and good and blessed.”

 

When he finished, he asked: Who was it that spoke? He replied: Me. The Messenger of Allah said: I saw more than thirty angels scrambling to write it first.

 

Note that it is recommended to combine these remembrances as we have mentioned in the remembrances of bowing. If you want to shorten them, you should say them as ‘Ali and Ibn Abi Aufa said. If you want it to be shorter, then say:

 

These dhikr are all recommended for the imam, the congregation and the congregation. However, it is not necessary for the imam to say all of them, depending on the situation of his congregation. It should be noted that if this remembrance is omitted, it is makrooh karohah tanzih and prostration is not required.

 

Dhikr of Prostration

 

When a person says the Dhikr at the time of Iqtidal, he also says Takbir, then lengthens his Takbir. This is Sunnah. If he omits it, his prayer is not invalidated and he does not have to do prostration.

 

When prostrating, the dhikr is said. There are many dhikr, including the one narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Hudhayfah, that when prostrating, the Prophet said:

 

“Glory be to my Lord Most High.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Aisha , that the Prophet increased his speech in bowing and prostration:

 

“Glory to You O Allah, our Lord, with all praise be to You. O Allah, forgive me.”

 

‘Ā’ishah also said that the Messenger of Allah said in his bowing and prostration:

 

“Worthy of sanctification and Most Holy, Lord of the angels and the spirits.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Ali ak that the Messenger of Allah, when he prostrated, would say:

 

“O Allah, to You I bow, to You I believe, to You I surrender. My face prostrates to the Lord who created it and formed its appearance, hearing and sight, Glory be to Allah, the best of creators.”

 

Ashab As-Sunan (the Sunan group) narrated from Auf ibn Malik that the Messenger of Allah bowed for a long time and recited in it:

 

“Glory be to God, who has power, authority, greatness and majesty.” (Sahih Hadith)

 

Then say in prostration like that.

 

It is mentioned in the books of Sunan, that the Prophet taught: When a person prostrates, he should say:

 

“Glory be to my Lord Most High. Three, and that is the least.”

 

Aisha said: One night, I lost the Prophet so I looked for him. It turned out that he was bowing or prostrating while saying:

 

“Glory be to You with all praise be to You, there is no God but You.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

‘Ā’ishah added: So my hand touched the back of his feet while he was prostrating. Both feet were upright.

 

He said:

 

“O Allah, with Your pleasure I seek refuge from Your anger and with the forgiveness You give from Your punishment, and I seek refuge with You from Your own (wrath). I cannot count the praises to You as You praise Yourself.”

 

It was narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“As for bowing, then glorify God in it. As for prostration, then strive in prayer, surely your prayer will be answered.”

 

It was narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The closest distance between a servant and his Lord is when he is prostrating. So, increase prayer.”

 

Muslim also narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said in prostration:

 

“O Allah, forgive me all my sins, few and many, beginning and end, obvious and hidden.”

 

It is advisable to combine in prostration all the recitations that we have mentioned. If it is not possible to do it in one sitting, then in several sittings, as stated in the previous section. If it is abbreviated, then tasbih with a few supplications is sufficient.

 

There is a difference of opinion among scholars regarding the length of recitation, which is preferable in prayer, prostration or standing. Imam Shafi’i and his followers are of the opinion: Standing is better, because of the words of the Prophet & in Sahih Muslim:

 

“The most important prayer is the length of the Ounut (standing recitation).”

 

The meaning is standing, because the remembrance while standing is of the verses of the Qur’ān, while the remembrance while prostrating is of tasbih. The Qur’ān is better, so the Qur’ān that is recited for a long time is better. Some scholars are of the opinion that prostration is better, because the Prophet said:

 

“The closest distance between a servant and his Lord is when he is prostrating.”

 

When doing the prostration of recitation, it is recommended to say in prostration what we mentioned in the prostration of prayer, and it is mustahabb to say it:

 

O Allah, make it (prostration) for me a deposit in Your sight. Increase its reward for me and expiate sins from me with it, and accept it from me as You accepted it from David.” (H.R. Abu Daud, Al-Hakim classifies as a Sahih Hadith).

 

It is also recommended to say”:

 

“Glory to You, our Lord, surely Your promise is sure.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmizi and Nasa’i, from ‘Aisha that the Messenger of Allah said in prostration:

 

“My face prostrates to the Lord who created it and formed its hearing and sight, by the power of His might.” (Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hadith).

 

In the Sahih hadith according to the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim, Al-Hakim adds:

 

“Glory be to Allah, the best of creators.”

 

Speech when raising the head from prostration and when sitting between two prostrations

 

It is Sunnah to say Takbir from the time one raises one’s head and prolong the Takbir until one sits upright. It is also Sunnah to pray, as narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Baihaqi and others, from Hudhayfah , that the Messenger of Allah said between two prostrations:

 

“My Lord, forgive me. Twice.”

 

Then sit during his prostration.

 

Also in Sunan Baihaqi, from Ibn Abbas , in the hadith when he stayed at the house of his aunt Maimunah , and the Prophet prayed at night. It is mentioned that when he raised his head from prostration, he said:

 

“Lord, forgive me, have mercy on me, reform me, raise my status and provide for me and guide me.”

 

In Abu Daud’s narration: “And save me (physically and mentally).” The isnaad is hasan.

 

Qunut at Fajr prayer

 

You should know that the gunut in the Fajr prayer is Sunnah muakkad. If it is omitted, either intentionally or because of forgetfulness, the prayer is not invalidated, but the prostration is done.

 

It was narrated by al-Hakim that Anas said: “The Messenger of Allah continued to perform gunur at Fajr until he died.” Sahih Hadith.

 

The question arises, is it permissible to do qunut other than Fajr?

 

There are three opinions ascribed to As-Shaafa’i (‘a): The most authentic and well-known is that if there is a calamity among the Muslims, it is permissible for them to resort to gunur. If there is none, then it is not permissible. The second is that it is absolutely permissible to do gunut. The third is that it is not permissible to do gunut at all.

 

It is recommended to do the gunut in the last half of Ramadan in the last rak’ah of the Witr prayer. We have an opinion on gargling in the Witr prayer during Ramadan. The third opinion throughout the year is the madhhab of Abu Hanifah. And the one that is well-known in our madhhab is the first one.

 

You should know that the time for bowing in the Fajr prayer is after raising the head from bowing in the second rak’ah. Malik was of the opinion: Ounut is done before bowing. The companions of Imam Nawawi were of the opinion: If a person of the Shafi’i school of thought makes prostration before bowing, it does not count as gunut. We are of the opinion that it counts as gunut. What is more appropriate is for him to repeat it after bowing and make prostration. Some say that there is no need to do prostration.

 

As for the words, it is preferable to say them as reported in the Sahih hadith in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah, Baihaqi and others, with a Sahih isnad from Hasan ibn ‘Ali: The Messenger of Allah taught me the words that I say in the Witr prayer:

 

“O Allah, guide me as those whom You guide. And free me (from physical and mental deprivation) as those whom You free. And make me a person who leads to You alone. And bless me in the sustenance that You give. For it is You who destines and not You who is destined. It is not luna who loves You. Glory be to You, our Lord and Most High.”

 

In a narration, Baihaqi mentioned that Muhammad bin Hanafiah, the son of Ali bin Abi Talib said: Verily this supplication was the one recited by my father when he performed the gunut in the Fajr prayer.

 

The companions of Imam Nawawi said: If someone recites the gunut narrated from ‘Umar ibn Khattab, it is good, namely in the Fajr prayer after bowing:

 

“O Allah, we seek Your help and forgiveness, do not disbelieve in You and believe in You and avoid those who distort Your religion. O Allah, to You we worship. To You we pray and prostrate ourselves. To You we walk and hasten. We hope for Your mercy and fear Your torment. Verily, Your painful torment will surely befall the disbelievers. O Allah, punish the disbelievers who obstruct Your path and deny Your messengers and fight Your guardians. O Allah, forgive the believers and the believers, the Muslims and the Muslims. Make their condition better and melt their hearts. Put faith and wisdom in their hearts and establish them on the religion of Your Messenger and inspire them to fulfill Your promise that You gave them. Help them against Your enemies and their enemies. O Lord of truth, make us from among them.”

 

It is recommended to combine the gunut of ‘Umar with the first gunut. It is more appropriate to delay the gunut of ‘Umar. If you want to shorten it, you should recite the first one. It is only recommended to combine the two if one is praying alone or has a small congregation and does not mind a long recitation.

 

According to the chosen school of thought, the recitation of gunur does not have a specific prayer. Thus, any supplication recited can be a gunut, even if it is one or more verses from the Holy Qur’an that contain supplications. However, the most important are those found in the Sunnah. A group of scholars from the companions of Imam Nawawi said: Ounut is certain, so it is not permissible to recite anything else.

 

In addition to himself, the imam is encouraged to pray for all the congregation. If it is directed only at him, then it is makrooh. This is because it is not permissible for the imam to make a special prayer for himself alone.

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Tsauban , that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“It is not permissible for a person to become a priest for a people and then make a special prayer for himself without them. If he does so, he has betrayed them.”

 

Tirmidhi classifies it as a hasan hadith. :

 

 

Tashahhud in prayer

 

According to Shafi’i, Ahmad and most scholars, the final tashahhud is obligatory. According to Abu Hanifah and Malik, it is Sunnah. As for the first tashahhud, it is Sunnah according to Shaafa’i, Malik and Abu Hanifah and most of the scholars. According to Ahmad, it is obligatory. If he omits it, either intentionally or because he forgot, his prayer is still valid, but he should do prostration.

 

Three kinds of tashahhud have been established from the Messenger of Allah.

 

  1. Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Mas’ud that the Messenger said:

 

“Honor and prayer and goodness are for Allah. O Prophet, peace be upon you and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah. I also bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.”

 

  1. It was narrated by Muslim from Ibn ‘Abbas that he said:

 

“Honor, prayer and goodness are for Allah. O Prophet, peace be upon you and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah and I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”

 

  1. Through Abu Musa Al-Ashari, Muslim also narrated the words of the Prophet:

 

“Honor, kindness and prayer are for Allah. O Prophet, peace be upon you and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah. I also bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.”

 

With a jayyid isnad, Baihaqi mentions that ‘Aisha taught the tashahhud of the Messenger of Allah to Al-Oasim, namely:

 

“Honor is for Allah and prayer and goodness. O Prophet, peace be upon you and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and the righteous servants of Allah.”

 

“I bear witness that there is no God but Allah. I also bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.”

 

With a sahih isnad, Imam Malik and Baihaqi mentioned that Abdurrahman bin Umar Al-Oari heard Umar bin Khattab teaching the tashahhud to the people from the pulpit by saying:

 

“Honor is for Allah, purity is for Allah, goodness and prayer are for Him. O Prophet, peace be upon you and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, there is no partner for Him. I also bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger.”

 

Imam Malik, Baihaqi and others mentioned that ‘Aa’ishah said it in tashahhud:

 

“Honor, goodness, prayer and purity are for Allah. I testify that there is no God but Allah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. Peace be upon you O Prophet and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and the righteous servants of Allah.”

 

In a narration, Aisha also said:

 

“Honor, prayer, goodness and purity are for Allah. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah with whom there is no partner. I also bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. O Prophet, peace be upon you and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and the righteous servants of Allah.”

 

Also with authentic isnad, Imam Malik and Baihaqi narrated that Ibn Umar said:

 

“In the name of Allah. Respect is for Allah, prayer is for Allah, purity is for Allah. Peace be upon the Prophet and God’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and the righteous servants of Allah. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah. I also bear witness that Muhammad is His Messenger.”

 

These are the kinds of tashahhud. Imam Shafi’i and other scholars said: It is permissible to make tashahhud with any of them. However, the best is the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas because of the addition of the phrase. “Al-Mubarakatu”. Added: Since the injunction is broad and optional, the narrations differ.

 

Part of the Sunnah in the tashahhud is to recite it slowly. This is because there is Muslim consensus on this matter. The Hadīth on which this is based is narrated by Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and al-Bayhaqi from ‘Abdullāh ibn Mas’ud, which reads: “It is part of the Sunnah to recite the Tashahhud in a low voice.” Tirmidhi categorized it as a hasan hadith. Al-Hakim, however, declared it to be sahih.

 

This is the correct and preferred view, which is held by the majority of scholars, fugaha, hadith narrators, usu/ and mutakallimin. If the voice is raised, it is makrooh, but the prayer is not invalidated and there is no need to prostrate.

 

Salawat on the Prophet after Tashahhud

 

According to Imam Shafii, the salutation of the Prophet after the final tashahhud is obligatory. If it is omitted, the prayer is not valid. Regarding the salutation of the Prophet’s family in the final tashahhud, according to the sound and well-known madhhab, it is recommended.

 

Some of Imam Nawawi’s companions said it is obligatory. After the tashahhud, it is preferable to say?

 

“O Allah, send blessings upon Your servant and Messenger, Muhammad, the illiterate Prophet. And upon his family and his wives and his descendants, as You have saluted Ibrahim and his family. And bless Muhammad, the ummi Prophet and his family and his descendants, as You blessed Ibrahim and his family in all the worlds, indeed You are Most Praiseworthy and Glorious.”

 

With regard to the first tashahhud, salawat to the Prophet is not obligatory without any dispute. The question arises: is it recommended? There are two opinions concerning this. The most correct view is that it is recommended. And salawat over the Prophet’s family, according to the correct madhhab, is not recommended.

 

According to Imam Nawawi, it is not recommended to pray in the tashahhud; in fact, his companions said it is makrooh, because the first tashahhud is based on leniency, unlike the final tashahhud.

 

Prayer after the Final Tashahhud

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud, that the Prophet taught them the tashahhud, then told them to choose the du’aa’ they liked.

 

Note that this prayer is recommended, not obligatory. It is advisable to prolong it. Except for the imam, he may pray as much as he wishes regarding the affairs of this world and the Hereafter. He may also pray with what he makes. However, the best is as narrated in some of his sayings.

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah , that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“When one of you finishes the final tashahhud, let him seek refuge with Allah from four things: the torment of Hell, the torment of the grave, temptation during life and after death, the evil of the Messiah Ad-Dayal.”

 

In one narration, it is mentioned:

 

“When any of you finishes the tashahhud, let him seek refuge with Allah from four things, saying: O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the punishment of Hell, the punishment of the grave, the trial during life and after death, and from the trial of the Messiah ad-Dayjal.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Aisha , that the Prophet prayed in prayer:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the torment of the grave, and I seek refuge with You from the trial of the Messiah Ad-Dajjal, and I seek refuge with You from trial in life and after death. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from sins and debts.”

 

Through Ali Muslim mentioned: When the Prophet prayed, the last words between the tashahhud and the greeting were:

 

“O Allah, forgive me my past and future sins, the hidden and the overt and the extravagant and those that You know better than me. You are the forerunner and You are the forerunner. There is no God but You.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abdullah bin Amr Ibn Ash, from Abu Bakr Siddig, that he said to the Messenger of Allah: Teach me the supplication that I say in my prayer. So he said:

 

“Say: O Allah, indeed I have wronged myself with much wrongdoing and none can forgive sins except You. So, forgive me with forgiveness from You and have mercy on me, surely You are Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”

 

Bukhari, Baihaqi and other Imams have proven that this supplication is said at the end of the prayer. This Istidal is Sahih. Among the recommended supplications in every situation are:

 

“O Allah, I ask You for forgiveness and health|safety. O Allah, I ask You for guidance, piety, purity and sufficiency.”

 

Greetings to complete the prayer

 

You should know that the greeting at the end of the prayer is one of the pillars of the prayer and one of its obligations. Without it, the prayer is not valid. This is the view of Shafi’i, Malik, Ahmad and most of the scholars of the past and present.

 

The authentic and well-known Hadīths make this clear. The most perfect greeting is to say assalamualaikum wa rahmatullah to the right and assalamualaikum to the left. It is not recommended to say wa barakatuh. This is contrary to what is well-known from the Messenger of Allah, although it is narrated by Abu Daud.

 

Whether the person praying is the imam, the congregation or alone, in a large or small congregation, in an obligatory or nafilah (voluntary) prayer, in that case he should say the two greetings that we have mentioned and turn his head towards the two sides.

 

One salam is obligatory, while the other is Sunnah. If it is omitted, it does not invalidate the prayer.

 

The obligatory words of greeting are: Assalamualaikum. One of Imam Nawawi’s companions, Al-Qadhi Abu Thayib At-Tabhari, said: When the imam says the greeting of peace, the congregation may choose either to say the greeting immediately or to prolong the prayer and then say the greeting.

 

What a praying person says when spoken to

 

Narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Sahal ibn Saad

 

As-Saidy , that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever is disturbed by a word in his prayer, let him say: Subhanallah.”

 

In another saying:

 

“When you are distracted by something (in prayer), let the men say Subhanallah and the women clap their hands.”

 

In one narration: “Saying Subhanallah for men and clapping for women.”

 

Dhikr after prayer

 

The scholars are unanimous on the recommendation to do dhikr after prayer. There are many authentic hadith-reports of various kinds. So, we mention some of the most important of them. It is narrated in the book of Tirmidhi from Abi Umamah who said: The Messenger of Allah was asked:

 

“Which supplication is the most listened to (by Allah)? He replied: At night, at the last moment and after the obligatory prayer.”

 

Tirmidhi classifies it as a hasan hadith. It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim that Ibn Abbas said: I know the completion of the prayer of the Messenger of Allah with takbir. And that the people at the time of the Prophet recited dhikr out loud after completing the obligatory prayer.

 

Tsauban said: When he finished praying, the Messenger of Allah asked for forgiveness three times and said:

 

“O Allah, You are salvation and from You is salvation. Glory be to You, O Lord of glory and majesty.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

Al-Auzai, one of the narrators of this hadith, was asked: How is asking for forgiveness? Say: Astaghfirullah (twice).

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Mughirah ibn Shu’bah, that the Messenger of Allah when he finished prayer, said:

 

 

“There is no God but Allah, for whom there is no partner. He has all power and to Him belongs all praise, and He is All-Powerful over all things. O Allah, there is no barrier to what You give and no giver to what You hinder and no one’s efforts are worthwhile without Your determination.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abdullah bin Zubair that the Messenger of Allah, after completing the prayer, said:

 

“There is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner. He has all power and to Him belongs all praise, and He is All-Powerful over everything. There is no power except with the help of Allah. There is no God but Allah. We worship none but Him. To Him belong all pleasures and virtues, and to Him belongs good praise. There is no God but Allah, and we willingly follow His religion, even if it is hated by the disbelievers.”

 

Through Abu Hurairah, Bukhari and Muslim narrate that the poor Muhajirin came to the Messenger of Allah and said: The rich have a high rank and everlasting enjoyment. They pray as we do. They fast as we do. They have surplus wealth, so they can perform Hajj and Umrah and give alms. Hearing this, he said:

 

“Would you like me to teach you something that you can use to catch up with those who preceded you and preceded those who came after you, and no one is greater than you except the one who does as you do?” They replied: “I will teach you something that you can use to catch up with those who preceded you and preceded those who came after you. They replied: Of course, O Messenger of Allah. The Messenger of Allah said: You say tasbih, tahmid and takbir after prayer thirty-nine times.”

 

Regarding how to say it, Abu Saleh, who narrated from Abu Hurairah, said: Subhanallah, Al-Hamdulillah, Allahu Akbar, thus totaling thirty-three times each.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim from Kaab bin Ujrah: that the Prophet said:

 

“Some of the sayings that are not in vain for the one who says them or the one who does them after completing the obligatory prayers are: thirty-three tasbeehs, thirty-three tahmids and thirty-four takbirs.”

 

It was narrated in Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever at the end of each prayer glorifies Allah thirty-three times, praises Allah thirty-three times and says Takbir thirty-three times, then completes one hundred with speech:

 

“There is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner, He has all authority and to Him belongs all praise, and He is over all things”, his sins will be forgiven, even if they are as numerous as the foam of the sea.”

 

At the beginning of the book of Jihad, Bukhari narrates from Saad bin Abi Waqqash that the Messenger of Allah asked for protection after finishing prayer with the words:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge in You from cowardice, I seek refuge in You from a life of humiliation, I seek refuge in You from the Jutnah of this world, and I seek refuge in You from the torment of the grave.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i, from Abdullah bin Umar , that the Prophet said:

 

“Two deeds that no Muslim servant will do unless he enters Paradise. They are easy and those who do them are few, namely: Prostrating to Allah ten times, glorifying Him ten times, and saying Takbir ten times after each prayer. This amounts to one hundred and fifty-five times in speech and one thousand and five hundred in weight. And when going to bed, one should say Takbir thirty-four times, Tahmid thirty-three times, and glorify thirty-three times. These are one hundred times in speech and one thousand in weight. I saw the Messenger of Allah counting with his hands. The Companions asked: O Messenger of Allah, how can they be said to be easy, while the people who do them are few? He replied: The devil comes to one of you and puts him to sleep before he says them, and comes to him in his prayer and reminds him of a need before he says them.”

 

The isnad is sahih. There is only Atha’ Ibn Saib who is still questionable. Abu Ayub As-Sakhtiyani hinted at the validity of his hadith.

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i and others, that Ugbah bin Amir said: The Messenger of Allah told me to recite Al-Muawwizatain after prayer.

 

Abu Daud’s narration says: “with Al-Muawwizar”, so it is appropriate to recite Surah Al-Ikhlas, Al-Falag and An-Naas.

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud and Nasa’i narrate that the Messenger took Muadz by the hand and said:

 

“O Muadz, by Allah, indeed I love you. Then he said: I order you, Muadz, do not leave after every prayer, that is, you say: O Allah, help me in remembrance and gratitude and make my worship of You perfect.”

 

Anas said: When he finished praying, the Messenger of Allah wiped his forehead with his right hand, then said:

 

“I testify that there is no god but Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate. O Allah, remove from me distress and grief.” (H.R. Ibn Sunni)

 

Abi Umamah said: I do not come near the Messenger of Allah after every obligatory or voluntary prayer but I hear him say:

 

“O Allah, forgive all my sins and mistakes. O Allah, refresh me and reform me and show me good deeds and morals. Verily, there is no one who guides to good and removes evil except You.” (H.R. Ibn Sunni)

 

It was narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Abi Said Al-Khudri that the Prophet when he finished prayer, I do not know, whether before or after the greeting he said:

 

“Glory be to your Lord, the Mighty Lord who is far from what they attribute, and peace be upon the messengers and all praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds.”

 

Anas said: When he finished the prayer, the Messenger said:

 

“O Allah, make the best of my life at its end and the best of my deeds at its end, and make the best of my day on the day I meet You.”

 

Ibn Sunni narrated from Abu Bakr, that the Messenger of Allah finished the prayer saying:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from disbelief and poverty and the torment of the grave”

 

With a weak isnad, Ibn Sunni narrated from Fudhalah ibn Ubaidillah that the Prophet said: “When any one of you finishes praying, he should begin by praising and extolling Allah, then say salawat on the Prophet and then pray as he wishes.”

 

Recommended Dhikr after Fajr prayer

 

You should know that the most honorable time for dhikr during the day is after the Fajr prayer.

 

Tirmidhi and others narrated from Anas, that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever prays the Fajr prayer in congregation, then sits down to think of

 

Allah until the sun rises, then pray two rak’ahs (Dhuha), then the reward will be like a complete Hajj and Umrah.”

 

Tirmidhi classifies it as a hasan tradition.

 

Through Abu Dhar they also narrated the Apostle’s words:

 

“Whoever says while sitting after the Fajr prayer before speaking: “There is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner, He has all authority and to Him belongs all praise, He gives life and death, and He is the Master of all things”, ten times, he will receive ten good deeds and ten bad deeds will be expunged from him and he will be elevated ten degrees. On that day, he is protected by Allah from any harm and guarded from the devil. He does not deserve any sin on that day except associating partners with Allah.”

 

The Prophet taught it to Muslim ibn Haris Attamimi:

 

“When you finish the Maghrib prayer, say: O Allah, protect me from the Fire, seven times. So, if you say it, and then you die on that night, there is protection for you from it. If you pray Fajr, then say it, for if you die on that day, there will be protection for you from it.” (H.R. Abu Daud)

 

Imam Ahmad, Ibn Majah and Ibn Sunni narrated that Umm Salamah said: When praying Fajr, the Messenger said:

 

“O Allah, I ask You for useful knowledge, acceptable deeds and good fortune.”

 

When the Messenger of Allah said something after the Fajr prayer, Suhaib asked: O Messenger of Allah, what did you say? He replied: “O Allah, for Your sake I strive, for Your sake I attack and for Your sake I fight.”

 

Dhikr in the morning and evening

 

The morning and evening dhikr are the most extensively explained in this book. Insha Allah I will mention a number of dhikr. So, whoever is guided to practice all of them, that is a blessing and a virtue from Allah for him, and he is fortunate. Whoever is unable to do all of them, let him abbreviate them as much as he wishes, even if it is one dhikr. Allah says:

 

“.. Speak in praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting….” (Q.S. Thaha: 130).

 

Allah also said:

 

“Remember your Lord within yourselves with humility and fear without raising your voice in the morning and evening….” (Q.S. Al-A’raaf: 205)…

 

In other words:

 

“Do not drive away those who pray to their Lord in the morning and evening seeking His pleasure….” (Q.S. Al-An’am: 52)

 

In Surah An-Nuur, verses 36-37, Allah mentions:

 

“In the houses where Allah has permitted to glorify Him and mention His name, glorifying Him therein morning and evening. Those who are not distracted by trade or commerce from the remembrance of Allah…” Allah also explains:

 

“Indeed, it is We who subjected the mountains to worship with him (Dawud) at evening and morning.” (Q.S. Shaad:18)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Shaddad bin Aus , that the Prophet said:

 

“The mother of istighfar is: O Allah, You are my Lord, there is no god but You. You created me and I am Your servant. I am within Your guarantee and promise according to my ability. I acknowledge the blessings You have given me, and I confess my sins. So, forgive me. Indeed, no one can forgive sins except You. I seek refuge in You from the evil of my deeds.

If a person says it in the evening and dies, he will enter Paradise, or will be among the dwellers of Paradise. And if he says it in the morning and dies on that day, he will also enter Paradise.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever says in the morning and evening: Glory be to Allah, praise be to Him, a hundred times, no one on the Day of Resurrection will be able to do better than he did, except the one who said what he said, or more.”

 

In Abu Daud’s narration: “Glory be to Allah, the Great, with all praise to Him.”

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and others narrated that Abdullah bin Hubaib said: One night when it was very dark and raining, we went out looking for the Prophet to be the Imam of the prayer for us. We followed him and he said: Say: At that time, I did not say anything. He said again: Say: I did not say anything. Then he said again: Say! So, I asked: O Messenger of Allah, what should I say? He replied:

 

“Recite Gul Huwallahu Ahad and Al-Muawoizatain (Al-Falag and An-Naas) in the morning and evening, three times each, and they will protect you from everything.”

 

Tirmidhi classifies it as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and others narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said it in the morning:

 

“O Allah, with You we enter the morning, with You we enter the evening, with You we live, with You we die and to You we are raised.”

 

Tirmidhi classifies it as a hasan tradition.

 

It was narrated in Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurairah that when the Prophet was traveling and dawn approached, he would say:

 

“Let the listener give praise to Allah and the goodness of his ordeal aras us. O our Lord, accompany us and protect us from the fire of hell.”

 

In his Sahih, Muslim narrates from Abdullah bin Mas’ud who said: When it was evening time, the Prophet said:

 

“We enter the evening with all power to Allah and all praise to Allah. There is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner.” The narrator said: In one narration, he said:

 

“To Him belongs all power and all praise, and He is the Master of all things. O my Lord, I ask You for the good contained in this night and the good that follows. And I seek refuge with You from the evil that is contained in this night and the evil thereafter. O my Lord, I seek refuge with You from laziness, old age and the evils of old age. I seek refuge in You from the torment of hell and the torment of the grave: And when entering the morning say this too, viz: We enter the morning with all power belonging to Him … (and so on).

 

Abu Hurairah said: A man came to the Prophet and asked: O Messenger of Allah, I was stung by a scorpion last night, what should I say? He replied:

 

“If you had said at the time of evening: “I seek refuge with the perfect word of Allah from the evil of His creatures, surely it will not harm you.”” (H.R. Muslim)

 

In the narration of Ibn Sunni:

 

“I seek refuge with the perfect sentence of Allah from the evil of His creatures, recited three times, nothing will harm him.”

 

With Sahih isnad, Abu Daud and Tirmizi narrated from Abu Hurairah that Abu Bakr As-Siddig said: O Messenger of Allah, tell me to say a word in the morning and evening. He said:

 

“Say: O Allah, Creator of the heavens and the earth, Knower of the unseen and the real, Lord of all things and their king, I testify that there is no God but You, I seek refuge in You from the evil of myself and the evil of Satan and his shirk. He explained: Say it in the morning and evening and when you go to bed” Tirmidhi classified it as a Sahih hasan tradition.

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Abi Malik Al-Ashari , that the Companions said: O Messenger of Allah, teach us the words that we say in the morning and evening and when we go to bed. So he mentioned it.

 

There is an addition in Abu Daud’s narration, namely:

 

“And from our bad deeds towards ourselves or towards Muslims.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Uthman bin Affan that the Messenger said:

 

“No slave should say in the morning of every day and in the evening of every night: In the name of Allah, by Whose name no harm can come to anything on earth or in the heavens, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing, three times, but he will not be harmed by anything.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan Sahih.

 

In Abu Daud’s narration:

 

“There will be no sudden calamity.” Through Tsauban, Tirmiz also narrated this saying:

 

“Whoever says in the evening: ‘I will Allah my Lord, Islam my religion, Muhammad my Prophet,’ then surely Allah wills him.”

 

With a jayyid (good) isnad Abu Daud narrated from Anas & that the Apostle $& said:

 

“Whoever says in the morning and evening: O Allah, I enter the morning with You and Your Throne-bearers and Your angels and all Your creatures as witnesses that there is no God but You, and Muhammad is Your servant and Messenger, then Allah will free a quarter of him from Hellfire. If he says it twice, Allah will free half of him from Hellfire. If he says it three times, Allah will also free a quarter. And if he says it four times, Allah will free him from Hellfire.”

 

Also with a jayyid isnad, Abu Daud narrated from Abdullah bin Ghannaam Al-Baayadhi (a companion of the Prophet), that he said:

 

“Whoever says in the morning: “O Allah, the pleasure you give in the morning is only from You, there is no partner for You, to You belongs all praise and all gratitude, then he has given thanks that day. And whoever says it in the evening has given thanks for that night.”

 

Abu Daud, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah narrated from Ibn Umar who said: The Messenger did not leave these prayers in the morning and evening:

 

“O Allah, I ask You for physical and mental safety in this world and the Hereafter. O Allah, I ask You for forgiveness and safety in my religious affairs, my duma and family and my wealth. O Allah, cover my nakedness and keep my fears at bay. O Allah, shade me from before and from behind me, from my right and from my left, and from above me. I also seek refuge with your majesty from being destroyed from beneath me.”

 

A-Nakim classifies the hadith as having a sahih isnad.

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud, Nasa’i and others narrated from Ali that the Apostle said when going to sleep: ,

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with Your glorious face and perfect words from the evil of Your creatures. O Allah, You are the One who can remove debts and sins. O Allah, Your army is not defeated, Your promise is not broken and no one’s efforts are worthwhile without Your determination. Glory be to You with all praise to You.”

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Ibn Majah, with Jayyid isnad from Abi Iyaasy that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever says in the morning: “There is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner. He has all dominion and to Him belongs all praise and He is All-Powerful over all things. Then it is like freeing a slave from the son of Ishmael, and ten good deeds will be written for him and ten bad deeds will be expunged from him and ten degrees will be raised for him and he will be protected from the devil until the evening. If he says it in the evening, it is like that until the morning.”

 

Through Abi Malik Al-Ashari, Abu Daud also narrated that the Prophet said:

 

“When the morning comes, let one of you say: The morning has come, and power belongs to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. O Allah, I ask You for the good of the day int, its opening, its victory, its light, its blessing and its guidance. And I seek refuge with You from the evil that it contains and the evil that follows it. Then, when the time of the evening comes, then chant like that.”

 

Abdurrahman bin Abi Bakrah said to his father: O my father, every morning I hear you praying:

 

“O Allah, grant health in my body. O Allah, grant health in my hearing. O Allah, grant health to my sight. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from disbelief and poverty. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the torment of the grave. There is no God but You.”

 

You say that every morning and evening three times. So Abu Bakrah said: “Indeed, I heard the Messenger of Allah praying with it, so I like to follow his sunnah.” (H.R. Abu Daud)

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud: Ibn Abbas reported that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever says in the morning: “Glory be to Allah in the evening and in the morning, and all praise be to Him in the heavens and the earth.” In the evening and at Zuhr: He gives life to the dead and death to the living and revives the earth after its death, thus are you brought forth.” (Q.S. Ar-Rum: 17-18), then he can catch up during the day. And whoever says it in the evening will catch up with it in the night.”

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud from one of the Prophet’s daughters that he taught her to say:

 

“Say in the morning: Glory be to Allah, praise be to Him, there is no power but His. That which is willed shall come to pass, and that which is not willed shall not come to pass. I know that Allah is over all things, and His ihm covers everything. So, whoever says it in the morning is awake until the evening. And whoever says it in the evening is awake until the morning.”

 

Said Al-Khudri, said: One day, the Messenger of Allah entered the mosque. There was an Ansar man named Abu Umamah. So, the Messenger of Allah asked him: Why do you sit in the mosque outside the prayer time? He replied: Distress and debt have befallen me, O Messenger of Allah. He said: Shall I teach you a word which, if you say it, Allah will remove your distress and settle your debt? He said: Of course, O Messenger of Allah. Say it in the morning and evening:

 

“Y9 Allah, I seek refuge with You from distress and grief. I seek refuge with You from weakness and laziness. I seek refuge with You from cowardice and stinginess. And I seek refuge with You from being in debt and oppressed by people. Abu Umamah said: I executed the command, and Allah removed my distress and anxiety and paid off my debts.” (H.R. Abu Daud)

 

With a sahih isnad, Ibn Sunni narrated from Abdullah bin Abza who said: In the morning, the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“We are on the sanctity of the futrah of Islam and the word of sincerity, and the religion of our Prophet Muhammad and the religion of Abraham in a straight line as Muslims. And I do not belong to the polytheists.”

 

Abdilaah bin Abi Aufa said: In the morning the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“In the morning we belong to Him and all power belongs to Allah Praise be to Allah. pride and majesty belong to Him. The creatures and commands of the night and day, and all that is in them belong to Allah O Allah, make the beginning of this afternoon good and the middle successful and the end victorious, O Lord Most Merciful of the merciful.” (H.R. Ibn Sunni) With a weak isnad,

 

Tirmidhi and Ibn Sunni narrated from Magil bin Yasar, that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever says in the morning three words: “I seek refuge with Allah, the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing, from the accursed devil”, and recites three verses from Surah Al-Hasr, Allah will appoint seventy thousand angels to pray for him until the evening. If he dies on that day, he will be martyred. And whoever recites it in the evening, he will also attain that degree.”

 

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Anas that the Messenger of Allah in the morning and evening prayed with:

 

“O Allah, I ask You for sudden good, and I seek refuge with You from unexpected evil.” Ibn Sunni also narrated from Anas that the Prophet taught Fatimah:

 

“What is your halaug to hear my will?” You say in the morning and evening: “O Lord who lives and always takes care of His creatures, to You I turn for help. So be kind to all my affairs, and do not leave me the blink of an eye.”

 

With isnad dharf, Ibn Sunni narrated from Ibn Abbas that a man complained to the Messenger of Allah about a disaster that had befallen him. So he said:

 

“Say in the morning: “I entrust to Allah myself, my family and my wealth”, then you will not lose anything. So the man said it, and the calamity departed from him.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Ibn Majah and the book of Ibn Sunni, from Umm Salamah that the Messenger of Allah in the morning said:

 

“O Allah, I ask You for useful knowledge, good sustenance and acceptable deeds.” Through Ibn Abbas, Ibn Sunni also narrated the words of the Prophet:

 

“Whoever says in the morning: “O Allah, I am in the morning in Your pleasure, health and protection, so complete Your pleasure over me and Your health and protection in this world and the next, (if) said three times in the morning and evening, surely Allah will complete it for him.”

 

Tirmidhi and Ibn Sunni narrated from Zubayr ibn Awwam that the Prophet said:

 

“The servants of Allah do not enter the morning, but one of the malatkat cries out: Glory be to the Lord who is worthy of worship.” In the narration of Ibn Sunni: “Rather one of the angels cries out: O creatures, glorify the Lord who is worthy of worship.”

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Buraydah that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever says in the morning and evening: “My Lord Allah, to Him I surrender. There is no Lord but He, to Him I surrender, and He is the Lord of the great Throne. There is no God but Allah, the Most High and the Great. What Allah willed has happened and what He did not will not happen. I know that Allah is in control of everything. I also know that his knowledge encompasses everything. Then, when he dies after that, he will enter Paradise.”

 

It is narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Anas that the Messenger of Allah also said:

 

“Can’t anyone among you do like Abu Dhamdham? The companions asked: Who is Abu Dhamdham, O Messenger of Allah? He replied: When morning comes, he says: O Allah, I have given myself and my honor to You. So, he is not cursed by those who cursed him, he is not mistreated by those who mistreated him, and he is not beaten by those who beat him.”

 

Through Abi Darda’, Ibn Sunni also narrated the Prophet’s words:

 

“Whoever says every morning and evening: “Allah is sufficient for me. There is no God but Him. To Him I surrender myself. And He is the Lord of the great Throne. (If) it is said seven times, Allah will free him from distress in this world and the Hereafter.”

 

With a dhaif isnad, Tirmidhi and Ibn Sunni narrated from Abv Hurairah that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever recites in the morning Surah al-Mukmin, from verse 1 to verse 3, and the verse of the Kursi, he will be awake with them until the evening. And whoever recites them in the evening, he will stay awake with them until the morning.”

 

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Talig bin Habib, who said that a man came to Abi Darda’ and said: O Aba Darda’, your house has been burnt down. So he replied: It cannot be burnt. Allah does not do that with the words that I heard from the Messenger of Allah: Whoever says it at the beginning of his day, no calamity will befall him until evening. And whoever says it at the end of the afternoon, he will not be afflicted until the morning, viz:

 

“O Allah, You are my Lord, there is no God but You. To You I surrender myself. You are the Lord of the great Throne. What You willed has happened, and what You did not will not happen. There is no power except with the help of You, the Most High and the Most Great. I know that You are the Almighty over all things, and Your knowledge covers all things. O Allah, I seek refuge in You from the evil of myself and the evil of every living creature whose life is in Your hands. Verily my Lord is on the straight path.”

 

These traditions that we have mentioned will suffice for those who are guided by them. We ask Allah, the Exalted, to help us practice them and other kinds of good deeds. Sayings on Friday morning

 

You should know that what is said on other Fridays may also be said on Friday. The recommendation to do dhikr on this day is more than on any other day. It is also recommended to increase the salawat on the Messenger of Allah narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Anas , that he said:

 

“Whoever says in the morning of Friday before the Fajr prayer: “I ask forgiveness of Allah, there is no god but He, who is alive and always takes care of His creatures, and I repent to Him, as many as three kahi. Allah will forgive his sins, even if they are as numerous as the foam of the sea.”

 

It is advisable to make dua during the entire day of Friday, from dawn to sunset, in the hope that it will coincide with the time of ijabah (the fulfillment of prayers).

 

There is a difference of opinion regarding the time of ijabah. Some say after dawn and before sunrise. Some say after sunrise. Others say after sunset. Some say after Asr. And there are others who say something else. What is authentic and correct, and cannot be other than that, is what was narrated in Suhih Muslim from Abu Musa al-Ashari, from the Messenger of Allah, that it is between when the imam sits on the pulpit and when he says the greeting of prayer.

 

Saying if the sun rises

 

With a weak isnad, Ibn Sunni narrated from Abi Said Al-Khudri who said: When the sun rose, the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Praise be to Allah who brought health today and brought the sun out of its place. O Allah, I testify by what You testify for Yourself and what Your angels and Your throne bearers and all Your creatures testify, that You are Allah, there is no God but You who dispenses justice. There is no God but You, the Mighty and Wise. Write my testimony after the testimony of Your angels and the ahh of knowledge. O Allah, You are salvation, from You salvation and to You salvation returns. I ask You, O Lord of glory and majesty, that You grant our supplication and grant our wishes and fulfill us of the needs of Your creatures whom You fulfill. O Allah, make good my religion which is the guardian of my affairs, and make good my world in which is my livelihood, and make good my Hereafter to which I return.”

 

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni that Abdullah ibn Mas’ud once sent someone to watch the rising of the sun. When the man told him that the sun had risen, he said: Praise be to Allah who gave us this day and absolved us of our mistakes in it.

 

Speech when the sun is high

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni from Amr ibn Absah that the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said:

 

“There is not a sound left of any of Allah’s creatures when the sun is high but that it glorifies Allah and praises Him, except the devil and the arrogant people. Then I asked him about arrogant people. He replied: The evil of man.”

 

Speech if the sun has already slipped until the time of

 

Asr It is recommended to increase dhikr and other acts of worship after the sun has set.

 

Tirmidhi narrated from ‘Abdullah ibn Sa’ib, that the Messenger prayed four rak’ahs before Zuhr, after sunset, and said:

 

“Verily, ta is the time when the doors of the heavens are opened. So, I want my good deeds to rise at that time.” (Hadith hasan)

 

Speech after Asr until sunset

 

It is highly recommended to increase dhikr at the time of ‘Asr. It is also recommended to do more dhikr at Fajr. According to the correct opinion, one of them is considered to be the middle prayer. Allah said:

 

Purify with the praise of your Lord before sunrise and before sunset ….” (Q.S. Thaha:130)

 

In other words:

 

Purify it with the praise of your Lord in the evening and the morning.” (Q.S. Al-Mukmin: 55)

 

In Surah Al-A’raaf, verse 205, Allah says:

 

“Remember your Lord within yourselves with humility and fear without raising your voice in the morning and evening….”

 

Allah also said:

 

“…Worship in it morning and evening. Those who are not distracted by trade or commerce from the remembrance of Allah…” (Q.S. An-Nuur:36-37)

 

With a weak isnad, Ibn Sunni narrated from Anas that the Prophet said:

 

“Sitting with those who think of Allah from the ‘Asr prayer until the sun sets is more to my liking than releasing eight of Ishmael’s children.”

 

Saying when hearing the Maghrib call to prayer

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Umm Salamah who said: I was taught by the Messenger of Allah to say the Maghrib call to prayer:

 

“O Allah, this is the coming of Your night and the disappearance of Your day, and the voice of those who pray to You, so forgive me.”

 

Also through Umm Salamah, Ibn Sunni narrated that when the Prophet finished the Maghrib prayer, he entered, then prayed two rak’ahs of Sunnah, then said a du’aa’:

 

“O Lord who moves the day, set our hearts upon your religion.”

 

It was narrated in Tirmidhi’ from Ammarah ibn Shabib that he said:

 

“Whoever says: “There is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner, He has all authority and to Him belongs all praise, He gives life and death, and He is over all things, recited ten times after the Maghrib prayer, then Allah sends guards who guard him from the temptation of the devil until the morning. Allah also writes for him ten decisive virtues, and erases from him ten destructive vices, and is equivalent to releasing ten believing slaves.”

 

Recitation in the Witr prayer and sayings afterward

 

It is Sunnah for the one who prays three Rak’ahs of Witr to recite Surah Al-Fatihah in the first Rak’ah, Surah Al-A’la in the second Rak’ah, Surah Al-Kafirun in the second Rak’ah, and Surah Al-Ikhlas, Al-Falag and An-Naas in the third Rak’ah. If in the first rak’ah one forgets to recite Surah Al-A’la, then it is combined with Surah Al-Kafirun in the second rak’ah. Similarly, if you forget to read Surah Al-Kafirun in the second rak’ah, it is combined with the recitation in the third rak’ah.

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud, Nasa’i and others narrated from Ubay bin Kaab who said: “When he finished saying the greeting at the Witr prayer, the Messenger of Allah would say:

 

“Glory be to the King who is worshiped.”

 

In the narration of Ibn Sunni: “Glory be to the adored King, said three times.” It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i, from ‘Ali that the Prophet said it at the end of his Witr:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge in Your pleasure from Your anger, and I seek refuge in Your forgiveness from Your punishment. I seek refuge in You from Your (wrath). I cannot count the praises for You as You praise Yourself.”

 

Tirmidhi classifies it as a hasan hadith. Saying when going to bed and lying on the bed In Surah Ali Imran, verses 190-191, Allah says:

 

“Surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the difference between the night and the day are signs for those who understand. Who remember Allah while standing and sitting and lying down…”

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Hudhayfah and Abu Dhar that the Messenger of Allah, when he went to his bed, would say:

 

“O God, by your name I live and die.”

 

The Prophet taught it to Ali and Fatimah”:

 

“When you go to sleep, you should say Takbir thirty-nine times and glorify thirty-three kahi and glorify thirty-three kahmid.”

 

In one narration: “Tasbih thirty-four times.” In another narration: “Takbir thirty-four times.”

 

Ali said: I have not left it since I heard it from the Messenger of Allah Someone asked him: Was it also on the night of the battle of Shiffin? He replied: Also on the night of Shiffin.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger said:

 

“When any one of you goes to sleep, he should wipe his bed with the edge of his sarong, for he does not know if there may be dirt on it, and he should say: My Lord, with Your name I lay my side, and with Your name I carry it. If you take my life, then have mercy on me. If you spare him, then guard him as you guard your righteous servants.”

 

In one narration: “Shaking it three times.”

 

Through Aisha Bukhari and Muslim narrated that when going to sleep, every night the Prophet pressed his palms together, then exhaled while reading Surah Al-Ikhlas, Surah Al-Falag, and Surah An-Naas. Then rubbed his hands on the parts of his body that he could reach. Starting from the head, face and lower body parts. He does this three times.

 

It is narrated in Sahihain, from Abu Mas’ud Al-Anshari Al-Badri Ugbah bin Amr that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever recites the last two verses of surah al-Baqarah in one night, he has also been fulfilled by them.”

 

The scholars differed on the word “preserved.” Some say that they are protected from disasters. Some say it is fulfilled from the night prayer.

 

It was narrated in Sehihain, Al-Barra bin Azib that the Messenger said:

 

“When you come to your bed, then perform ablution as you would for prayer, then lie down on your right side and say: O Allah, I surrender myself to You and I submit my affairs to You and I bend my back to You in hope and fear of You. There is no refuge and no place of salvation other than You but to return to You. I believe in Your Book which You revealed and Your Prophet whom You sent.” When you die, die in a state of fitrah, and make it your last utterance.”

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Hafshah, Ummul mukminin that the Messenger of Allah when he wanted to sleep, put his right hand under his cheek, then said:

 

“O Allah, protect me from Your torment on the day You resurrect Your servants, recited three times.”

 

It was narrated in Sahih Muslim and Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah, from Abu Hurairah from the Prophet that when he went to sleep, he would say:

 

“O Allah, the owner of the heavens and the earth and the owner of the great Throne, our Lord and the Lord of all things, who split the seed and the seed, who revealed the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur’an, I seek refuge in You from the evil of all evil creatures whose lives are in Your hands. You are the first. Then there was nothing before You. You are the last. Therefore, there is nothing after You. Den You are the real one. Therefore, there is nothing above You. You are also the hidden one. Therefore, there is nothing below You. Pay off our debts and fulfill our needs.”

 

In Abu Daud’s narration: “Pay off my debts and meet my needs.”

 

It was narrated with a sahih chain of transmission in Suman Abu Daud and Nasa’i from Ali from the Messenger of Allah that when he went to sleep, he would say:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with Your Most Noble face and Your perfect kalmat, from the evil of Your creatures. O Allah, You forgive debts and sins. O Allah, Your army is not defeated and Your promise is not broken and no one’s efforts are worthwhile without Your determination. Glory be to You O Allah, with all praise to You.”

 

It was narrated in Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Anas , that the Messenger of Allah when he wanted to sleep, said:

 

“Praise be to Allah who gives us food and drink, and provides for us and gives us a home. How many people are unprovided for and homeless.”

 

Tirmidhi classified it as a Sahih hasan hadith. With a hasan isnad, Abu Daud narrated from Abu Al-Azhari”, that the Messenger of Allah, when he wanted to sleep, said:

 

“In the name of Allah I place my side. O Allah, forgive my sins and humiliate my demons, free my shackles and make me among the highest of the angels.”

 

It was narrated in Suran Abu Daud and Tirmidhi from Naufal Al-Shjai that he taught:

 

“Recite Surah Al-Kafirun, then go to sleep with it as the last recitation. For it frees from shirk.”

 

In his Musnad, Abi Ya’la Al-Mushili narrated from Ibn Abbas, from the Prophet, that he said:

 

“Shall I show you the sentence that will save you from associating partners with Allah? Recite Surah Al-Kafirun when you go to sleep.”

 

It was narrated with :sahih isnad in Sunan Abu Daud, from Ibn Umar that the Prophet, when he wanted to sleep, would say:

 

“Praise be to Allah who provides for me and gives me a home, gives me food and drink, who gives me bounty and gives me more, who gives me something and gives me more, praise be to Allah in every situation. O Allah, Master of all things and their king, and Lord of all things, I seek refuge with You from the fire of hell.”

 

It was narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, from Abi Said Al-Khudri from the Prophet that he said:

 

“Whoever, when going to bed, says: “I ask forgiveness of Allah, there is no god but He who lives and stands alone, and I repent to Him.” three times, Allah will forgive his sins, even if they are as many as the foam of the sea, even if they are as many as the stars, even if they are as many as the sand, even if they are as many as the treasures of the world.”

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud and others narrated from a man who was a companion of the Prophet.” He said: I was sitting near the Messenger of Allah when one of his companions came and said: O Messenger of Allah, I was stung by an animal last night so that I could not sleep until morning. What animal? asked the Messenger of Allah The man replied: A scorpion:

 

He said:

 

“Verily, if you say in the evening: I seek refuge with the perfect word of Allah from the evil of His creatures, nothing will harm you, insha Allah.”

 

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Anas that the Prophet advised a man: When going to bed, recite Surah Al-Hasr. And he said: “When you die, you will be a martyr or one of the dwellers of Paradise.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim from Ibn ‘Umar that he ordered a man to recite when he went to bed”:

 

“O Allah, You created my self and You draw it. For You is his life and security. If You bring him to life, then protect him. If You kill him, then forgive him. O Allah, I ask You for salvation.”

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi and Ibn Sunni from Shaddad ibn Aus that the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said:

 

“If a Muslim is about to fall asleep and recites a Surah from the Book of Allah when he gets into bed, Allah commands him not to let anything disturb him until he wakes up.” The isnaad is da’eef.

 

It is narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Jabir l that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Verily, when a man is about to retire, angels and devils fight over him. So the angel says: O Allah, end it with good. Then the devil says: End it with evil. When a person remembers Allah and falls asleep, the angels watch over him.”

 

It was narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Abdullah bin Amr bir Ash from the Messenger of Allah that when he lay down to sleep, he would say:

 

“O Allah, my Lord, in your name I place my side. So, forgive me my sins.”

 

It was narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Abu Umamah who said: I heard the Prophet say:

 

“Whoever lies down on his bed in a state of purity and remembers Allah until he is stricken with drowsiness and does not move for a moment in asking Allah for good in this world and the next, Allah will grant him.”

 

Aisha said: That the Messenger of Allah, when he went to sleep, would say:

 

“O Allah, bless me with my hearing and sight. Make them healthy and strong for me. Help me in the face of my enemy and show him my vengeance. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from debts and from hunger, for it is the worst of bedfellows.” (H.R. Ibn Sunni)

 

Ibn Sunni also narrated from Aisha who said: “From the time I met the Messenger of Allah dh until he left this world, when he went to sleep, he always asked Allah for protection from cowardice, laziness, boredom, stinginess, the ugliness of old age and bad views in family and property, the punishment of the grave and Satan and his shirk.”

 

It was narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from ‘Aa’ishah also that when she wanted to sleep, she would say:

 

“O Allah, I ask You for a dream that is good, true and not false, beneficial and not harmful.”

 

If he recites this prayer, he will not speak until the morning or wake up in the middle of the night.

 

Narrated by al-Imam al-Hafiz Abu Bakr ibn Abu Daud with isnad from ‘Ali : I do not agree with a reasonable person who goes to sleep before reciting the last three verses of Surah al-Baqarah.

 

He also narrated from ‘Ali: I do not agree with a reasonable Muslim who sleeps before reciting the verse of Kursi.

 

You should know that there are many traditions and narratives in this chapter. We hope that what we have mentioned is sufficient for the one who is guided to practice it. The most important thing is to practice all the dhikr mentioned in this section. If that is not possible, the most important ones should be practiced according to one’s ability.

 

The evil of sleeping without remembering Allah 

 

With a jayyid isnad, Abu Daud narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever sits in a place without remembering Allah is deficient in His sight. And whoever lies down on a bed without remembering Allah is deficient in His sight.”

 

Speech when getting up at night and going to bed afterward

 

You should know that there are two kinds of people who wake up at night. First, those who do not sleep afterward. The second is the one who wants to sleep afterward. For the latter, it is recommended to remember Allah until he falls asleep. There are many dhikr in this regard, including those mentioned in the first category.

 

It can also be found in Sahih Bukhari, from Ubadah bin Shamit that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever wakes up at night and says: “There is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner. He has all power and to Him belongs all praise. And He is all-powerful over all things. Praise be to Allah, Glory be to Allah. There is no God but Allah. Allah is the Greatest. There is no power but His help. Then say: O Allah, forgive me or supplicate, it will be granted to him. When he makes ablution, his prayer is accepted.”

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud from ‘Aisha that the Messenger of Allah, when he woke up at night, would say:

 

“There is no God but You. Glory be to You, O Allah. I ask you for forgiveness for my sins and I ask for your Mercy. O Allah, increase my knowledge and do not misguide my heart after You have guided me and grant me Your Mercy, surely You are the Bestower.”

 

It was narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Aisha who said: When the Messenger of Allah woke up at night, he would say:

 

“There is no God but Allah, the One and Only. Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that lies between them. The Mighty, the Forgiving.”

 

With a dhaif isnad, Ibn Sunni narrated from Abu Hurairah that he heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“If Allah, the Almighty, restores the life of a Muslim servant during the night (when he wakes up from sleep), and he praises Him, asks for forgiveness and supplicates to Him, He will grant it.”

 

With a jayyid isnad, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ibn Sunni narrated from Abu Hurairah , that the Messenger of Allah taught:

 

“When any one of you rises from sleep at night and wants to go back to sleep, let him wipe the edge of his sarong three times, for he does not know what remains there. When he lies down, he should say: O Allah, with Your name I lay my side, and with Your name I lift it up. If You take away my life, then have mercy on him. If You restore him, then guard him as You guard Your righteous servants.” Tirmidhi categorizes this Hadith as hasan.

 

In his book, Al-Muwaththa’, Imam Malik narrated from Abi Darda’ who said: When the Messenger woke up in the middle of the night, :

 

saying: “The eyes close and the stars disappear, while You are alive and always awake.”

 

Remarks if you can’t sleep

 

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, that Zaid bin Tsabit complained to the Prophet because he could not sleep. Hearing that, he said:

 

O Allah, the stars have disappeared and the eyes have closed, while You are alive and always awake, unable to fall asleep. O Lord of the living and the waking, still my night and sleep my eyes.” So I said so, and Allah took the complaint away from me.”

 

It was narrated from Muhammad bin Yahya bin Hibban that Khalid bin Walid, complained to the Messenger of Allah for not sleeping. So, he told him to seek refuge with Allah in his perfect words, from His anger and the evil of His servants and from the temptations of the devils and their presence.

 

It is narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, from Buraidah , that Khalid bin Walid complained to the Prophet O Messenger of Allah, I cannot sleep at night. So, he said:

 

“When you go to sleep, say: O Allah, Lord of the seven heavens and all that is under them and Lord of the earth and all that it contains and Lord of the devil and all that he leads astray, be Thou my protector from all the evils of Thy creatures, so that none of them may trouble me and drive me away. Mighty indeed is Your protection and glorious is Your praise. There is no God but You.”

 

Speech if you feel fear in your sleep

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Sunni and others, from Amr bin Shuaib, from his father, from his grandfather, that the Messenger of Allah taught them to say in times of fear:

 

“I seek refuge with the perfect sentence of Allah, from His anger and the evil of His servants, and from the temptation of the devil and his presence.”

 

Abdullah ibn Amru taught these words to his sons who were of sound mind, while those who were not of sound mind were written down and hung around their necks.

 

It was narrated by Ibn Sunni that a man came to the Prophet complaining that he was afraid in his sleep. So he said:

 

“When you go to sleep, say: I seek refuge with the perfect word of Allah, from His anger and the evil of His servants, and from the temptation of the devil and his presence. When a person says this, his fear disappears.”

 

Saying if you had a good or bad dream

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Abi Said Al-Khudri that he heard the Prophet say:

 

“If any one of you sees in a dream something that he likes, then indeed it is from Allah Praise Him for it and tell of it.”

 

In one narration: “So do not mention it except to those who like it. If you see something else that you dislike, then it is from the devil, and seek refuge from its evil. Do not mention it to anyone, for surely dreams do not harm him.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Oatadah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Good dreams are from Allah and wishful thinking is from the devil. So whoever sees something he dislikes, let him blow to his left side three times and seek refuge from the devil, surely dreams cannot harm him.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Jabir , that the Messenger of Allah taught:

 

“If any one of you sees in a dream something that he dislikes, let him spit on his left side three times, and seek refuge with Allah from the devil three times, and move from the place where he was sleeping.”

 

Through Abu Hurairah l Tirmidhi relates the Prophet’s words:

 

“If any one of you sees in a dream something that he dislikes, then do not tell it to anyone and get up and pray.” Narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Abu Hurairah, from the Prophet:

 

“If any one of you sees in a dream something he dislikes, let him spit three times, then say: O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the deeds of the devil and the evil of wishful thinking. Then, the dream will not harm anything.”

 

Remarks when hearing stories about good dreams

 

It is narrated in Ibn Sunni that the Prophet, when told of a good dream, said:

 

“The good you see and the good that will happen.”

 

In one narration: “The good you get and the bad you avoid. Good for us and bad for our enemies, and all praise be to Allah, the Lord of all worlds.”

 

The recommendation to pray and make istighfar in the second half of every night

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Jabir bin Abdillah from the Messenger of Allah that he said:

 

“Our Lord descends every night to the world when the last third of the night remains, and calls out: Whoever prays to Me, I will surely grant. Whoever asks Me, I give him. Whoever asks Me for forgiveness, I forgive him.”

 

In Muslim’s narration:

 

“God descends to the heavens of the world every night, when the first third of the night has passed, and cries out: I am the King, I am the King. Whoever prays to Me, I grant him. Whoever asks Me, I give him. Whoever asks Me for forgiveness, I forgive him. Thus it continues until dawn breaks.”

 

In one narration: “If a part of the night or two-thirds of it passes.”

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Amr bin Absah , that he heard the Prophet say:

 

“The closest distance between God and His servant is in the last half of the night. So, if you are able to remember Allah at that time then do so.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan Sahih.

 

The privilege of prayer at night

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Jabir bin Abdillah who heard the Prophet say:

 

“Verily, there is a time in the night when, if it coincides with a Muslim asking Allah for good from the worldly life and the Hereafter, Allah will grant him, and it is found in every night.”

 

Asmaul Husna

Allah said:

 

“Allah has names, so call Him by them…” (Q.S. Al-A’raaf: 180) The Prophet said?’:

 

“Verily, Allah has ninety-nine names, one hundred minus one. Whoever counts them memorizes them and enters Paradise. He is odd/single and loves odd numbers, He is Allah, there is no God but Him, the Compassionate, the Merciful, the King, the Worshipped, the Salvation, the Security, the Watcher, the Mighty, the Overcomer, the Great, the Creator, the Unequaled Creator, the One who gives form and shape, the Forgiving, the Conquering, the Giver, the Provider, the Opener of Mercy, the All-Knowing, the Narrower of Provision, who expands sustenance, who lowers, who raises, who honors, who humiliates, who hears, who sees, who decides, who is just, who is gracious, who knows everything, who is forgiving, who is great, who is forgiving, who rewards, who is high, who is great, who is guarding, who gives help, who is sufficient, who is noble, who is gracious, who is watching, who answers prayers, who is extensive, who is wise, who loves, the All-Muha, who raises up, the All-Witnessing, the All-Righteous, who conducts all affairs, the All-Powerful, the All-Solid, who helps, the All-Praised, who records, who begins, who repeats life, who brings life, who puts to death, who lives, who stands alone, who is rich, the All-Glorious, the singular, the place of dependence, the ruling, the All-Powerful, who precedes, who delays, the beginning, the end, the real, the hidden, who chooses and manages, the Most High, the one who does good, the one who accepts repentance, the one who avenges evil, the Forgiving, the compassionate, the one who has power, the one who has glory and majesty, the one who is just, the one who gathers, the Rich, the one who gives wealth, the one who hinders, the one who causes harm, the one who causes benefit, the light, the one who guides, the one who gives guidance, the incomparable, the Eternal, the one who remains alive, the one who gives guidance, the Patient.”

 

READING AL-QUR’AN

 

Know that reciting the Qur’an is the northernmost remembrance and requires careful recitation. The recitation has a method and a purpose. Before this, I have compiled a concise book covering the essential method for the reader, its characteristics and matters related to it. It is not proper for the reader of the Qur’ān to neglect them. I have shown in this book its purposes in a concise manner. One should always recite it night and day, while traveling and at home. The early scholars had different customs as to the time of recitation. Some of them completed it once every two months. Some completed it once a month. Some completed it once every ten nights. Some complete it every eight nights. Some complete it once every seven nights. This is what most of the sa/af scholars do. Some complete it every six nights, five nights, four nights and many complete it every three nights, as well as every day and night. Some people even recite it twice a day and night. Others recite it three times a day and night. Some people recite it eight times a night, four times at night and four times during the day, among whom was the noble Ibn Al-Katib As-Sufi. This is the most recitations that have reached us in one day and one night.

 

Ibn Abu Daud reported that Mujahid completed the Qur’an in Ramadan between Maghrib and Isha. Those who completed the Qur’an in one rak’ah were countless, including Usman ibn Affan, Tamim AdDaari and Said ibn Jubayr. All of them differed according to their circumstances.

 

A group of early scholars disliked reciting it in one day and one night. The evidence for that is what was narrated with a sahih isnad in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and others, from ‘Abdullāh ibn Amr ibn Ash, that the Prophet said:

 

“One who recites the Qur’an for less than three days cannot be understood.”

 

As for the time of beginning and reciting, it is up to the reader’s choice. If one were to recite it once a week, then Usman ibn Affan would start on Friday night and recite it on Thursday night.

 

In his book, Ihya “Ulumuddin, Imam Al-Ghazali said: What is better is to recite it once at night and once during the day. Making the daytime recitation on Monday in the Fajr prayer and making the nighttime recitation on Friday night in the Maghrib prayer or afterwards.

 

It was narrated by Ibn Abu Daud that Amr bin Murroh (a tabiin) said: They used to recite the Qur’an from the beginning of the night or from the beginning of the day.

 

Talhah bin Musharraf (a tabiin) said: Whoever completes the Qur’an at any time of the day, the angels will pray for him until the evening. And whoever completes the Qur’an at any time of the night, the angels pray for him until the morning.

 

Narrated in Musnad Ad-Darimi, from Saad bin Abi Waqqash&: “If a person’s recitation of the Qur’an coincides with the beginning of the night, the angels pray for him until the morning. If his recitation coincides with the end of the night, the angels pray for him until the evening.” AdDarimi classifies this as a hasan tradition.

 

You should know that the best recitation is during prayer. The Shafi’i and other schools of thought state that the length of standing in prayer while reciting the Qur’an is better than the length of prostration. As for reciting the Qur’an outside of prayer, it is best to recite it at night, up to halfway through the night. The latter is better than the former. And reciting the Qur’an between Magrih and Isha is recommended.

 

As for reciting the Qur’an during the day, the best time is Fajr. There is no impropriety in reciting at any time, even at times that are forbidden for prayer. The best days to choose are Friday, Monday, Thursday, the day of ‘Arafah, the first ten days of the month of Zulhijjah, the month of Ramadan and its last ten days.

 

The procedure for reciting the Qur’an and all that goes with it

 

It is narrated in Musnad Ad-Darimi from Ibn ‘Abbas that he ordered people to observe those who recited the Qur’an. Whenever someone wanted to complete it, he would inform Ibn ‘Abbas and he would watch.

 

It was narrated by Ibn Abu Daud, with a valid isnad, that Oatadah said: When Anas ibn Malik completed the Qur’an, he would gather his family and pray.

 

Al-Hakam bin Utaibah said: Mujahid and Ubaidah bin Abi Lubabah came to me and said: We have come to you because we want to recite the Qur’an, and supplication is mustajab at the time of reciting the Qur’an. In one of the sahih narrations: That mercy descends at the time of reciting the Qur’an. Mujahid said: People gather at the time of reciting the Qur’an.

 

It is highly recommended to pray when reciting the Qur’an. It is narrated in Musnad Ad-Darimi, from Humaid Al-Araj Whoever recites the Qur’an and then prays, his prayer will be secured by four thousand angels.

 

It is necessary to pray continuously with some important and comprehensive phrases. All or most of the supplications should be about the interests of the Last Day and the Muslims, and the good of their leaders. In addition to other necessary matters, it is also necessary to supplicate for them to be guided to do acts of obedience and avoid disobedience. When the recitation is finished, it is recommended to start again immediately, as recommended by the salaf. They argue with the hadith of Anas dp that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The best of deeds is to finish and leave. Someone asked: What are these two? He replied: Starting the recitation of the Qur’an and its completion.”

 

The exhortation to maintain the recitation of the Qur’an and the warning not to let it be forgotten

 

Narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Musa AlAl-Ashari from the Prophet he said:

 

“Keep reading the Qur’an. For, by Allah who is the master

 

Muhammad’s life, he escapes more easily than a bound camel.”

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Verily, the example of the reader of the Qur’an is like a bound camel. If he is kept under control, he will be able to hold it. If he lets go, the camel will run away.”

 

Through Anas, Abu Daud and Tirmizi narrated his words:

 

“I was shown the merits of my Ummah up to the dung that one removes from the magid, and I was shown the sins of my Ummah. Then I saw no greater sin than a Qur’anic surah or verse that a person memorizes and then forgets.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Musnad Ad-Darimi, from Saad bin Ubadah from the Prophet that he said:

 

“Whoever recites the Qur’an and then forgets it, then on the Day of Resurrection he will meet Allah in a state of lack of blessing.”

 

Some issues and procedures that readers of the Qur’an should be aware of

 

First, we are told to be sincere in reciting it and only seek the pleasure of Allah. Not aiming for anything other than that. Also to be polite towards the Qur’an and to contemplate that he is speaking in the presence of Allah and reading His book.

 

The reader of the Qur’an should clean his teeth with an aroq or other tooth-stick before starting to recite. In reciting it, one should be solemn and contemplate on it. Because, with it the chest becomes spacious and the heart becomes bright.

 

It is advisable to be able to cry and pretend to cry if you cannot cry, because crying is a trait of the arrfim and a signal of the righteous servants of Allah.

 

Allah said:

 

“And they fell prostrate and wept, and their solemnity increased.” (Q.S. Al-1sra’:109)

 

Reading from the Mus-haf is better than reading by rote. This is the well-known view of the salaf, and it is not absolute. If reading by rote causes more reflection and solemnity than reading from the Mus-haf, then reading from the Mus-haf is preferable. If it is the same, then from the Mushaf is better. This is what the salaf meant.

 

There are many narratives about the virtue of raising the voice in recitation and the virtue of israr (reciting softly). The scholars are of the opinion that the israr is more likely to prevent riya. For those who are worried about that, the israr is better. For those who are not worried about that, raising the voice is better, so long as it does not disturb others, such as those who are praying or those who are sleeping.

 

The evidence for the virtue of raising the voice is that it is more widely practiced, and because its benefits extend to others. In this way it can awaken the reader’s heart and focus his mind, drive away drowsiness and increase activity, and awaken others who are inattentive.

 

If reciting aloud is followed by these intentions, then this is preferable. It is recommended to raise the voice, so long as it does not spoil the recitation. Saying: I forgot this verse or this Surah. Rather, it should be said: I have been made to forget that verse, or I have omitted it.

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Mas’ud that the Messenger said:

 

“Let not one of you say, I have forgotten such and such a verse. Rather, ta has been made to forget.”

 

On one occasion, Bukhari and Muslim also narrated:

 

“It is bad for the one who says, I forgot such and such a verse. Rather, (say) he has been made to forget.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from ‘Aisha that the Prophet heard a man reciting the Qur’an. He said:

 

“May Allah have mercy on him, he has reminded me of a verse that I have dropped.”

 

In one narration: “I have been made to forget that verse.”

 

As we pointed out that recitation of the Qur’an is the most emphasized remembrance, it is worth continuing to do so. Do not go a day and night without reciting a few verses.

 

It was narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Anas that the Messenger of Allah dh said:

 

“Whoever recites fifty verses a day and a night is not considered negligent. Whoever recites one hundred verses, he will be counted among those who are always obedient. Whoever recites two hundred verses, he will not be protested against by the Qur’an on the Day of Judgment. Whoever recites five hundred verses, he will be assigned a weight of reward.”

 

Through Abu Hurairah Ibn Sunni also narrated his words:

 

“Whoever recites ten verses is not written as negligent.”

 

There are many traditions regarding the recitation of surahs in a day and night, including: Yasin, Tabarak (Al-Mulk) Al-Wagiah and Ad-Dukhan.

 

Still through Abu Hurairah Ibn Sunni narrated the words of the Prophet :

 

“Whoever recites Surah Yasin one day and one night seeking the face (pleasure) of Allah, his sins will be forgiven.”

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi and Ibn Sunni, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever recites Surah AdDukhan on Friday night will have his sins forgiven in the morning.”

 

Through Ibn Mas’ud, Ibn Sunni, Baihaqi, Abu Ya’la and others narrated the words of the Prophet:

 

“Whoever recites Surah Al-Wagiah every night, poverty will not befall him.”

 

Jabir said: That the Messenger of Allah did not go to sleep every night before he recited A/f lam mim tanzilul Kitab and Surah Tabarak (al-Mulk).

 

The Prophet also said:

 

“Whoever recites Surah Az-Zalzalah in one night is like reciting half of the Qur’an. Whoever recites Surah Al-Kafirun is equivalent to reciting a quarter of the Qur’an. Whoever recites Surah Al-Ikhlas is equivalent to reciting one-third of the Qur’an.”

 

In one narration: “Whoever recites the verse of Kursi and the beginning of Surah Ha’mim will be protected on that day from every evil.”

 

PRAISE TO GOD

 

Allah said:

 

“Say, praise be to Allah and salvation be upon the chosen servants of Allah…” (Q.S. An-Naml: 59)

 

In the last verse of Surah An-Naml, it states:

 

“Say, praise be to Allah, and He will show you the signs of His power….” (Q.S. An-Nami: 93)

 

Allah also said:

 

“Say, praise be to Allah who has no children….” (Q.S. Al-lsra’: 111)

 

In other words:

 

If you are grateful, I will increase you…” (Q.S. Ibrahim: 7)

 

Allah explains:

 

“Remember to mention Me, and I will remember to mention you, and give thanks to Me, and do not deny Me.” (Q.S.Al-Baqarah:152)

 

There are many verses that explain the command to praise and give thanks and its virtues. Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Ibn Majah and Musnad Abi Uwanah Al-Asfarayini, narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Hurairah, from the Messenger of Allah:

 

“Any important business that does not begin with Alhamdulhilah will have few blessings.

 

In one narration, it is mentioned:

 

“Any conversation that does not begin with Alhamdulillah will have a lesser blessing.”

 

These phrases are found in Al-Arbain, by al-Hafidh Abdul Kadir Ar-Rahawi, and it is a hasan hadith. The scholars said: It is recommended to begin with Alhamdulillah for every author, student, teacher, preacher, suitor, and in dealing with other important matters. Imam Shafi’i said: I like it when people begin their sermons and any business they intend to do by praising Allah and praising him and invoking blessings upon the Messenger of Allah. It is known that saying Alhamdulillah is preferred when starting any important business. It is also recommended to say Alhamdulillah after eating and drinking, when sneezing, when proposing to a woman, during a marriage contract and after leaving the restroom.

 

Alhamdulillah is a pillar of the Friday sermon. The khutbah is not valid without saying it. Alhamduhllah is obligatory and it is preferable to add praise. Details are found in the books of fiqh. It is required to say it in Arabic.

 

It is recommended to end the supplication with Alhamdulillah Rabbit Alamin and also to begin it with Alhamdulillah. Allah says:

 

The end of their speech is Alhamdulillahi Rabbil Alamin (praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds).” (O.S.Nun:10)

 

It is advisable to praise Allah at the time of pleasure, relief from hardship or calamity, whether it happens to him, his friends or the Muslims.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Hurairah, that on the night of /sr#, the Prophet was shown two glasses containing wine and milk. So, he took the one with milk. Seeing this, Gabriel said: Praise be to Allah for pointing you to fitrah/ purity. If you had taken the one containing alcohol, your people would have gone astray.

 

It was narrated in Tirmidhi and others, from Abu Musa AlAshari that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“When a human child dies, Allah asks His angels: Have you taken the life of My servant’s son? They answer: Yes. Allah asks: Have you killed the fruit of his heart? They replied: Yes. Then Allah asked: What does My servant say? They replied: He praised You and said: Inna Lillahi wa inna ilaihi rajiun. Then Allah said: Build for My servant a house in Paradise and call it baitul hamdi (the house of praise).” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

It was narrated from Abi Nasrin At-Yammar, from Muhammad bin Nudhar who said: Adam said: “O my Lord, You have occupied me with the work of my hands something that is a collection of praises and blessings. So, Allah revealed to him: O Adam, when it is morning, say three times and when it is evening, say three times: Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds. Praise that is sufficient for His enjoyment and worthy of His addition. That is the collection of praise and tasbih.

 

SALAWAT UPON RASULULLAH

 

Allah said:

 

“Verily, Allah and His angels offer salawar (mercy) upon the Prophet. O you who believe, salawat (ask for mercy) and salam (well-being) for him.” (Q.S. Al-‘Ahzab: 56)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Ash, that he heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“Whoever salutes me with one salutation, Allah salutes him with ten.”

 

It was narrated in the book of Tirmidhi”, from Abdullah bin Mas’ud that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The best person for me on the Day of Resurrection will be the one who salutes me the most.”

 

Tirmidhi classifies it as a hasan tradition.

 

With authentic isnad, Abu Daud, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah narrated from Aus bin Aus that the Messenger said:

 

“Verily, your best day is Friday. So offer salawat to me on that day, for your salawat is shown to me. The Companions asked: O Messenger of Allah, how can our salawat be shown to you when you are worn out? The Messenger of Allah replied: Verily, Allah has forbidden the bodies of the Prophets to the earth (so that they remain intact).”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, at the end of the book of Hajj, in the chapter on grave pilgrimage, with a sahih isnad from Abu Hurairah, that the Messenger said:

 

“Do not make my grave a place of celebration and salute me. For your salawat will reach me wherever you are.”

 

Also with sahih report, Abu Daud narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

“No one salutes me, but Allah returns my soul to me, so that I can answer his salutation.”

 

The command to say salawat and salam when hearing the name of the Prophet It is narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, from Abu Hurairah 4g that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“It is despicable for someone to hear my name mentioned without saying salawat to me.”

 

Tirmidhi classifies it as a hasan hadith. With a jayyid isnad, Ibn Sunni narrated from Anas that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever hears my name mentioned, let him say salawat to me. For whoever salutes me once, Allah salutes him ten times.”

 

With a dhaif isnad, Ibn Sunni narrated from Jabir that the Prophet asserted:

 

“Whoever hears my name mentioned and does not say salawat to me is doomed.”

 

It is narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, from Ali that the Messenger of Allah said”:

 

“A miser is one who hears my name mentioned and does not say salawat to me.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan Sahih Hadith.

 

Regarding this hadith, Tirmidhi said: It was narrated from one of the scholars that if a person says salawat to the Prophet once in a gathering, it is sufficient for him as long as he remains in the gathering. ..:

 

The nature of salawat to the Prophet

 

When someone says salawat to the Prophet, he should combine salawat and tas/im, and not abbreviate either of them. So, do not say “sallallahu alaihi” and “alaihi salam” alone.

 

It is advisable for the reader of the hadith and others like it, when mentioning the Messenger of Allah, to raise his voice with salawat and tas/im, and not too loudly.

 

Among those who narrated this are al-Hafidh Abu Bakr al-Khatib al-Bagdadi and others. The scholars from the companions of Imam Nawawi and others have established that it is recommended to raise the voice with salawat to the Messenger of Allah in talbiyah.

 

Regarding opening the prayer with Alhamdulillah and salawat to the Prophet

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i, from Fudhalah bin Ubaid that the Messenger of Allah heard a man praying without glorifying Allah and without saluting the Prophet. So he said:

 

“This man is in a hurry. Then you call him and say to him, or else: When any one of you says salawat, let him begin by glorifying his Lord and praising him then say salawat and salam to the Prophet then pray after that as he wishes.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

Narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, from Umar bin Khattab : Verily, supplication is suspended between the heavens and the earth, and nothing rises from it until the salutation to the Prophet is said.

 

The scholars are unanimous on the recommendation to begin the supplication with Alhamdulillah and praise it, then say salawat to the Prophet. And so is ending the supplication with both.

 

Regarding salawat to the prophets and their families

 

The scholars are unanimously agreed that salawat to our Prophet Muhammad is recommended, as are those who regard it as permissible and recommended for all the prophets and angels in isolation. As for other than the prophets, the majority of scholars are of the view that salawat should not be said to them at the beginning. So it is not said: Abu Bakr

 

There is a dispute about this prohibition. Some of Imam Nawawi’s companions said that it is forbidden. Some said that it is makrooh karohah tanzih, and many were of the view that it is not makrooh. The correct view, which is the view of the majority of scholars, is that it is makrooh because it is the propagation of the innovators, and we are forbidden to follow their propagation. And makrooh is that which involves a specific prohibition. What is supported in this case is that the salawat is specific to the prophets.

 

It is recommended to pray for the pleasure and mercy of the Companions and the Tabiin, their successors from among the scholars and the righteous.

 

Then it says: Radhiyallahu anhu or rahimahullah. With regard to the view of some scholars that the word ‘radhiyallahu anhu’ is specific to the Companions, and only ‘rahimahullah’ to others, this is not agreed upon.

 

The correct view is that the majority of scholars are of the opinion that it is recommended, and there is a lot of evidence for this. When a son of a Companion is mentioned, it is said: Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him), as well as Ibn ‘Abbas, Ibn Zubayr, Ibn Jakfar, Usamah ibn Zayd and others, which includes fathers and sons.

 

SOME REMEMBRANCES AND PRAYERS ON CERTAIN OCCASIONS

 

You should know that what I mentioned in the previous sections is repeated every day and night according to what has been explained. As for what I am mentioning now, it is the remembrances and prayers at various times because of the causes that exist. Hence, there is no need to rely on their order. Istikharah Prayer

 

Narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Jabir bin Abdillah who said: That the Messenger of Allah taught us Istikharah in all matters, like teaching us the recitation of a surah from the Qur’an. He said:

 

“When one of you wants to do something, he should pray two rak’ahs after the obligatory prayer. Then say: O Allah, I ask You for choice by Your knowledge, and I ask You for decision by Your power. I ask You for Your great virtue. Verily, You are able and I am not able, and You know and I do not know, and You are the Knower of the unseen. O Allah, if You know that this affair is good for me, in religion, livelihood and the end of my affairs, or the near future and the future of it, then ordain it and make it easy for me, then make my career in it. “If You know that this affair is bad for me, in religion, livelihood and the end of my affairs, or for the near future and the future of it, then remove it from me and do not ordain good for me anywhere, then make me content with it and mention its necessity.”

 

The scholars said: Istikharah is recommended with these prayers and supplications. The prayer is two rak’ahs as a najilah prayer. Obviously, it can be done with two rak’ahs of sunnah rawatib or tahiyat of the mosque or anything else.

 

In the first rak’ah after Surah Al-Fatihah, recite Surah Al-Kafirun. In the second rak’ah, recite Surah Al-Ikhlas. If you are unable to pray, Istikharah is done by praying.

 

It is advisable to start the supplication and end it with Alhamdulillah and salawat and tas/im to the Messenger of Allah. It should be noted that Istikharah is recommended in all matters, as the text of the sahih hadith makes clear. When you have finished istikhaarah,

 

He did what expanded his chest.

 

It was narrated in Tirmidhi, with a dhaif isnad from Abu Bakr, that the Prophet, when he wanted to do something, would say:

 

“O Allah, choose for me.”

 

It is narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Anas , that the Messenger of Allah taught him:

 

“O Anas, if you wish to do anything, then ask your Lord for a choice seven times, then correct in your heart which is more stable, for surely good lies there.” The isnad is gharib.

 

SOME REMEMBRANCES TO BE RECITED IN TIMES OF TROUBLE AND WHEN AFFLICTED WITH CALAMITY

 

Prayer in times of distress and when facing important matters It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said in times of distress:

 

“There is no God but Allah, the Great and Forgiving. There is no God but Allah, the Lord of the Majestic Throne. There is no God but Allah the Master of the heavens and the earth and the Noble Throne.”

 

It is narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, from Anas of the Prophet that when he faced an important matter, he would say:

 

“O Lord who lives and is always awake (taking care of His servants), with Your mercy I seek help.”

 

It is narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet when facing an important matter, raised his head to the sky, saying: “Glory be to Allah, the Great.”

 

When he made supplication, he would say: “O Lord who lives and is always awake (taking care of His creatures).”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, that Anas said: That most of the supplications of the Messenger of Allah were:

 

“O Allah, grant us good in this world and the next, and protect us from the torment of hellfire.”

 

Muslim added in his narration: Anas used to say the supplication when he wanted to pray.

 

It was narrated in Sunan Nasa’i and the book of Ibn Sunni, from Abdullah bin Jakfar, from ‘Ali who said: The Messenger of Allah taught me these words and told me whenever there was difficulty to say them:

 

“There is no God but Allah, the Gracious and the Great, Glory be to Him. Glory be to Allah, the Lord of the great Throne. Praise be to Allah, Lord of all worlds.”

 

It is Abdullah bin Jakfar teaching and exhaling to the feverish patient and his married daughter.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Abi Bakrah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The prayers of a person in distress are: O Allah, I seek Your mercy, so do not leave me to myself for a moment, be kind to me in all my affairs. There is no God but You.”

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Ibn Majah, from Asma bint Umais who said: Rasulullah dh said to me:

 

“Shall I teach you some words to recite in times of distress? Allah, Allah my Lord, I do not associate You with anything.”

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Abu Oatadah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever recites the verse of Kursi and the end of Surah Al-Baqarah in times of distress, Allah will help him. Through Saad bin Abi Waqqash , Ibn Sunni also narrated this saying:

 

“I know of a sentence that no one who is afflicted with distress utters but his distress is relieved, and that is the sentence of my brother Yunus (So he cried out in the darkness: There is no God but Thee, Glory be to Thee, surely I am one of those who do amaya).”

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi from Saad bin Abi Waqqash that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The prayer of Zinnun (Prophet Yunus) when he prayed to his Lord, while he was in the belly of a whale: There is no God but You, Glory to You. Verily, I am one of the wrongdoers. No one who prays with him will escape being answered.”

 

Speech in times of fear

 

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Tsauban , that the Prophet if he was afraid of something, then said:

 

“He is Allah, Allah my Lord, there is no partner for Him.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Amr bin Shuaib, from his father, from his grandfather, that the Messenger of Allah taught them a few sentences in times of fear:

 

I seek refuge with the perfect words of Allah from His anger and the evil of His servants, from the temptation of the devils and their presence.”

 

Speech when afflicted with distress or grief

 

It was narrated by Ibn Sunni, from Abu Musa Al-Ashari that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever is afflicted with distress or grief, let him pray these words: I am Your servant, Your servant’s son, Your servant’s son, in Your grasp, my life is in Your hands, Your law applies to me, Your judgment on me is just. I ask You by every name of Yours by which You have named Yourself, or You have revealed it in Your book, or You know it Yourself in the occultation by Your side, that You make the Qur’ān the light of my chest, the peace of my day, the cessation of my sorrow and the disappearance of my distress. A man said: O Messenger of Allah, the fool is the one who reduces these words. He said: Yes, so recite them and teach them. Whoever utters them expecting what they contain, Allah will remove his grief and increase his joy.”

 

Sayings when disaster strikes

 

It is narrated in Ibn Sunni’s book from ‘Ali that the Messenger of Allah said to him:

 

“O Ah, shall I teach you the words that you say when facing calamity? I replied: Yes, Allah has made me your defender. He said: When you face calamity, then say: In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Merciful. There is no power except with the help of Allah, the Most High and Great. Indeed, Allah removes with it, the kinds of trials that He has given.”

 

Speech when afraid of a people

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud and Nasa’i narrated from Abu Musa Al-Ashari that the Prophet, when he feared a people, would say:

 

“O Allah, we make You their adversary and we seek refuge in You from their evils.”

 

Speech when afraid of the king or ruler

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Ibn Umar, that the Messenger said: When you fear the king or others, then say:

 

“There is no God but Allah, the Forgiving and the Wise. Glory be to Allah, Master of the seven heavens and Master of the great Throne. There is no God but You, mighty is Your protection, glorious is Your praise.”

 

Speech when seeing an enemy

 

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Anas he said: We were with the Prophet in a battle. Then he met the enemy, so I heard him say:

 

“O Lord of the Day of Resurrection, to You I worship and to You I seek help. So I saw those people falling down beaten by angels from the front and from the back.”

 

Saying if the devil comes to him or fears him

 

Allah said:

 

“Perhaps the devil comes to tempt you, so seek refuge in Allah. Verily, He is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.” (Q.S. Al-Araaf: 200)

 

In other words:

 

“When you recite the Qur’an, we make between you and those who have no faith in the Hereafter, a closed wall.” (Q.S. Al-Isra’:45)

 

So one should seek refuge in Allah, then recite the verse that is easy for him.

 

Narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abi Darda’, who said: The Messenger of Allah was praying, so we heard him say: I seek refuge with Allah from you. Then he said: I curse you with the curse of Allah, three times, and spread his hands as if he were taking something.

 

When he finished praying, we said: O Messenger of Allah, you said something in the prayer that we never heard before, and we saw you spread your hands. He said:

 

“Verily the enemy of Allah, the devil, came with a fiery torch to strike me in the face. So I said: I seek refuge in Allah from you, three times, then I said: I curse you with the perfect curse of Allah. So he retreated three times. Then I wanted to take it. By Allah, had it not been for the supplication of my brother Solomon, he would have been bound to be the plaything of the children of Medina.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Sahih ibn Abi Salih, that he said: I was sent by my father to the Banu Harisah. With me went a slave (or friend). Suddenly a voice called his name from the direction of the wall, he turned his head in that direction and found nothing. So, I told my father about it. My father said: If you thought you would encounter this, then I would not have sent you. However, if you hear the sound, then call for the call to prayer. For I heard Abu Hurairah reporting from the Messenger of Allah who said: “Verily, the devil runs when the call to prayer is made.”

 

Speech when facing heavy business

 

It was narrated in Sahih Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

“The strong believer is better and more favored by Allah than the weak believer, and each has his strengths. Strive for what is good for you, seek help from Allah and do not be weak. When something happens to you, do not say: Had I done this, such and such would have happened. Rather, say: “Allah has predestined, and what He willed He has done. For indeed, ‘if only’ opens the practice of the devil.”

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Auf bin Malik that the Prophet decided a case between two men. The one who lost said: Allah is sufficient for me and He is the best of those who deal with So the Prophet said:

 

“Verily, Allah disapproves of carelessness. Rather, let you do things reasonably. If you find it hard, then say: Allah is sufficient for me, and He is the best of caretakers.”

 

Speech when finding difficulties in affairs

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Anas that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“O Allah, there is no ease except that which You make easy, and if You will, the hard and hilly land You can make flat.”

 

Saying if life is difficult It was narrated in Ibn Sunni from Ibn Umar that the Prophet said:

 

“What prevents one of you, if life is difficult for him, from saying when he leaves his house: In the name of Allah (I surrender to Allah) my self, my property and my religion.

 

O Allah, make me content with Your decision and bless me in what is destined for me, that I may not hasten what You delay and delay what You hasten.”

 

Speech to reject accidents

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Anas bin Malik that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Allah does not give a man the pleasure of a wife, property and children, and then say: What Allah wills, there is no power except with His help, then he will have no accident but death.”

 

Remarks when afflicted with calamity

 

Allah said:

 

“.. Give good news to those who are patient. (Those) who, when afflicted with calamity, say: Surely we belong to Allah and to Him we shall return. They shall have the peace and mercy of their Lord, and they are those who are guided.” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah: 155-157)

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Let one of you attribute to Allah everything, even the corruption of his sand, for it is a calamity.”

 

Remarks when debt is not paid

 

It is narrated in Tirmidhi from ‘Ali that a mukatab (who wanted to redeem himself from slavery) came to him and said: I am unable to redeem myself, so help me. I said: Will you teach me a few sentences that the Messenger of Allah taught me. If you had a debt the size of a mountain, Allah would have paid it off for you. Say:

 

“O Allah, suffice me with what is lawful without what is unlawful, and suffice me with Your virtues without anything other than You.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

Saying when you are afraid of being alone Narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Al-Walid bin Walid he said: O Messenger of Allah, I am afraid of being alone. He said:

 

“When you go to sleep, say: “I seek refuge with the perfect words of Allah, from His anger and punishment and the evil of His servants and from the temptations of the devils and their presence. So, they cannot harm you or come near you.”

 

Al-Barra bin Azib: There came a man who complained to the Messenger of Allah that he was afraid of being alone. So he said:

 

“Say often: “Glory be to the adored King, Lord of the angels and spirits, You have ruled over the heavens and the earth with majesty and power. If a person says it, his fear will cease.”

 

The speech of one who is anxious

 

Allah said:

 

“Perhaps the devil comes to tempt you, so seek refuge in Allah. Verily, He is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.” (Q.S. Fusshilat: 36)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger said:

 

“Satan comes to one of you and says: Who created this and who created int, until it is said: Who created your Lord? When it reaches the siru, then seek refuge in Allah and stop.”

 

In a sahih narration:

 

“People ask each other questions, until it is said: This is a creature created by Allah, so who created Allah? Whoever experiences that, let him say: I believe in Allah and His Messengers.”

 

It was narrated by Ibn Sunni from ‘Aisha that the Prophet taught:

 

“Whoever encounters this waswaas (as mentioned above), let him say: We believe in Allah and His messengers, three times, for surely it can disappear from him.”

 

Narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Usman bin Abi Al-Ash who said: O Messenger of Allah, verily the devil has intervened between me, my prayer and my recitation which is confused over me. So, the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“That is the devil named Khinzab. When you feel it, then seek refuge in Allah from it and spit to your left three times. So, I did so, and Allah removed the disturbance from me.”

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, with a jayyid isnad, from Rumail: I asked Ibn Abbas: What is it that is in my chest? Ibn Abbas asked: What is it? I replied: By Allah, I cannot say. Ibn Abbas asked: Is it some kind of doubt? He laughed and said again: No one was saved, until Allah revealed the verse:

 

“When you are in doubt about what We have revealed to you…” (Q.S. Yunus: 94)

 

If you find any doubt in yourself, then say:

 

“He is the first and the last, the manifest and the hidden, and He knows all things.” (Q.S. AlHadid: 3)

 

Narrated with authentic Isnad in the treatise of Al-Ustad Al-Oasim Al-Qusyairi , from Ahmad bin Ath2 Ar-Rudzabari: I used to be very careful in matters of thaharah. One night, my chest felt tight because of the amount of water I was pouring, and my heart was not at ease. So I said: I seek forgiveness from you O Lord, I seek forgiveness from you O Lord. Then I heard a supernatural voice say: Forgiveness is from knowledge, so remove the anxiety from me.

 

One of the scholars said: It is recommended to say Laa Ilaha Illallah for anyone who experiences waswaas in wudu or in prayer, or something similar, because the devil when he hears dhikr, he retreats, while Laa Ilaha Illallahu is the mother of dhikr. Hence, the great scholars, in educating their students, chose to say Laa Ilaha Illallah for the one who is in seclusion and told him to keep saying it. They said: The most beneficial cure for waswaas is the remembrance of Allah, and the practice of it.

 

Ahmad ibn Hawariy said: I complained to Abi Sulaiman Ad-Darany about was-wasas. So he said: If you want to remove waswaas when you feel it, then rejoice. For when you rejoice, it disappears from you. There is nothing that the devil hates more than the joy of a believer. If you are always happy, the devil hates it even more.

 

This corroborates the saying of one of the Imams: Verily, waswas only afflicts the one who is perfect in faith, because the thief does not enter a broken house.

 

Recitation for the intellectually challenged and those stung by animals

 

Narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abi Said AlKhudri : A group of companions of the Messenger of Allah were traveling, until they arrived at an Arab village. They asked to stay there, but the residents refused. At the same time the leader of the village was stung by an animal, so they tried to find something that could be useful. One of them said: If you go to the group, perhaps they have a remedy. So they came to the guests and said: O company, our leader has been stung and we have tried unsuccessfully to cure him. Does one of you have anything? One of the guests replied: By Allah, I have an amulet, but we asked for a visit and you refused, so I will not give you an amulet until you give me something in return.

 

Finally, they agreed in exchange for some goats. Then the man spat on his wound and said Alhamdulillah Rabbil Alamin. Suddenly the man seemed to be released from his bonds, and went walking and the pain disappeared. So, they fulfilled the reward they had promised. One of them said: Share the goat. The healer said: Let it not be done until we meet the Prophet to narrate this incident and await his decision.

 

They came to the Prophet and told him. The Prophet asked: How do you know that it is a talisman? Then he said: You have succeeded, so distribute it and join me in distributing it with you, and the Prophet laughed.

 

In one narration: The man started reciting Surah Al-Fatihah and collected his saliva. Then, the man spat on it, and he recovered.

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni from Abdurrahman ibn Abi Laila, from a man, from his father who said: A man came to the Prophet and said: My brother is sick. The Prophet asked: What is your brother’s illness? The man replied: He has a jinn. The Prophet said: Bring him here. Then the man came and sat before him, and the Prophet recited to him Surah Al-Fatihah, the first four verses of Surah Al-Baqarah, and the same Surah in verses 163-164. After that he recited the verse of Kursi and three verses from the end of Surah Al-Baqarah. He also recited the first verse and the 18th verse of Surah ‘Ali Imran. After that recite Surah Al-Araaf, verse 54, Surah Al-Mukminun, verse 116, and the 3rd verse of Surah Al-Jin. Also read the first verse of Surah As-Saffat, the last three verses of Surah Al-Hasyr, and read Surah Al-Ikhlas, Al-Falag and An-Naas.

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud narrated from Kharijah ibn Shalt, from his uncle who said: I went to the Prophet and embraced Islam, then I went home and stopped by a community where there was a mad man who was tied up. His family said: We have heard that your friend has come with good. Do you have anything to treat him? So I recited Surah Al-Fatihah to him, and he recovered. Then they gave me a hundred goats. Then I went to the Prophet and told him about it and the Prophet asked: Is this all? I said: No. He said: Take it, verily there is a man who eats with an invalid amulet, while you have eaten with a right amulet.

 

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud that he read in the ear of a man who lacked intelligence, then the man came to his senses. So the Messenger of Allah asked him: What did you read in his ear? Ibn Mas’ud replied: I was reading:

 

“Do you think, then, that We created you playfully, and that you will not be returned to Us?” (Q.S. Al-Mukminun: 115) … until the end of the letter.

 

So, he said: If someone recites it with full confidence against a mountain, the mountain will disappear.

 

Protection of young children

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah invoked protection for Al-Hasan and Al-Husein by saying:

 

“I seek refuge for you both with the perfect word of Allah from all devils and venomous animals, and from all hot eyes. Verily your father (Prophet Abraham) sought refuge for Ismail and Ishaq, peace and blessings be upon them all.”

 

Sayings to cure boils

 

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from one of the wives of the Prophet he said: The Messenger of Allah came and I was suffering from a boil on my finger. He said: Do you have any perfumed wood? So he put it on the boil, and said:

 

“Say: O Allah, who can make the big small and the small big, make my boil small. Then the boil burst.”

 

SOME REMEMBRANCES IN TIMES OF SICKNESS AND DEATH

 

The advice to remember death a lot

 

It was narrated with a sahih isnad in T’irmizi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Remember death, which cuts off all delights.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

The suggestion to ask the sick person’s family and relatives and the answer of the person being asked

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Ibn Abbas that ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib came out of the Prophet’s room when he was ill which led to his death. The people said: O father of Hasan, how is the Messenger of Allah doing Ali replied: With praise to Allah, Muhammad is well. The speech of the sick person and what is said and recited to him and questions regarding his condition

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from ‘Aisha that when the Prophet wanted to sleep, he would put his palms together and blow on them. Then he recited Surah Al-Ikhlas, Al-Falag and An-Naas, then rubbed them on the parts of his body that were accessible, starting with the head, face and lower part. All this is done three times. Aisha said: When the Messenger of Allah was sick, he told me to do this.

 

In a sahih narration: That the Prophet breathed on his body during the illness that caused his death and recited Surah Al-Ikhlas, Al-Falag and An-Naas.

 

Aisha said: When he felt heavy, I breathed on him and recited and wiped him with my hand.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from ‘Aisha that the Prophet sought refuge with Allah for one of his wives, he wiped with his right hand and said:

 

“O God, Lord of men, take away fatigue, heal, you are the healer. There is no healing except with Your healing, a healing that leaves no disease behind.”

 

In one narration, he said:

 

“O Lord of mankind, remove (my) fatigue. In Your hand is healing. No one can remove it (illness) but You.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Anas that he asked Tsabit . Will you give me the recitation / amulet of the Messenger of Allah Tsabit replied: Yes. Anas said:

 

“O Allah, Lord of mankind, who removes fatigue, heal! You are the healer. No one can heal but You. Healing that leaves no disease behind.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Usman bin Abi Al-Ash that he complained of pain in his body. So, the Prophet taught him:

 

“Place your hand over the part of your body that hurts, and say: In the name of Allah, riga kah, and say seven times: I seek refuge with the mightiness of Allah and His power from all the evil that I encounter and fear.”

 

One day, the Prophet looked at Saad bin Abi Waqqash and said:

 

“O Allah, heal Saad. O Allah, heal Saad. O Allah, heal Saad.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud and Tirmidhi narrated from Ibn Abbas that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever visits a sick person who is not dead, then says nga times to him: I ask Allah, the Great, the owner of the Great Throne, to heal you. Then Allah will cure him of that sickness.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.”

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-Ash , that the Prophet said:

 

“When someone comes to visit a sick person, let him say: O Allah, heal your servant who fights the enemy for your sake or walks to pray for your sake.”

 

It is narrated in Tirmidhi that ‘Ali said: I was sick when the Messenger of Allah visited me, and I said: “O Allah, if my end has come, then make it easy for me. If it is still pending, remove it from me. If it is a test, then spare me.” Hearing that, the Messenger of Allah asked: “How did you say it?” So he repeated his words. Then the Messenger of Allah touched him with his foot and said: “O Allah, heal him.” Ali said: “Then I did not feel any pain.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

It was narrated in T’irmizi and Ibn Majah, from Abi Said Al-Khudri and Abu Hurairah mp, that both witnessed when the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever says: There is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest, then his Lord confirms him, then says: There is no god but Me and I am the Greatest. When he says: There is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner. Allah says: There is no God but Me and there are no partners for Me. When he says: There is no God but Allah, to Him be all power and praise. Allah says: There is no God but Me, to Me belongs all authority and praise.”

 

When he says: There is no God but Allah, and there is no power except with His help. Allah said: There is no God but Me and there is no power except by My help.

 

Then the Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever says it during his sacred time and dies, he will not be consumed by the fire of Hell.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

With authentic isnad, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Nasai and Ibn Majah narrated from Abi Said Al-Khudri , that Jibril came to the Prophet and asked:

 

“O Muhammad, are you complaining?” He replied: “Yes.”

 

Gabriel said: “In the name of Allah, I recite to you from everything that troubles you, from the evil of every soul or spiteful eye, Allah heals you, in the name of Allah I recite to you”. Tirmidhi classifies this as a Sahih hasan tradition.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari from Ibn Abbas that the Prophet came to a sick villager to visit him and said:

 

“Not heavy, in a state of purity, inshallah (if Allah wills)”

 

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Anas that the Messenger of Allah visited a villager who was sick with a fever, and said: “Penance and purification.”

 

It was narrated in Tirmidhi and Ibn Sunni, from Abu Umamah , that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The perfection of visiting a sick person is to place your hand on his forehead or hand, while asking about his condition.”

 

This is the narration of Tirmidhi, and the narration of Ibn Sunni:

 

“Part of the perfection of visiting someone is to place your hand on the sick person’s body and ask: How are you?”

 

Usman bin Affan said: One day, I was sick. The Messenger of Allah came to see me and prayed for my protection by saying:

 

“In the name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful. I seek refuge for you in Allah, the Only-begotten and the Dependent, who is neither begotten nor born, and there is none like Him, from the evil of the sickness you are suffering from. When the Messenger of Allah stood up, he said: O Usman, take refuge with it, for you have never taken refuge with anything like it.” (H.R. Ibn Sunni)

 

Speech during a headache or fever

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah recommended, when suffering from a fever, to say:

 

“In the name of Allah the Great, we seek refuge in Allah the Great from the pain of bleeding veins and the heat of hellfire.” He should recite Surah Al-Fatihah, Al-Ikhlas, Al-Falag and An-Naas, then blow on his palms. It’s okay to complain, just be patient

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, that Saad bin Abi Waqqash came to the Prophet to see him who was sick.

 

So Saad said: It has happened to me as you see, and I have wealth and no one to inherit it from but my daughter.

 

It is makrooh to hope for death, unless one fears that there will be fitnah in religion

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Anas that the Prophet said:

 

“Let none of you wish to die because of an affliction that befalls him. If he must, then say: O Allah, keep me alive as long as life is better for me, and kill me when death is better for me.”

 

The suggestion to pray to die in the Holy Land is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from ummul mukminin, Hafsah bint Umar that Umar prayed: ‘O Allah, grant me a martyr’s death in Your path, and make my death in the land of Your Messenger’ Then I asked: “When does this take effect?” Umar replied: “Allah will do it when He wills.”

 

Advice on comforting the sick

 

With a weak isnad, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrated from Abi Said Al-Khudri that the Messenger said:

 

“When you visit a sick person, then comfort him about his death, for that does not deny him anything and comforts him.”

 

Praising the sick person by mentioning his good deeds

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, that when Umar bin Khattab was stabbed, Ibn Abbas said: “O Amirul Mukminin, it is not all like this. You have accompanied the Messenger of Allah and maintained a good friendship with him. Then he parted with you, while he was pleased with you. Then you also accompanied Abu Bakr and established a good friendship with him. Then he parted with you while he was pleased with you. Then you accompanied the Muslims and established a good friendship with them. When you part with them they will be pleased with you’ (until the end of the hadith). ‘Umar said: ‘That is from Allah 

 

Sayings that stimulate the sick to eat

 

With isnad dharf, Ibn Majah and Ibn Sunni narrated the words of the Prophet One day, the Prophet visited a sick person and asked: “Do you like anything, do you like cake?” The man replied: “Yes.” So he worked on it.

 

It was narrated in Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah that Ugbah ibn Amir mentioned his words:

 

“Do not force a sick person to eat, for surely Allah feeds and drinks him.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

Prayer requests from the sick

 

It was narrated by Ibn Majah and Ibn Sunni, from Maimun bin Mahran, from Umar bin Khattab that the Prophet said:

 

“If you visit a sick person, then ask him to pray for you, for his prayer is like the prayer of an angel.”

 

Advice to the sick Allah says:

 

“.. Keep a promise; indeed, a promise will be questioned.” (Q.S. Al-Isra’: 34)

 

In other words:

 

“And those who keep their word when they promise…” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah: 177)

 

When Khawwat bin Jubair was sick, the Messenger of Allah visited him and said: Be well, O Khawwat. I said: Your body is also healthy, O Messenger of Allah. He said: Keep your promise to Allah. I said: I have promised nothing to Allah. He said: Yes, no one is sick but Allah causes good. So fulfill your promise to Him. (H.R. Ibn Sunni)

 

The speech of one who has no hope for life

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah that ‘Aisha said: I saw the Messenger of Allah in the throes of death, holding a glass of water in his hand and putting his hand in the glass, then wiping his face with water, then saying: O Allah, help me in facing the hour of death and dying. The Messenger of Allah leaned on Aisha, and said:

 

“O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me and propose me to the Friend of the Most High.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Recitation of the Qur’an and dhikr are recommended. It is not permissible to despair, behave badly, cuss, antagonize and quarrel in non-religious matters.

 

It is also advisable to thank Allah with his heart and tongue, and reflect in his mind that this is the end of his time in this world. So, he should try to end it on a good note and hasten to fulfill his rights, such as settling disputes, returning entrusted goods and loans. He also asks forgiveness from his family, such as his wife, parents, children, neighbors, and friends, as well as anyone with whom he has a working relationship.

 

He should make a will that he will be kind to his son if there is no grandfather to take care of him, and a will that he will take care of things that he cannot do immediately, such as paying off debts and so on. He should have faith in Allah that He has mercy on him, and think to himself that he is the least of Allah’s creatures. And believe that Allah is not disturbed without tormenting him and without obedience to Him, and he is His servant. Hence, forgiveness, kindness and bounty are only requested from Allah.

 

It is always recommended to recite the verses of the Qur’an with hope, and to recite them in a low voice. It is recited to him by someone else while he listens.

 

It is also advisable to ask for the recitation of traditions about the hopes, stories and conditions of the righteous at the time of death and to increase good deeds, keep praying, avoid unclean objects and other things, which are the teachings of religion and be patient with them.

 

Do not take it lightly, for the worst case is carelessness at the last moment in this world, which is the field for the Hereafter.

 

It is advisable to advise his family and friends to be patient with him when he is sick. He should advise his family to be kind to his friends, as the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said:

 

“Verily, one of the greatest of good deeds is when a person continues the pleasures of his father.”

 

It has also been authentically reported from the Messenger of Allah that he honored Khadija’s friends after her death. When his death approaches, let him multiply the words laa ilaha Illallah so that they will be the last words of his sentence. It is reported in a well-known tradition in Sunan Abu Daud from Muadz bin Jabal that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever ends his wapan with “laa ilaha Illallahu” will enter Paradise.” Al-Hakim categorized this as a sahih isnad.

 

It was narrated in Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i from Abi Said Al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah said”:

 

“Tell those who are about to die to recite laa ilaha Tllallahu (there is no God but Allah).” Tirmidhi classifies this as a Hasan Sahih Hadith.

 

The scholars said: If he does not say laaa ilaha illallah, then let those present tell him to recite it and do it slowly so that he does not get tired of it. When he has said it once, he should not repeat it unless he says something else.

 

Recitation after closing the eyes of the dead

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, that Umm Salamah” said that the Messenger of Allah closed Abu Salamah’s eyes, then said:

 

“Verily, when the soul is taken away, it is followed by a vision, so the people of his family make a noise.” Then he said: Do not supplicate for yourselves except with good, for the angels assent to what you say. Then he prayed: O Allah, forgive Abu Salamah, raise his rank among those who are guided and replace him in his descendants who are left behind. Forgive us and him, O Lord of the worlds, make the path of his grave wide and light in it.”

 

Sayings for the dead

 

It was narrated in Sahih Muslim from Umm Salamah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“When you are in the presence of the sick or the dead, say good things, for the angels confirm what you say.”

 

Umm Salamah said: When Abu Salamah died, I went to the Messenger of Allah and said: O Messenger of Allah, Abu Salamah has died. He said: Say: O Allah, forgive me and him, and give me a better replacement. So Allah provided a better replacement for Umm Salamah, namely Muhammad.

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Ibn Majah, from Magi bin Yasar that the Prophet said:

 

“Recite Yasin to those who are among you.”

 

Remarks to the family whose death

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim that Umm Salamah heard the Prophet say:

 

“If anyone of you suffers a calamity, let him say: Verily we belong to Allah and to Him is our return, O Allah, reward me for my calamity and replace me with something better than it. But Allah will reward him in his calamity and replace him with something better than it.”

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Umm Salamah that the Prophet said:

 

“There is no servant who suffers a calamity and then says: Verily we belong to Allah and to Him we return. O Allah, I reckon my calamity with You, so reward me for it and substitute something better than it.”

 

It was narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, from Abu Musa Al-Ashari that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“If the human child is seminal, Allah says to His angels: Have you taken the life of My servant’s child? They answer: Yes. Have you uprooted the fruit of his day? They answer: Yes. Allah said: What does My servant say? They replied: He praises You and returns it to You. So, Allah said: Build for My servant a house in Paradise and call it Baitul Hamdi (house of praise).”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Allah said: There is no recompense for My servant in My sight whom I take the life of his beloved from the dwellers of the world while he reckons with it, but Paradise.”

 

Remarks of one who heard of his friend’s death

 

Through Ibn Abbas, Ibn Sunni narrated the words of the Prophet:

 

“Death is terrifying. So, when one of you hears of the death of his brother, let him say: Verily we belong to Allah and to Him is our return, and verily to our Lord is our return. O Allah, write him down in Your sight among the doers of good and make his deeds in the Illiyyin (high places) and grant him his family who are left behind. Do not forbid us his reward, and do not cause us fitnah after him.”

 

Speech when the enemy of Islam is dead

 

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, that Ibn Mas’ud came to the Messenger of Allah and said: Allah has killed Abu Jahal. He said:

 

“Praise be to Allah who has helped His servant and honored His religion.”

 

The prohibition of mourning the dead and shouting in an ignorant manner

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abdullah bin Mas’ud that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Not among us is the one who slaps his cheeks and tears his clothes and shouts with the shouts of Jahiliyyah.”

 

Through Abu Hurairah, Bukhari and Muslim also narrated his words:

 

“Two things among people are disbelief: Accusing a person’s lineage and mourning a dead person.”

 

As for weeping over the dead without shouting and wailing, it is not haraam,

 

Narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah with Abdurrahman bin Auf, Saad bin Abi Waqqash and Abdullah bin Mas’ud to visit Saad bin Ubadah. At that time, the Messenger of Allah was crying. When the people saw the Prophet’s crying, they also cried, then said the Messenger of Allah:

 

“Have you not heard that Allah does not punish for tears and sorrow, but He punishes for this (lamentation),” he said, referring to his Idah.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Usamah bin Zaid, that the Messenger of Allah was told about his grandson who was about to die, so the tears of the Messenger of Allah fell and Saad said to him: What is this, O Messenger of Allah? He said:

 

“This is the mercy that Allah has put in the hearts of His servants, and Allah loves only those of His servants who are merciful.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Anas that the Messenger of Allah visited his son, Ibrahim, when he was about to die. Then the tears of the Messenger of Allah fell. Abdurrahman bin Auf said to him: You are crying, O Messenger of Allah So, he said:

 

“O Ibn Auf, indeed it is a mercy. Verily, tears are shed and days are sad while we do not utter anything except that which earns the pleasure of our Lord, and we are truly saddened by your departure, O Ibrahim.”

 

As for the Sahih traditions that the deceased is tormented by the crying of his family, this is not according to their apparent meaning and absoluteness. Rather, it can be modified.

 

The scholars differed as to its interpretation. The most correct interpretation is if the deceased had told his family to weep and was the cause of that weeping.

 

I have collected all of them or the largest part of them in the book of janars from As-Sharhl Muhazzab. The companions of Imam Nawawi said: It is permissible to weep before death and after it, but before is preferable according to the sahih hadith:

 

“When the day comes, let no one weep.”

 

As-Shaafa’i stated that it is makrooh to weep after death. The Hadīth is interpreted as karohah, tithing.

 

Tirmidhi and Baihaqi narrated from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever comforts a person in distress will be rewarded with the same as his reward.”

 

It was narrated in Tirmidhi from Abi Barzah that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever comforts a person whose child has died will be given a burdah garment in Paradise.” Tirmidhi categorizes this hadith as having a weak isnad.

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Nasa’i, from Abdullah bin Amr bin Ash, that the Prophet asked Fatimah : “What causes you to leave the house, Fatimah?” She replied: “I go to the house of the family of the deceased and pray for mercy for the deceased or console them for his death.”

 

With a hasan isnad, Ibn Majah and Baihaqi narrated from Amr bin Hazmin that the Prophet said:

 

The correct view is that no visitation should take place after three days have passed, except in two cases that have been ruled out by the scholars, namely if the person who is doing the visitation or the person who has been afflicted is not present at the funeral, and he comes after three days have passed.

 

It is recommended to distribute the takziyah to all of the deceased’s family and relatives, big and small, male and female, except for a young woman, who should only be visited by her mahram.

 

As for the phrase takziyah, there is no stipulation for it. So, whichever phrase is used, the takziyah is valid. The companions of Imam Nawawi recommended making takziyah for a Muslim with speech:

 

“May Allah increase your reward, honor your entertainment and forgive your dead.”

 

To the Muslim who kills a disbeliever by saying: May Allah increase your reward and honor your consolation. And to the disbeliever whose death is that of a Muslim: May Allah magnify your consolation and forgive your dead. And to the disbeliever whose death is that of a disbeliever: May Allah compensate you.

 

The best takziyah is the one narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, that Usamah bin Zaid said: One of the Prophet’s daughters sent a messenger to him to call him and tell him that her young son was about to die. So, the Prophet said to the messenger:

 

“Go back and tell him that what Allah takes belongs to Him and what He gives belongs to Him. Everything with Him is for a certain time, so tell him to be patient and reckon (his reward).”

 

With a hasan isnad, Nasa’i narrated from Muawiyah bin Ourrah bin Iyas, from his father, that the Prophet asked one of his companions. The companions said: O Messenger of Allah, his son whom you have seen has died. So the Prophet went to him and asked about his son. Then the man told him that his son had died. The Messenger of Allah comforted him, saying:

 

“O Fulan, which would you prefer: That you enjoy yourself with him for the rest of your life or that he comes to one of the gates of Paradise and you find that he has preceded you there and opened it for you? The man replied: O Prophet of Allah, I would rather he preceded me to Paradise and opened it for me. He said: Well, that is yours.”

 

Imam Shafi’i was saddened to hear that Abdurrahman b. Mahdi’s son had died. Imam Shafi’i wrote a letter to him:

 

“My brother, comfort yourself as you comfort others and make bad what you think is bad in others.”

 

“Behold, the most severe calamity is the loss of joy and the forbidding of reward. So, what if these two conditions come together with the onset of sin? So, accept your nasibmy, my brother, if it is near to you before you ask for it and it is far from you, may Allah inspire you with patience in times of distress and reward us and you,

 

Continued:

 

“I say takziyah to you not because I believe in immortality, rather it is a religious sunnah. So, not the one who receives the takziyah is immortal after his death. And neither does the one who makes the takziyah, although both live for a time.”

 

A man wrote to one of his brothers to offer condolences on the death of his son.

 

“Amma ba’du. The child towards the parents during life causes grief and fitnah. When he precedes, there is prosperity and mercy. Therefore, do not regret the loss of his sorrow and trials and waste Allah’s substitution for you of His welfare and mercy.”

 

Musa ibn Al-Mahdi offered condolences on the death of Ibrahim ibn Salim’s son: “Are you happy, while he may cause disaster and fitnah. Do you feel sad, while it brings prosperity and mercy?”

 

One man said to another: “Fear Allah and be patient, that is what the one who hopes for reward holds on to and it is to patience that the penitent returns.”

 

Another man said: “Verily, the one who brings you reward in the Hereafter is better than the one who brings you joy in this world.”

 

Abdullah bin Umar buried one of his children and laughed at his grave. Someone asked him: Did you laugh at the grave? Ibn ‘Umar replied: I want to humiliate the devil.

 

Ibn Juraij said: Whoever is not consoled in times of calamity with reward and patience, forgets like an animal that forgets.

 

Humaid Al-A’raj saw Said bin Jubayr saying about his son while looking at him: Verily I see the best traits in him. Someone asked: He died while I was reckoning his reward.

 

A man regretted the death of his son, and complained to Hasan Al-Bashri. So, Hasan said: Did your son disappear from you? The man said: Yes. His absence is more than his presence. Hasan said: Let him disappear, for he does not actually disappear, his reward is greater for you than this in his disappearance. The man said: O Aba Said, you have alleviated my grief over the death of my son.

 

Maimun bin Mahran narrated: A man made a visit to Umar bin Abdul Aziz on the death of his son Abdul Malik. Umar said: What happened to Abdul Malik was something that we knew about. So, when it happened, we did not deny it.

 

Basyar bin Abdullah relates that Umar bin Abdul Aziz said over the grave of his son Abdul Malik: “May Allah have mercy on you, my son. In infancy, you brought joy. In youth, you did good. My favorite thing is that I called you and you answered.”

 

Narrated Maslamah: When Abdul Malik bin Umar bin Abdul Aziz died, his father uncovered his face and said: May Allah have mercy on you my son, I was happy when I heard of your birth and I lived happily with you and there was no time for me that was more joyful for me regarding you than this time. By Allah, are you not taking your father to Paradise?

 

Abu Hasan Al-Madainy said: Umar bin Abdul Aziz visited his son during his illness and said: My son, how are you? His son replied: I am in righteousness.

 

He said: Having you on my scales is preferable to having me on yours.

 

His son replied: O my father, your favorite is more to my liking than mine.

 

It was narrated from Juwairiyah bint Asma, from her uncle, that three brothers fought in the war and were martyred. One day their mother went out to the market for something, so she met a man who had fought in the war. She asked him how his sons were doing. The man replied: They were martyred. The woman asked: In advance or in retreat? The man replied: Forward. The woman said: Alhamdulillah, they have been fortunate and maintained a family with me, my father and mother.

 

At one time, Imam Shafi’i had his son die, and he quoted: Such is life, so be patient with the calamity of wealth or separation from a lover.

 

Notice of death

 

In the books of Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, Hudhayfah said: “When I die, do not tell anyone about my death. I fear that it will be an announcement, because I heard that the Messenger of Allah forbade announcements.

 

It was narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, from Abdullah bin Mas’ud that the Apostle said:

 

“Do not announce death, for the announcement of death is an evil deed.”

 

There is another narration from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud which is not paraphrased. Tirmidhi has weakened both reports.

 

In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, it is narrated that the Prophet asked about a dead person who was buried by the Companions at night: “Why did you not tell me about his death?”

 

The muhaggigin scholars and most of the companions of Imam Nawawi and others said: It is advisable to inform the deceased’s family and friends based on these two traditions. They emphasized: The only death announcement that is prohibited is the Jahiliyya death announcement.

 

Their custom was that if a great man died, they would send horsemen to the tribes and call out: So-and-so is dead, a disaster for the Arabs. The announcement was followed by uproar and lamentation.

 

The author of al-Hawi mentioned two opinions concerning the recommendation to announce the death and broadcast it by calling out and announcing it. Some of the scholars said that it is recommended for those who are not familiar with the deceased and those who are close to him, because this may lead to many people offering their sympathy and prayers for him. Some scholars said: It is recommended for those who are far away and not for others. According to my opinion: The preferred view is that the recommendation is absolute if it is just a notification.

 

Sayings when bathing the dead and shrouding them

 

It is advisable to increase the remembrance of Allah and supplication for the dead person while bathing and shrouding him.

 

The companions of Imam Nawawi said: If the one who is bathing sees something good in the deceased, such as the shine of his face, the fragrance of his smell and the like, it is advisable to tell him about it. If he sees something bad, such as the blackness of his face and the rottenness of his smell and the changes in his body, appearance and so on, then it is forbidden for him to tell him about it.

 

The scholars rely on the hadith narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi from ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Mention the virtues of the dead among you, and do not mention their vices.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Baihaqi from Abi Rafi (a slave of the Messenger of Allah) that he said:

 

“Whoever bathes a dead person and conceals his evil, Allah will forgive him forty kahs.”

 

Most of the companions of Imam Nawawi absolved the matter. as mentioned: Abu Al-Khair Al-Yamani said: If the deceased was an innovator who emphasized his innovations and his bathers saw his evil, then his giyas require that this be told to the people so that it will deter people from committing innovations.

 

Zikix praying over the dead

 

You should know that praying over a dead person is fard kifayah. The same applies to bathing, shrouding and burying him. All this has been agreed upon.

 

There are four opinions as to who can fulfill the obligatory funeral prayer. The most correct according to most of the companions of Imam Nawawi is that it can be done even with one person, the second with two people, the third with three people, and the fourth with four people, whether the prayer is in congregation or individually.

 

The method is to say Takbir four times and all of them must be done. If one is missing, the prayer is not valid.

 

The question arises: what if it happens with five takbirs? There are two opinions. The more correct view is that it is not invalidated. It is recommended to raise the hands with each takbeer.

 

Regarding the remembrances that are recited, after the first takbir, Surah al-Fatihah is recited, after the second takbir, the salawat (blessing) on the Prophet is recited, and after the third takbir, the supplication for the deceased is recited. What is obligatory is the recitation that can be called prayer. As for after the fourth takbeer, it is not obligatory to make dhikr according to the basic principle, rather the dhikr that I will mention is recommended.

 

The companions of Imam Nawawi differed in their opinions regarding the recommendation to say teawud and jfritah prayer after the first takbir before reciting Surah al-Fatihah and the recitation of the Surah after Surah al-Fatihah in three opinions.

 

First, it is recommended to read them all. Second, it is not recommended. The third, which is the most correct, is that it is only recommended to recite the taawud without the iftah and the recitation of the surah.

 

They agree on the recommendation to say amen after Al-Fatihah.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari from Ibn ‘Abbas that when he offered the funeral prayer, he recited Surah al-Fatihah and said: “Be aware that this is sunnah.” The word sunnah means the word of the companions: “This way” and “that way” are included in the sunnah. In Sunan Abu Daud there are the words: It is a sunnah, so it is attributed to the Messenger of Allah according to what is prescribed. This haj can be found in the books of hadith and ushul.

 

The companions of Imam Nawawi said: What is Sunnah in recitation is to read slowly, not loudly, whether the prayer is at night or during the day. This is the sahih and well-established school of thought held by most of our companions.

 

A group of scholars was of the view: If the prayer is during the day, then it should be recited slowly. If it is done at night, then it should be recited loudly.

 

For the recitation after the second takbir, the least obligatory is: Allahumma shalli alaa Muhammad, and it is recommended to add: Ha ala aali Muhammad. The latter is not obligatory according to most scholars.

 

After the third takbir, it is obligatory to pray for the deceased. The least of these is: Rahimahullah (may Allah have mercy on him), or may Allah forgive him, or, O Allah, forgive him, or have mercy on him, and so on.

 

What is recommended is what is found in the traditions and some of the arsar. As for the traditions, the most authentic is the one narrated in Sahih Muslim, that Auf ibn Malik said: The Messenger of Allah offered the funeral prayer, so I memorized from the supplication that he said, namely:

 

“O Allah, forgive him and have mercy on him, save him and forgive him, pray for his place, widen his entrance, wash him with water, ice and dew. Cleanse him from sins as you cleanse a white shirt from dirt. Replace his house with a better house, a better family and a better wife. Enter him into paradise. Protect him from the torment of the grave and the torment of hellfire. Until I wish, I was the one who was the corpse.”

 

In the Muslim narration: “Protect him from the trial of the grave and the punishment of the grave.”

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Baihaqi, from Abu Hurairah 8 that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) offered the funeral prayer and said:

 

“O Allah, forgive the living and the dead among us, the small and the great among us, the male and the female among us, the present and the absent among us.

“O Allah, whoever You revive among us, revive him on Islam. Whoever You kill among us, then revive him on faith. O Allah, do not forbid us his reward, and do not cause us temptation afterward.”

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Ibn Majah, that Abu Hurairah heard the Apostle say:

 

“When you circumambulate a dead person, make sincere prayers for him.”

 

Regarding supplication for the dead, Abu Daud narrated from Abu Hurairah , that the Prophet said:

 

“O Allah, You are his Lord and You got him, You pointed him to Islam and You took away his soul, You know better the secret and the clarity. We have come to ask for forgiveness, so forgive him.”

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Ibn Majah, from Wasilah ibn Al-Asga he said: The Messenger of Allah prayed with us over the corpse of a Muslim man. So I heard him say:

 

“O Allah, so-and-so’s son is in covenant with You and in the bonds of Your protection, so protect him from the trial of the grave and the punishment of Hell, while You are worthy of promise and praiseworthy. O Allah, forgive him and have mercy on him. Verily, You are Forgiving and Merciful.”

 

Imam Shafi’i chose a supplication from this collection of hadiths. He said?’:

 

“O Allah, this is Your servant the son of Your servant, coming out of the world and its vastness while his pleasures and lovers are in sit, to go to the darkness of the grave and what is in it. Ja has testified that there is no God but You and that Muhammad is Your servant and Messenger, and You know better. O Allah, he has gone to You and You are the best of those visited. He needs Your mercy and You should not torment him. We have come to You, hoping and asking forgiveness for him. O Allah, if he is a doer of good, then increase his good. If he is a doer of evil, then forgive him. Grant him Your pleasure with Your mercy and protect him from the trial of the grave and its torment. Make room for him in his grave and keep the earth away from his two sides. Secure him from your torment with your mercy until you raise him to your paradise. O Most Merciful of the merciful.”

 

If the deceased is a child, then the parents should be prayed for, and the words should be said.

 

“O Allah, make him the forerunner of his parents. Make him a pioneer for his parents. Make him a savings for his parents. Weigh the scales of his parents with him. Pour out patience upon their hearts. Do not inflict fimah on his parents after his departure. Do not forbid his reward for them.”

 

As for after the fourth takbeer, dhikr is not obligatory according to consensus. Rather, it is recommended to say it, for which there is a text from Imam al-Shaafa’i in al-Buwarrhy.

 

After the fourth takbir, it is said:

 

“O Allah, do not forbid his reward for us, and do not bring fitnah upon us after his departure.”

 

The supplication after the fourth takbeer is narrated in Sunan Baihaqi from ‘Abdullāh ibn Abi Aufa , who said that he offered four takbeers at the funeral of one of his sons. Then he stood after the fourth takbeer as long as he stood between two takbeers, asked forgiveness and prayed for him, then said: The Messenger of Allah used to do this.

 

In one narration: He said four Takbirs and then remained silent for a while until we heard that he was going to say five Takbirs, then said the greetings to his right and left.

 

When he finished, we asked: What is this? He replied: I have not added to you what the Messenger of Allah has done. Al-Hakim classified this as a sahih hadith.

 

When he finishes saying the takbeer and the dhikr, he should say the greeting of peace twice, according to what we have narrated from the hadith of ‘Abdullāh ibn Abi Aufa, and the ruling on the greeting of peace is that which we have mentioned in other prayers. This is the correct and preferred view. The words of the one who escorts the deceased

 

It is advisable for him to occupy himself with the remembrance of Allah and contemplate what the deceased is facing, where he is going and what is happening to him, this is the end of the world and the place of return of its inhabitants.

 

Do not talk about things that are of no benefit, because this is a time of reflection and remembrance when it is not permissible to be negligent and play around and speak in idle talk. Because idle talk is forbidden in all circumstances, let alone in this one.

 

The correct and preferred view is that which was adopted by the salaf (early generations of Islam), namely that of remaining silent while delivering the deceased. It is not permissible to raise the voice with recitation, dhikr and so on.

 

The wisdom in that is clear, which is to calm the heart and concentrate the mind with regard to the corpse. This is what is right, do not be deceived by the number of opponents.

 

Abu Ali Al-Fudhail bin Iyad said: Follow the path of truth. It will not harm you the least of those who travel it, Do not follow the path of error, and do not be deceived by the number of those who perish.

 

Speech when seeing a corpse pass by It is recommended to say:

 

“Glory be to Allah who lives and cannot die.”

 

In his book, al-Bahr, Abu Al-Muhsin Ar-Ruyani says: It is recommended to say:

 

“There is no God but Allah who lives and cannot let go.”

 

It is also recommended to pray for the deceased and mention the good things he did. Do not just praise him.

 

The speech of one who puts a dead person in his grave

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Baihaqi and others, from Ibn Umar from the Prophet that when he put a dead person in his grave, he said: “In the name of Allah and based on the teachings/religion of the Messenger of Allah.” Tirmidhi classified it as a hasan hadith.

 

Ash-Shafi’i and his companions said: It is also recommended to pray for the deceased along with this. The supplication that he includes in Al-Muzany’s Mukhrasar is:

 

“O Allah, those who do not give up their wives and children, their relatives and brothers give them up to You, ta has separated from the one who loves to be near him and he comes out of the darkness of the duma and life into the darkness of the grave and its narrowness, he goes to You and You are the best visited.

If You punish him, it is for sin. If You forgive him, then You are the One who should forgive. You do not need to torture him when he needs Your mercy.

O Allah, thank his kindness, forgive his sins, protect him from the torment of the grave and provide security for him from your torment with your mercy. Protect him from any departure other than Paradise. O Allah, reward him in his legacy to the living. Elevate him in the illiyyin and establish him there with the virtue of Your mercy. O Lord, the Most Merciful of the merciful.”

 

Remarks after the funeral

 

It is a Sunnah for the one who is on a grave to sprinkle the earth with his hands three times over his head. A group of companions of Imam Nawawi said: It is recommended to say: On the first scattering:

 

“Out of it We created you.”

 

On the second sowing:

 

“In it We return you.”

 

On the third sowing:

 

“Thereof We bring you out once more.”

 

It is recommended to sit down after the funeral to recite the Qur’an and prayers for the deceased, advice and stories of righteous people.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, that Ali said: We were burying a corpse at Bagi’ Al-Gharqad, then the Messenger of Allah came to us, so he sat down and we were around him while he was holding a stick. Then he lowered his head and scratched the ground with his stick, then said:

 

“There is no one among you except that his place in Hell and his place in Paradise have been determined. The companions asked: Shouldn’t we just put our trust in the decree of destiny? Behau replied: Do your best, for every man is facilitated in what is meant for him.”

 

With a hasan isnad, Abu Daud and Baihaqi narrated from Usman : That when the Prophet finished burying the dead, he stood over them and said:

 

“Ask forgiveness for your brother and ask for the establishment of a day for him, for he is now being questioned.”

 

Imam Shafii and his companions said: It is recommended to recite a few verses of the Qur’an.

 

It is narrated in Sunan Baihaqi that Ibn ‘Umar recommended reciting the beginning of Surat al-Baqarah and the end of it after burying the dead.

 

With regard to the dead person after burial, many of our companions recommended it. Among those who were of the opinion that it is recommended are al-Qadhi Husein, Abu Saad al-Mutawalli, Imam Abu al-Fathi Nashr ibn Ibrahim ibn Nashr al-Magdisy and Imam Abu al-Oasim ar-Rafii. Regarding its pronunciation, As-Sheikh Nashr said:

 

When he has finished burying him, he should stand next to his head and say:

 

“O Fulan bin Fulan, remember the covenant upon which you came out of the world: testify that there is no God but Allah with whom there is no partner, and Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. The Day of Judgment will surely come, there is no doubt about that. And Allah raises the dead who are in the grave.”

 

“Say: I take Allah as Lord, Islam as religion, Muhammad as Prophet, the Kaaba as Qibla, the Qur’an as Imam, the Muslims as brothers, my Lord is Allah, there is no God but Him, and He is the Lord of the great Throne.”

 

Some say: O male servant of Allah, son of a female servant of Allah, and some say: O servant of Allah, son of Eve.

 

Al-Imam Abu Amr Ibn Salah was asked about this talqin, and he replied in his fatwa: Talqin is a practice that we have chosen and practiced.

 

It was mentioned by a group of companions of Imam Nawawi from Khurasan: A tradition has been reported from Abu Umamah which does not have a strong chain of transmission concerning the talaqin. However it is corroborated by the testimonies and practices of the people of the Levant in the past.

 

With regard to the talqin of young children, there is no basis for that, and we do not agree with that.

 

In my opinion: The correct view is that no talqin is to be done with young children, whether they are still suckling or older, so long as they have not reached puberty and are not yet mukallaf.

 

Something that benefits the deceased

 

The scholars are unanimously agreed that supplication for the dead is beneficial for them and the reward reaches them. The scholars quoted Allah as saying:

 

“And those who came after them said: O our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who have gone before us in faith.” (Q.S. Al-Hasyr: 10)

 

And with other verses that are well known and similar to it. In the well-known traditions, it is mentioned that the Prophet prayed with:

 

“O Allah, forgive the dwellers of Bagi’ Al-Gharaad.”

 

On another occasion, the Prophet prayed:

 

“O Allah, forgive those who live among us and those who die among us.”

 

The scholars disagree as to the extent of the reward for reciting the Qur’an. The view of the Shaafa’i school and a group of scholars is that the reward does not reach. Ahmad ibn Hanbal and a group of scholars from the Shafi’i school are of the opinion that it may reach. The preferred view is that the reader should say after finishing reciting the Qur’an: O Allah, convey the reward of the verse I read to so-and-so.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim that Anas said: The Companions passed by the corpse of a man, and they praised him.

 

So, the Prophet said: “It is obligatory (then).” Then they passed by another corpse and criticized it. So, the Prophet said: “It is obligatory (then).” Umar bin Khattab asked: What is obligatory?” The Messenger of Allah said: “This one you mention the good, Paradise is obligatory for him, and this one you mention the bad, Hell is obligatory for him. You are Allah’s witnesses on earth.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Abi Al-Aswad, who said: I came to Madinah, and I sat beside ‘Umar ibn Khattab. Then, a corpse passed in front of the Companions, so the good of the dead man was mentioned. Umar said: “It is obligatory (then). Then another corpse passed by, and his good deeds were mentioned. Umar said: “It is obligatory.” Then a third corpse passed by and its bad qualities were mentioned. So Umar said: “It is obligatory (then).” Abu Al-Aswad said: “What is obligatory, O Amirul Mukminin?” Umar said: I say as the Prophet said:

 

“Whichever Muslim four people testify to his goodness, Allah will admit him into Paradise. We said: And the clan of people? He replied: Yes, three people. We asked: And two people? He replied: Yes, two people.”

 

Prohibition of cursing the dead

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from ‘Aisha that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Do not revile the dead, for they have earned their keep.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Ibn Umar, that the Messenger said:

 

“Mention the virtues of the dead and do not mention their vices.”

 

The scholars said: It is haraam to curse a dead Muslim who did not openly show his wickedness. With regard to the disbeliever and the Muslim who openly committed wickedness, there is a difference of opinion among the salaf. There are conflicting texts concerning that.

 

There are many reports about the permissibility of cursing the wicked, among which is what Allah says in His Noble Book. Also in the Sahih traditions, such as the one about Amr bin Luhay, the story of Abi Rughal who stole goods with a crooked stick and the story of Ibn Jad’an and others. Not to forget the Sahih hadith that we cited when passing by a corpse that was mentioned as bad and was not denied by the Prophet and he even said: “It is obligatory.”

 

The scholars differed concerning the combination of these texts. The most correct view is that it is permissible to mention the evil of the dead disbelievers. With regard to the dead Muslims who openly disobeyed Allah or committed innovations and so on, it is permissible to mention their evil deeds if there is a benefit in doing so, if it is necessary to warn people about their situation and to avoid accepting what they say and following their actions, otherwise it is not permissible. If it is not necessary, then it is not permissible.

 

Remarks of one who visits graves

 

Narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Aisha : That the Messenger of Allah went out at the end of the night to Bagi’ Al-Gharqad, and said:

 

“May salvation be upon you, dwellers of the place of the believers. There has come to you what was promised, tomorrow you are delayed, and if Allah wills, we will overtake you. O Allah, forgive the dwellers of Bagi Al-Ghargad.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from ‘Aisha who said: O Messenger of Allah, how should I say the words of pilgrimage to the grave? He said:

 

“Say: May salvation be upon the dwellers of the graves from the believers and Muslims, may Allah have mercy on those who went before and those who went after from you and us. If Allah wills, we will follow you.”

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah went out to the cemetery, then said:

 

“May salvation be upon you dwellers of the graves of the believers. If Allah wills, we will follow you.

 

It was narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, that Ibn Abbas said: The Messenger of Allah passed by the graveyard of Madinah, then he came to the grave and said:

 

“May salvation be upon you, O dwellers of the grave: May Allah forgive us and you. You have preceded us and we will follow you.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Buraydah, that the Prophet taught speech when going to the grave:

 

“May prosperity be upon you grave-dwellers from the believers. If Allah wills, we shall surely follow you. I ask Allah for safety for us and you.”

 

It is narrated in Ibn Sunni from ‘Aisha that the Prophet went to the grave of Bagi’ and said:

 

“May salvation be upon you grave-dwellers of the believers. You preceded us and we will follow you. O Allah, do not forbid us their reward and do not misguide us after their departure.”

 

It is recommended for pilgrims to recite a lot of Qur’an, dhikr and supplication for the inhabitants of the grave and other Muslims who have died. It is advisable to increase the number of pilgrimages and give priority to pious people.

 

Preventing people from crying at graves

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, that Anas said: The Messenger of Allah passed by a woman weeping at a grave, and said: “Fear Allah and be patient.”

 

Weeping and fear when passing by the graves of the wrongdoers and the display of need to Allah

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah said to his companions when they reached the graveyard of the Tisamud:

 

“Do not go to these tormented people unless you can weep. If you do not weep, then do not go to them. It shall not befall you what has befallen them.”

 

SOME DHIKR IN SPECIAL PRAYERS

 

Recommended dhikr and prayers on Friday and its night

 

It is recommended to recite a lot of Qur’an, some dhikr and prayers on Friday and its night, and to recite a lot of salawat on the Messenger of Allah and recite Surah Al-Kahf on Friday. In his book, Al-Umm, Imam Shafi’i says: I like the recitation of Surah al-Kahf on Friday nights. It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah mentioned Friday and said:

 

“There is a time in which if it coincides with a Muslim servant praying and he asks Allah for something, Allah will give it to him.”

 

He signaled with his hand that the time was short. The scholars differed concerning this time. I have compiled these opinions in Sharhil Muhazzab and many of the Companions say that it is after ‘Asr.

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni from Anas that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever says on Friday morning before the Fajr prayer: ‘I ask forgiveness of Allah, there is no God but Him, who lives and always takes care of His creatures, and I repent to Him’ three times, Allah will forgive his sins, even if they are as numerous as the foam of the sea.”

 

Through Abu Hurairah Ibn Sunni narrated that, when the Messenger of Allah entered the mosque, he held both sides of the door, then said:

 

“O Allah, make me the best of those who go to You and the closest of those who draw near to You, and the foremost of those who ask and hope in You.”

 

Through Aisha, Ibn Sunni also narrated the Prophet’s words:

 

“Whoever recites after the Friday prayer: Qul Huwallahu ahad, GlQul auzu bi Rabbil falaq and Oul duzu bi Rabbin naas: seven kah, surely Allah protects him from all evil until the following Friday.”

 

It is recommended to remember Allah a lot after the Friday prayer.

 

Allah said:

 

“When the prayer is over, then spread out on the earth and seek the favor of Allah and remember Allah much, that you may be happy.” (Q.S. Al-Jumw’ah: 10)

 

Recommended remembrance on the two Feast Days

 

It is recommended to spend the two nights of Eid in remembrance of Allah, prayer, and other acts of obedience. The Hadith in this regard is:

 

“Whoever lives the two nights of Eid, his heart will not die on the day when the hearts of men die.”

 

In another narration:

 

“Whoever enlivens the two nights of Eid for the sake of Allah, hoping for reward, his heart will not die when the hearts of men die.”

 

This is what is reported by As-Shafi’i and Ibn Majah. It is a Yharf hadith narrated from Abu Umamah in both marfuk and mauquf. Both are weak. However, traditions about major deeds are permissible.

 

It is recommended to say Takbir on the two nights of the two Eids. And it is recommended on Eid al-Fitr from sunset until the imam begins to say the Takbir for the Eid prayer, and it is recommended after the prayer and in other circumstances.

 

Takbir is increased when there is a large gathering of people. It is permissible to say takbir while walking, sitting, lying down, on the road, in the mosque and on the bed. As for Eid al-Adha, the takbir is to be done after the ‘Asr prayer until the end of the day of Tasyrig on the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth of Dhu’l-Hijjah after the ‘Asr prayer. ‘

 

This is the one that is most validly practiced. Many traditions have been narrated in al-Bayhaqi’s Suman, which I have explained in Sharhil Muhazzab, and I have mentioned all the branches that are related to it.

 

The companions of Imam Nawawi said: The word takbir is to say:

 

“Allah is great, Allah is great, Allah is great.”

 

Imam Shafi’i and his companions said: If more then say (if you want more):

 

It is recommended to say Takbir on the two nights of the two Eids. And it is recommended on Eid al-Fitr from sunset until the imam begins to say the Takbir for the Eid prayer, and it is recommended after the prayer and in other circumstances.

 

Takbir is increased when there is a large gathering of people. It is permissible to say takbir while walking, sitting, lying down, on the road, in the mosque and on the bed. As for Eid al-Adha, the takbir is to be done after the ‘Asr prayer until the end of the day of Tasyrig on the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth of Dhu’l-Hijjah after the ‘Asr prayer. ‘

 

This is the one that is most validly practiced. Many traditions have been narrated in al-Bayhaqi’s Suman, which I have explained in Sharhil Muhazzab, and I have mentioned all the branches that are related to it.

 

The companions of Imam Nawawi said: The word takbir is to say:

 

“Allah is great, Allah is great, Allah is great.”

 

Imam Shafi’i and his companions said: If more then say (if you want more):

 

“Allah is the greatest of the great. Praise be to Allah as much as possible. Glory be to Allah morning and evening. There is no God but Allah. We worship none but Him by devoting our religion to Him, even if the disbelievers dislike it.

 

There is no God but Allah. He swallows His promise, helps His servant, defeats the alliance of His enemies alone. There is no God but Allah, and Allah is the Greatest.” Then it is better.

 

A group of companions of Imam Nawawi said: It is permissible to say it as usual:

 

“Allah is the Greatest, (3X). There is no God but Allah. Allah is great, Allah is great, and all praise be to Him.”

 

It is Sunnah to say Takbir in the Eid prayer before reciting the verse. So, in the first rak’ah, seven takbirs, apart from the opening takbir. The second is five takbirs, apart from the takbir when rising from prostration. Takbir in the first rak’ah comes after the istiftah prayer and before the taawud.

 

It is recommended to say between the two takbirs: Subhanallah wal hamdulillahi va laa ilaha Illallah Wallahu Akbar. This is the view of the majority of scholars.

 

Some scholars say it is by saying:

 

“There is no God but Allah, with whom there are no partners. He has all power and to Him belongs all praise. In His hands is all good, and He is the Master of all things.”

 

If these remembrances and the seven and five takbirs are left out, the prayer is valid and the prostration is not done. However, it loses its virtue. With regard to the two sermons in the Eid prayer, it is recommended to say takbir in the opening of the first sermon nine times and the second sermon seven times.

 

Dhikr on the first ten days of Dhu al-Hijjah Allah says:

 

“.. They mention the name of Allah on certain days…” (Q.S. Al-Hajj: 28)

 

Ibn ‘Abbas, al-Shafi’i and the majority of scholars said: These are the first ten days of the month of Zullhijjah. You should know that it is recommended to do more dhikr in these ten days than in any other, and on the day of ‘Arafah more than any other day.

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari from Ibn Abbas that the Prophet said:

 

“There is no deed in these ten days that is more excellent than it. The Companions asked: Not even jihad in the cause of Allah? He replied: Neither is jihad, except for a man who goes out to risk his life and property and does not return with anything.”

 

Narrated by Tirmidhi:

 

“There is none of those days in which good deeds are more favorable

 

God than these ten days.”

 

It was narrated in Tirmidhi from Amr ibn Shuaib, from his father, from his grandfather, from the Prophet :

 

“The most excellent supplication is the supplication on the day of Arafat, and the most excellent utterance that I uttered and that the prophets uttered before me is: There is no God but Allah, with whom there are no partners. To Him belongs all power and all praise, and He is the Lord of all things.”

 

Dhikr that is prescribed at the time of eclipse

 

During solar and lunar eclipses, it is recommended to increase Dhikr and supplication to Allah. By the consensus of the Muslims, it is recommended to pray at that time.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from ‘Aisha that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Verily, the sun and the moon are two signs of the power of Allah. They do not eclipse because of the death of a person or his life. So when you see them, supplicate to Allah, say the blessings of Allah, and give alms.”

 

In one narration: “When you see it, then remember Allah.”

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Musa AlAshari, from the Prophet, that he said:

 

“When you see an eclipse, then immediately remember and pray and seek forgiveness from Him.”

 

Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, from Mughirah ibn Shu’bah”:

 

“When you see it (the eclipse), then supplicate to Allah and pray.”

 

In Sahih Muslim, Abdurrahman bin Samurah said: I went to the Prophet and there was an eclipse of the sun, and he was standing in prayer with his hands raised. When the eclipse ended, he recited two surahs and prayed two rak’ahs.

 

It is recommended to lengthen the recitation in the solar eclipse prayer. So, the recitation in the first rak’ah is as long as Surah Al-Baqarah. In the second rak’ah two hundred verses. In the third rak’ah, one hundred and fifty verses. In the fourth rak’ah, one hundred verses. And in the first bow, just one hundred verses. In the second bow just seventy verses. In the third bow it is the same. In the fourth bowing just fifty verses, and lengthening the prostration like the first bowing. The second prostration is like the second bow. This is what is sahih.

 

There is no doubt about the recommendation to prolong prostration. However, what is well-known in most of the books of the companions of Imam Nawawi is that it should not be prolonged. This is wrong or weak. What is correct is to lengthen it. This is clear in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from the Messenger of Allah through many paths. I have explained it with evidence and some of the testimonies in Sharhi Muhazzab. I mention it here so as not to be deceived by its opposite.

 

As-Shaafa’i 88 has included in various places the recommendation to lengthen it.

 

The companions of Imam Nawawi said: The sitting between the two prostrations should not be prolonged, rather it should be done as usual. This opinion needs to be reviewed. This is because it is clear from the sahih hadith that it should be prolonged.

 

I have clearly mentioned that in Sharhi al-Muhazzab. What has been chosen is the recommendation to lengthen them. If he abandons lengthening these recitations altogether and suffices with Surah al-Fatihah, his prayer is valid.

 

It is recommended to raise the recitation in the lunar eclipse prayer and it is recommended to lower the recitation in the solar eclipse prayer.

 

Then, after the prayer, he would deliver two sermons reminding people to obey Allah in charity and free slaves, as is mentioned in the well-known traditions, and calling people to be grateful for the blessings of Allah and warning them against negligence and misguidance.

 

Dhikr in Istisga prayer

 

It is recommended to increase the number of prayers and dhikr and Istighfar with humility. The prayers in the prayer are well known, namely:

 

“O Allah, send us rain that can help us, which is comfortable, heavy and evenly distributed, covering everything, forever. O Allah, send down rain on the hills and where the trees grow and the valleys. O Allah, we ask forgiveness of You, surely You are the Most Forgiving. So send down rain upon us. O Allah, send us rain and do not make us people of despair. O Allah, grow crops for us and increase water for us. Send down rain upon us from the blessings of the sky, and grow crops for us from the blessings of the earth.

O Allah, take away from us fatigue, hunger and nakedness. Keep us away from calamities that none other than You can remove.”

 

It is recommended that if there is a man who is known for his piety, he should be used as an intercessor, saying: O Allah, we ask for rain and make your servant so-and-so an intercessor to you.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, that Umar bin Khattab when experiencing drought, he asked for rain through Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib. He said: O Allah, we intercede for our Prophet, so you send rain on us and we intercede for our Prophet’s uncle, so send rain on us, then they also got rain.

 

It is recommended to recite in the Istisga prayer what is recited in the Eid prayer. After the iffitah prayer, in the first rak’ah seven takbirs are recited, and in the second rak’ah five takbirs like the Eid prayer. Then give two sermons with more istighfar and supplications.

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud with a sahih isnad based on Muslim’s conditions, from Jabir bin Abdillah who said: Weeping women came to the Messenger of Allah and he said:

 

“O Allah, send us rain that is helpful, brings fertility, is useful and harmless, is immediate and not delayed. Immediately, the sky became overcast.”

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud narrated from Amr bin Shuaib, from his father, from his grandfather who said: That the Messenger of Allah, when he asked for rain, would say:

 

“O Allah, send rain upon Your servants and Your animals, and spread Your mercy and bring life to Your dead land.”

 

‘Aisha said that people complained to the Messenger of Allah about the absence of rain. So, he ordered a pulpit to be erected at the place of prayer and appointed a day for people to come out at that time. When the sun rose, the Prophet came out, sat on the pulpit, said Takbir and praised Allah and said:

 

“You complain about the dryness of your villages and the delay in the rain from falling on you. Allah has told you to pray to Him and He has promised you that He will answer your prayers, then he said: Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, the Compassionate, the Merciful, the Master of the Day of Resurrection, there is no God but Allah. He does what He wills. O Allah, You are Allah, there is no God but You, the All-Rich. We are poor people, send down rain upon us. And make what You send down for us strength. Make it available to us until a certain time.”

 

Then he raised his hands and kept raising them until the whiteness of his armpits appeared. He turned his back to the people and returned or shifted his sash while raising his hands. After that, the Prophet faced them, and he got down and prayed two rak’ahs. At that time, Allah sent down clouds, thunder was heard and lightning appeared, then it rained with His permission.

 

Before the Messenger of Allah had returned to his mosque, the flood came. When he saw how quickly they were silent, he laughed until his canine teeth appeared. So, the Messenger of Allah said: I testify that Allah is over all things, and that I am His servant and Messenger. (H.R. Abu Daud)

 

Note that this Hadīth explains that the sermon is given before the prayer. This is what is explained in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim. Hence, this could mean that it is permissible.

 

What is well known in the books of fiqh from the companions of Imam Nawawi is that it is recommended to give precedence to the prayer over the sermon. Based on other traditions, the Prophet gave precedence to the prayer over the sermon.

 

It is recommended to combine loud and low voices and raise your hands high.

 

Imam Shafi’i said: Let them pray with:

 

“O Allah, You told us to pray to You and You promised to grant it, we have prayed to You as You told us, so grant our prayer as You promised.

O Allah, favor us with forgiveness for our sins and with your favor in sending down rain upon us and extending sustenance to us.”

 

And praying for the believers and believers, saying salawat on the Prophet recites one or two verses, and the imam says: I ask forgiveness from Allah, and for you too.

 

Also prayers to ward off calamities and other supplications, such as: O Allah, grant us good in this world and the next. Protect us from the punishment of Hell. There are also other supplications that we have mentioned in the authentic traditions.

 

As-Shaafa’i said: The Imam delivers two sermons in the Istisga prayer, just as he delivers two sermons in the Eid prayer, glorifying Allah and praising Him, and invoking blessings upon the Prophet and multiplying istighfar in it to the extent that he says the most. Also say a lot:

 

“Seek forgiveness from your Lord, verily He is Oft-Forgiving.

He sends down rain on you from the sky in abundance.”

 

Then he narrated from ‘Umar that he prayed for rain and most of his prayers were istighfar. He continued that most of his prayers should be istighfar. He started with istighfar, stopped in the middle of it with istighfar and ended it with istighfar. It is his most frequent utterance until he finishes his khutbah and calls upon people to repent and do acts of obedience and draw closer to Allah.

 

Remarks when the wind is strong

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from ‘Aisha that when the wind blew strongly, the Prophet said:

 

“O Allah, I ask You for its goodness and the good that it contains and the good that is sent down with it. I seek refuge with You from its evil and the evil that it contains and the evil that is sent down with it.”

 

Abu Hurairah heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“The wind is one of Allah’s mercies towards His servants. It may come with mercy and it may come with punishment. So, when you see it, do not curse it, and ask Allah for its good and seek refuge with Allah from its evil.” (H.R. Abu Daud and Ibn Majah)

 

 It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah, from ‘Aisha up that when the Prophet saw a cloud moving on the horizon, he would leave his work even while he was praying, and say: “O Allah, I seek refuge with You from its evil”. When it rained, he would say: O Allah, send down a comfortable rain.”

 

It was narrated in Tirmidhi and others, from Ubay bin Kaab that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Do not curse the wind. When you see something you dislike, then say: We ask You for the good of this wind and the good that is in it and the good that is beneath it. We seek refuge with You from the evil of this wind and the evil that is in it and the evil that is beneath it.” Tirmiri classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

It was narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Salamah Ibn Al-Akwa that the Messenger of Allah, when the wind blew strongly, would say:

 

“O Allah, make it bring fertility and do not make it bring drought.”

 

It was narrated by Imam As-Shaf’i in his book, A/-Umm, with a snad from Ibn Abbas who said: No wind blew but the Prophet sat on his knees and said:

 

“O Allah, make ta a mercy and do not make it a torment. O Allah, make it many winds and do not make it one kind of wind.”

 

Ibn Abbas said: It has been mentioned in the word of Allah:

 

“Indeed We sent upon them a very strong wind….” (Q.S. Fusshilat: 16)

 

Allah also said:

 

“And We send upon them a wind that brings drought.” (Q.S. Az-Zaariyat: 41)

 

In Surah Al-Hijr, verse 22, Allah explains:

 

“And We send the winds that bring fertility…”

 

In other words:

 

“And among His signs He sends winds that bring gladness…” (Q.S. Ar-Rum: 46)

 

As-Shaafa’i mentions an unreliable tradition of a man who complained to the Prophet about his poverty and the Prophet said: Perhaps you have cursed the wind.

 

Imam Shaf’i explains: It is not proper for a person to curse the wind, because the wind is a submissive creature of Allah and one of His armies. He can make it a mercy and a torment if He wishes.

 

What to say when you hear thunder

 

With a dhaif isnad, Tirmizi narrated from Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah, when he heard the sound of thunder and lightning, said:

 

“O Allah, do not kill us in anger and do not destroy us with Your torment and save us before it.”

 

With a sahih isnad, Imam Malik narrated that, when Abdullah bin Zubair heard thunder, he left the conversation and said:

 

“Glory be to Allah, to Whom the thunder and the angels praise for fear of Him.”

 

With a sahih isnad, Imam Shafi’i narrated: When Thawus heard thunder, he said: Glory be to Allah, to Whom you (thunder) proclaim. As-Shaafa’i said: It is as if he is returning to the words of Allah :

 

“And the thunders rise in praise to Him.”

 

Ibn Abbas said: We were with ‘Umar on a journey, when thunder and lightning were heard, and rain fell. Kaab said to us: Whoever when he hears thunder says:

 

“Glory be to Allah, to Whom the thunder and the angels praise out of fear of Him, three times, surely he will be saved from the thunder. So we said it and we were saved from it.”

 

Sayings when it rains

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from ‘Aisha that the Messenger of Allah, when it rains, would say ‘”:

 

“God, send down useful rain.”

 

Imam Shafi’i narrated a mursal hadith that the Prophet said:

 

“Seek the fulfillment of prayers at the time of war and the Iqamah of prayer and the Descent of rain.”

 

Speech after the rain

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Zayd ibn Khalid Al-Juhani that the Messenger of Allah prayed Fajr with us at Hudaibiyah after it had rained during the night. When he finished, he faced the people and said:

 

“Do you know what your Lord says? The Companions replied: Allah and His Messenger know better. The Messenger of Allah said: Allah said: Among My servants, there are those who believe in Me and those who disbelieve. As for those who say: We get rain by the favor of Allah and His mercy, then that person believes in Me and disbelieves in astrology. As for those who say: We got the rain because of such and such a star, then that person disbelieves in Me and believes in astrology.”

 

The scholars said: If a Muslim says: We got the rain because of this star and he means that this star is the one who made and sent down the rain, then he becomes a disbeliever without a doubt.

 

If he says it with the intention that it is a sign of the rain, so that the rain falls when this sign is present, and the rain falls by the action of Allah and His creation, then ja does not become a disbeliever.

 

The scholars differed as to its permissibility, and the preferred view is that it is makrooh, because it is one of the sayings of the disbelievers. This is the meaning of the Hadīth. It has been quoted by Ash-Shafi’i in al-Umm and others.

 

It is advisable to thank Allah for this blessing of rain.

 

Saying when afraid of the danger of rain

 

In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, that Anas, narrated: A man entered the mosque on Friday. At that time, the Messenger of Allah was giving a sermon. The man said: O Messenger of Allah, wealth is gone and roads are cut off, so pray that Allah will help us. So the Messenger of Allah raised his hands and said:

 

“O Allah, help us. O Allah, help us. O God, help us.”

 

Anas said: By Allah, we saw neither a cloud in the sky nor a fragment of a cloud, and between us and (the name of a mountain near Medina) there were neither houses nor buildings. So, there rose up from behind him a cloud like a shield. When it reached the middle of the sky, it dispersed and rained. By Allah, we did not see the sun at all. Then, a man entered through the door on the following Friday, and the Messenger of Allah was giving a sermon. The man said: O Messenger of Allah, wealth has disappeared and roads have been cut off. So, pray to Allah to protect us from it. The Messenger of Allah raised his hands and said:

 

“O Allah, send it down around us, do not send it down on us. O Allah, send it down on the lands, hills and valley floors and places where trees grow.”

 

Then the cloud disappeared and out we walked in the sunlight.

 

Zikr of the Hajat prayer Narrated in Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah from Abdullah ibn Abi Aufa, that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever has a desire for Allah or for one of the sons of Adam, let him perform ablution and make it smooth, then pray two rak’ahs, then praise Allah and say salawat to the Prophet. Next, he should say: There is no God but Allah, the Most Forgiving and Gracious. Glory be to Allah, the Lord of the great Throne. Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds. I ask for the outpouring of Your mercy and the certainty of Your forgiveness and the acquisition of all goodness and salvation from all sins. Leave me no sin but You have forgiven it, and leave me no distress but You have removed it. Leave me no need that You are pleased with except that You have fulfilled it. O Most Merciful of the merciful.”

 

According to Imam Nawawi, he should pray: O Allah, grant us goodness in this world and goodness in the Hereafter, and protect us from the torment of hellfire.

 

It is narrated in Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah from Usman bin Hanif that a blind man came to the Prophet and said: Pray to Allah to cure me. He said: If you wish, I will pray, and if you wish, be patient. That is better for you. The man said: Then pray. Then the Messenger of Allah told him to make ablution and make it right and then prayed with:

 

“O Allah, I ask You and go to You with Your Prophet, Muhammad the Prophet of mercy. O Muhammad, I go through you to my Lord in this need so that it may be fulfilled for me. O Allah make him an intermediary in this need of mine.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan sahih Zikr Prayer Tasbih

 

Tirmidhi said: More than one tradition has been narrated about the Tasbih prayer and many of them are invalid.

 

Ibn Mubarak and many scholars are of the opinion that there is a Tasbih prayer and they mention its virtues.

 

Tirmidhi said: Narrated to us by Ahmad bin Abdah, he said: Narrated to us by Abu Wahbin, he said: I asked Abdullah bin Mubarak about the Tasbih prayer. He replied: First saying Takbir, then saying:

 

“Glory be to You, O Allah, with all praise be to You, Glory be to Your name, and Glory be to Your power. There is no God but You.”

 

Then say it fifteen times:

 

“Glory be to Allah, praise be to Allah, there is no god but Allah and Allah is the Greatest.”

 

Then ask for protection (ta’awudz) and recite Surah Al-Fatihah and another Surah, then say the above ten times. Then bow and say it ten times. Then he raises his head and recites that number of times. Then prostrate and recite the same number of times.

 

Followed by raising the head (sitting) and saying ten times. Then prostrate again and say it in the same way.

 

The Tasbih prayer is done four rak’ahs in this way. There are seventy-five tasbeehs in each rak’ah, starting with fifteen tasbeehs, then reciting a surah, then ten tasbeehs.

 

When praying at night, Imam Nawawi prefers to say the salam after two rak’ahs. When praying during the day, it is permissible to say the salam after two rak’ahs and it is permissible to say it after four rak’ahs.

 

It was narrated in Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, from Abi Rafi that the Messenger of Allah said to Al-Abbas:

 

“O uncle, shall I connect, love and benefit you?” Abbas replied: Of course, O Messenger of Allah. Behau said: O uncle, pray four rak’ahs. You recite in one rak’ah Surah Al-Fatihah and another Surah. When it is finished, then say: Allah is great, praise be to Allah, and Glory be to Allah: fifteen kah before you bow. Then bow and say it ten times. Raise your head after that and say it ten times, then prostrate and say it ten times, raise your head and say it ten times before standing up. All that amounts to seventy-five tasbeeh in each rak’ah, and three hundred tasbeeh in four rak’ahs. Even if your sins are as numerous as fine sand, Allah will forgive them for you. Abbas said: O Messenger of Allah, who can do this every day? He said: If you cannot do it every day, then do it every Friday. If you cannot do it every Friday, then do it every month. And so on until he said: Do it every year.” Tirmidhi classifies it as a gharib (odd) Hadith.

 

Imam Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi in his book Al-Ahwazi Fi Sharhi At-Tirmidhi says that this Hadith of Abi Raft is weak and has no basis in authenticity or reliability. Tirmidhi mentioned it so as not to be deceived by it, and the words of Ibn Mubarak are not proof. Al-Agily said: There is no authentic hadith about the Tasbih prayer. Abu Al-Faraj ibn Al-Jauzy mentions the traditions of the Tasbih prayer from several routes, then weakens them all and explains their weaknesses. He mentions in his book about maudhu’ (fabricated) traditions.

 

Imam al-Hafidh Abi al-Hasan Ad-Daruguthni reported to us that he said: The most authentic Hadith about the virtue of a Surah is Surah Al-Ikhlas and the most authentic Hadith about the virtue of prayer is the Tasbih prayer.

 

I have mentioned this statement with its chain of transmission in Thabagat al-Fugaha (The ranks of the fuqaha) in the translation of Abi al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn ‘Umar ad-Daruguthni.

 

It is not usual from this expression that the tradition about the Tasbih prayer is Sahih, because they say: This is the most sahih that can be found in this chapter, even though it is dharf. They mean the strongest and the least weak.

 

A group of our companions have written about the recommendation to pray Tasbih, including Abu Muhammad AlBaghawi and Abu Al-Mahasin Ar-Ruyani.

 

Dhikr related to zakat

 

Allah said:

 

“Take from their wealth alms that will purify them and cleanse them and pray for them….” (Q.S. At-Taubah: 103)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim that according to Abdullah bin Abi Aufa when a people came to the Messenger with alms, he said:

 

“O Allah, grant them prosperity.”

 

Abi Aufa came with his alms, so the Prophet prayed:

 

“O Allah, grant prosperity to the family of Abi Aufa.”

 

Imam Shafi’i and other scholars said: What is preferred is for the recipient of zakaah to say to the giver:

 

“May Allah reward you in the charity you give and make it pure for you. May He also bless you in the wealth you leave behind.”

 

This prayer is recommended for the recipient of zakat, whether he is the one distributing or the poor.

 

As for the Prophet’s saying: Allahumma shalhi alaihim, then he said it because the phrase Ash-Shalatu is specific to him, so he can use it for whoever he wants, unlike us.

 

You should know that the intention to pay zakaah is obligatory, and the intention is in the heart, like other acts of worship. It is advisable to combine it with verbal utterances like other acts of worship.

 

If it is sufficient for him to say it verbally without any intention in his heart, then there is disagreement about its validity. The most correct view is that it is not valid, and the giver of zakaah is not obliged, if he intends to say: “This is zakaah”; rather it is sufficient for him to give it to the person to whom it is due. If he does say that, it does not affect him.

 

It is advisable for those who give zakat, sadaqah, vows, expiation, etc. to say:

 

“O our Lord, accept from us, surely You are All-Hearing and All-Knowing.”

 

Allah has told us about it from Abraham, Ishmael and Imran’s wife.

 

SOME FASTING DHIKR

 

Saying when you see the crescent moon and when you see the moon

 

It is narrated in Musnad Ad-Darimi and Tirmidhi from Talhah ibn Ubaidillah that when the Prophet saw the crescent moon, he said:

 

“O Allah, send down upon us the crescent moon with blessings and faith, salvation and Islam. My Lord and your Lord (the crescent) is Allah.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

It was narrated in Musnad Ad-Darimi, that Ibn Umar said: That when the Messenger of Allah saw the crescent moon, he said:

 

“Allah is great: O Allah, send down upon us the crescent moon bringing security and faith, salvation and Islam, guidance to the deeds that You love and that You are pleased with. Our Lord and your Lord (the crescent) is Allah.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, in the book Al-Adab, from Oatadah, that he heard the Messenger of Allah, when he saw the crescent moon, say:

 

“The crescent moon that brings goodness and true guidance, the crescent moon that brings goodness and true guidance, the crescent moon that brings goodness and true guidance. I believe in Allah who created you, three times. Praise be to Allah, who destroyed and brought forth this moon.”

 

It was narrated in Hilyat Al-Auliya’, with a dhaif isnad from Ziyad An-Numarri, from Anas that when the Messenger of Allah entered the month of Rajab, he would say:

 

“Allah, bless us in the months of Rajab and Sha’ban, and deliver us to the month of Ramadan.”

 

Recommended dhikr during fasting

 

It is recommended to combine the intention in the heart and the verbal utterance as in other acts of worship. If the intention is in the heart, it is sufficient. If the intention is only verbal, it is not sufficient. This has been agreed upon.

 

It is Sunnah when someone abuses him or is hostile to him to say: I am fasting, I am fasting.

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Fasting is a shield. So, when one of you fasts, do not speak foul words and do not engage in hostility. If anyone antagonizes him or abuses him, then say: I am fasting, I am fasting. Twice.”

 

Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Three kinds of people whose prayers are not rejected: A fasting person until he breaks his fast, a just Imam and the supplication of a persecuted person.” ‘Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan tradition.

 

Sayings when breaking the fast

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Nasa’i, from Ibn Umar that when breaking the fast, the Prophet said:

 

“Thirst is quenched, sinews become wet and rewards are established, insha’Allah.”

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Muadz bin Zuhrah, that he heard the Prophet, when he broke his fast, say:

 

“O Allah, it is for You that I fast and for Your provision that I break my fast.”

 

Ibn Sunni narrated that Muadz bin Zuhrah said: When the Messenger of Allah broke his fast, he would say:

 

“Praise be to Allah who has helped me to fast and provided for me to break my fast.”

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah, when he broke his fast, would say:

 

“O Allah, for You we fast and for Your sustenance we break our fast, so accept from us. Indeed, You are All-Hearing and All-Knowing.”

 

Through Abdullah bin Abi Mulaikah, Ibn Majah and Ibn Sunni narrated that Abdullah bin Amr ibn Al-Ash heard the words of the Apostle &:

 

“Verily, the one who fasts at the time of breaking his fast has a supplication that is not rejected.”

 

Ibn Abi Mulaikah said: I heard Abdullah bin Amr when breaking his fast say:

 

“O Allah, I ask You with Your all-pervading mercy to forgive me.”

 

Saying when breaking the fast at someone’s place

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud and others narrated from Anas that the Prophet came to Saad bin Ubadah. So he brought bread and oil, at which time, he ate. After that, the Prophet said:

 

“The fasting people break their fast in your place and the righteous eat your food, and the angels pray for you. “

 

Speech when it coincides with Lailatul Oadar

 

With a sahih isnad, Yirmizi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and others narrated that Aisha said: O Messenger of Allah, if I know the Lailatul qadr, what should I say at that time? He said: Say: “

 

“O Allah, surely You are forgiving and love forgiveness, so forgive me.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan hadith.

 

Companion Imam Nawawi said: It is recommended to multiply this supplication, and it is recommended to recite the Qur’an and other dhikr and favorable supplications in noble places.

 

Imam Shafi’i said: I like it when his efforts during the day are like his efforts at night. And it is recommended to make supplications in it regarding various interests of the Muslims.

 

This is the propagation of the Safi’is and the wise servants of Allah.

 

Dhikr during Iktikaf

 

It is recommended to recite a lot of Qur’an during iktikaf and other dhikr. Dhikr of Hajj

 

You should know that the remembrance of Hajj and its prayers are numerous and countless. But we are pointing out two types of remembrance that are found in it, namely, during the journey and the remembrance of the Hajj itself.

 

With regard to the remembrance of the journey, we have left it for mention in that section. I will not mention some of the evidence in general, lest it becomes too long and the reader becomes bored, because this chapter is very long.

 

When a person enters ihram, he performs ghusl and ablution, puts on his sarong and sash, and then prays two rak’ahs.

 

It is recommended to recite Surah Al-Kafirun in the first rak’ah after Surah Al-Fatihah. In the second rak’ah the Surah Al-Ikhlas.

 

If he intends to enter ihraam, he should do so with his heart, and it is recommended that he say the words. So he should say: I intend to perform Hajj and enter ihram for the sake of Allah, may He be exalted.

 

What is obligatory is to make the intention in one’s heart, while pronouncing it is Sunnah. If the intention is in the heart, it is sufficient. If you intend it with words, it is not sufficient. Then say the talbiyah, as the Prophet did:

 

“O Allah, I welcome your call, I welcome your call. There is no partner for You, I welcome Your call. Verily all praise, pleasure and power belong to You, there is no partner for You.”

 

You should know that the talviyah is Sunnah. If he omits it, his Hajj and ‘Umrah will be valid, but he will have lost a great virtue and will not be following the practice of the Messenger of Allah.

 

Some make it obligatory. Some require it for the validity of Hajj. The correct one is sunnah.

 

When entering ihram on behalf of another person, it is said: I intend Hajj and I enter ihram for the sake of Allah on behalf of So-and-so.

 

It is recommended to say salawat on the Messenger of Allah after ta/biyah and pray for him and anyone he wants regarding the affairs of this world and the Hereafter. It is also recommended to ask for his pleasure, Paradise and refuge from Hellfire.

 

It is recommended to multiply the utterance of talbiyah. It is recommended in all situations: standing, sitting, walking, riding, lying down, descending, traveling, having an ablution, being junub, menstruating, at night and day, at dawn, gathering with friends, after praying in the mosque. The most correct view is that the talbiyah should not be made during tawaaf and sa’i, because they have special remembrances.

 

It is recommended to raise one’s voice during the talbiyah. It is not permissible for women to raise their voices, for fear of causing fitnah.

 

You should know that the talbiyah is recommended until stoning the Jumratul Agabah on the day of slaughtering the sacrifice, or doing the rewaf ifadah if it takes precedence over it. If he starts with either of them, then he stops the talbiyah with the beginning of its performance and occupies himself with takbir.

 

Imam Shafi’i said: The one who performs ‘Umrah should say the Talbiyah until he kisses the Ka’bah. When the person in ihram reaches Makkah, it is recommended to say:

 

“O Allah, this is Your sanctuary and Your security, so forbid me from the fire of hell, and secure me from Your torment on the day when You resurrect Your servants. And make me among Your saints and the people of obedience to You.”

 

Then he prayed as he pleased.

 

When entering Makkah and seeing the Kaaba and reaching the mosque, it is recommended to raise both hands and pray. It is reported that the Muslim’s prayer is answered when he sees the Kaaba. So say:

 

“O Allah, increase this house in glory and majesty, honor and authority. Increase the glory, honor, and majesty and goodness of those who honor and respect it among those who perform Hajj and Umrah. O Allah, You are salvation and from You is salvation. O our Lord, revive us with salvation.”

 

Then pray as much as he wishes for the good of this world and the hereafter.

 

  1. Dhikr during Tawaf

 

It is recommended when kissing Hajar Aswad and starting tawaaf to say:

 

“In the name of Allah I do tawaaf, Allah is the Greatest. O Allah, I believe in You, believe in Your book, keep my promise to You and follow the sunnah of Your Prophet.”

 

It is recommended to repeat this remembrance when facing Hajar Aswad in each tawaaf. When walking fast during the three tawaafs, it is recommended to say:

 

“Allah, make him a successful Hajj, a forgiven sin and a grateful deed.”

 

And said in the other four tawaafs:

 

“O Allah, have mercy and pity, forgive the sins that You know, You are the Mighty and the Gracious. O Allah, our Lord, grant us good in this world and the next, and protect us from the torment of hell.”

 

Imam Shafi’i said: In all tawaaf, I like to say: O Allah, our Lord, grant us good in this world and in the Hereafter, and protect us from the punishment of hell.

 

It is advisable to pray between tawaaf for whatever one likes of religious and worldly affairs. If a person prays and the congregation assents, that is good.

 

It was narrated from Al-Hasan that supplication is mustajab in fifteen places: In tawaaf, at Multazam, under the mizab, at the Ka’bah, at the well of Zamzam, at Shafa and Marwa, at the place behind Ibrahim’s grave, in Arafat, in Muzdalifah, in Mina, at the time of stoning the three Jamaraat. So, the one who does not pray in these places is indeed a loser.

 

Imam Shafi’i and most of his companions said: It is recommended to recite the Qur’an in tawaaf, because it is a place of remembrance, and the most important remembrance is reciting the Qur’an. Abu Al-Halimi, one of the great scholars of Imam Shaf’i’s companions, preferred that it is not recommended to recite the Qur’an during tawaaf. The correct view is the first one.

 

When one finishes tawaaf and the two Rak’ahs of prayer, it is recommended that he prays whatever he likes. Among the supplications narrated in this regard are:

 

“O Allah, I am Your servant and the son of Your servant. I come to You with great sins and bad deeds. This is the position of one who seeks refuge with You from the Fire. So forgive me, surely You are the Most Forgiving and Merciful.”

 

  1. Supplication at Multazam” Among the narrated supplications are:

 

“O Allah, all praise be to You, praise that is adequate to Your pleasure and commensurate with Your addition. I praise You with all the praise of You, whether I know it or not, for all Your pleasures, whether I know them or not, and in all circumstances.

O Allah, grant salawat (mercy) and salam (safety) upon Muhammad and his family. O Allah, protect me from the accursed devil, and protect me from every bad deed and satisfy me with the sustenance that You have given me, and make me career in it. O Allah, make me Your most honored guest, and set me on the straight path so that I may meet You. O Lord of the worlds. After that, pray as much as you like.

 

  1. Supplication at Hijir Ismail Among the supplications narrated about it are:

 

“O Lord, I have come to You from a great distance in expectation of Your goodness, so bestow upon me a goodness from You that is sufficient for me, so that I need no goodness from anyone other than You. O Lord who is known for goodness.”

 

  1. Praying at the Ka’bah It is narrated in Nasa’i from Usamah bin Zaid that when the Messenger of Allah entered the Ka’bah, he went to the back of it and pressed his face and cheeks against it, praising Allah and honoring it. He also prayed to it and made Istighfar. Then he walked to each of the pillars of the Ka’bah and said takbir, tahlil, tasbih, and praise to Allah and prayed and made istighfar, then came out.

 

  1. Dhikr during Sa’i It is mustahabb to stand for a long time at Shafa and face the Ka’bah then say Takbir and supplication by saying:

 

“Allah is great, Allah is great, Allah is great, and all praise is for Him. Allah is great for the guidance He has given us and all praise is for Allah for what He has favored us with. There is no God but Allah with whom there is no partner. He has all power and to Him belongs all praise; He gives life and death. In His hands is all goodness and He is the Lord of all things. There is no God but Allah. He carries out His janyi, helps His servants, defeats the alliance of His enemies alone, There is no God but Allah, and we worship none but Him, by devoting religion to Him even though it is disliked by the disbelievers. I ask You as You have guided me to Islam, that You do not take it away from me so that You kill me as a seasoned person.”

 

Then supplicate for good in this world and the next, and repeat this remembrance and supplication three times. At that time, do not say /albiyah.

 

When he reaches Marwah, he goes up to it and says some of the dhikr and supplications that were said at Shafa. It was narrated from Ibn ‘Umar that he said on Shafa:

 

“O Allah, protect us with Your religion and obedience to You and obedience to Your Messenger and keep us away from Your prohibitions. O Allah, make us love You and love Your angels, Your prophets, Your messengers and love Your righteous servants. O Allah, make it easy for us to find ease, and keep us away from hardship.

Forgive us in this world and the Hereafter. Make us among the leaders of the righteous.”

 

And on the way back between Shafa and Marwah, saying:

 

“O Lord, forgive, pity and forgive the sins that You know, surely You are Mighty and Gracious. O Allah, grant us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and protect us from the punishment of hell.”

 

Among the optional prayers at Sa’i and at every place are:

 

“O Allah, O Lord who can turn hearts, set my heart on your religion. O Allah, I ask You for the outpouring of Your mercy, the certainty of Your forgiveness, salvation from all sins, the good fortune of entering Paradise and salvation from the fire of Hell. O Allah, I ask for your guidance, piety, moral cleanliness and sufficiency. O Allah, help me to remember You and to thank You and to make my worship of You perfect. O Allah, I ask for the good of everything, both that which I know and that which I do not know. I seek refuge with You from all evil, both that which I know of and that which I do not know. I ask for Paradise and the words or deeds that bring me closer to it.”

 

If you recite the whole Qur’an, it is better. And it is better to combine dhikr, some supplications and recitation of the Qur’ān. If you want to abbreviate, you should do so with the important dhikr.

 

  1. Dhikr from Makkah to Arafat It is recommended when exiting Makkah towards Mina to say:

 

“O Allah, you are the one I hope for and you are the one I pray to, so deliver me to my good hope. Forgive all my sins. Reward me with what You have given to those who obey You. Indeed, You are in control of all things.”

 

When walking from Mina to Arafat, it is recommended to say:

 

“O Allah, to You I go and Your pleasure is all I desire. So, make my sins forgiven and my Hajj mabrur (accepted). Have mercy on me, and do not waste me. Verily You are all-powerful over all things.”

 

And saying the talbiyah, reciting the Qur’an, increasing the number of dhikr and other prayers, as well as speech:

 

“O Allah, grant us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and protect us from the punishment of hell.”

 

  1. Some remembrances and prayers at Arafat

We have mentioned the Prophet’s hadith on the remembrance of Eid, which is:

 

“The best of supplications is on the day of Arafat and the best of what I said and what the Prophets before me said is: There is no God but Allah with whom there is no partner. He has all power and to Him belongs all praise. He is all-powerful over all things.”

 

So it is recommended to increase this remembrance and prayer. The day of Arafat is the most important day of the year for prayer. It is the greatest part of Hajj. So, one should devote himself to remembrance, supplication, and recitation of the Qur’an. Praying and remembrance of all kinds. Praying for oneself and remembering Allah in every place. Praying alone and with a congregation (group of people) for himself, his parents, his relatives, his teachers and friends and his loved ones and some other Muslims who do good to him.

 

Do not be careless about it, because it is not possible to change the day, unlike other days. Do not insist on rhyming in supplication, because it can neglect and remove humility, a sense of submission, deficiency, humiliation, lowliness and solemnity (before Allah).

 

It is mustahabb to lower one’s voice in supplication, and to multiply istighfar and repentance from all disobedience, along with sincerity of heart and perseverance in supplication. It is also mustahabb to repeat it and ask that it be granted immediately. Starting the supplication and ending it with praise and adoration of Allah, salawat and taslim on the Messenger of Allah. One should try to face the Ka’bah and be in a state of purity.

 

It is narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, that Ali said: Most of the Prophet’s supplications on the day of Arafat were:

 

“O Allah, all praise be to You as we say and better than we say. O Allah, to You belongs my prayer, worship, life and death, and to You I come. My wealth belongs to You, O my Lord. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the torment of the grave, anxiety in the heart and affairs in disarray. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the evil that the wind brings.”

 

It is recommended to increase the number of ta/bryahs in between the prayers and salutations and salutations on the Messenger of Allah and to increase the number of cries along with the dhikr and prayers.

 

This is where tears are shed and wrongs are absolved and requests are expected to be granted. Verily it is a great resting place and a glorious gathering. There meet the self-sacrificing servants of Allah, and it is the greatest gathering place in the world.

 

Among the selected prayers are:

 

“O Allah, grant us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and protect us from the punishment of hell. O Allah, indeed I have wronged myself much and no one can forgive sins but You. So, forgive me with forgiveness from Your side. Have mercy on me, surely You are Forgiving and Merciful. O Allah, forgive me with forgiveness that improves my affairs in this world and the next. Have mercy on me with mercy that causes me to be happy in this world and the Hereafter. Bless me with a nasuha (true) repentance that I shall not transgress forever. Establish for me a straight path that I cannot deviate from forever. O Allah, move me from the lowliness of sin to the glory of obedience. Enable me with Your permissibility without needing Your forbidden, and with obedience to You without disobeying You, and Your excellence without needing anything other than You. Enlighten my heart and my grave. Protect me from all evil. And gather good for me in its entirety.”

 

  1. Dhikr from Araf ah to Muzdalifah

It has been explained that it is recommended to make Talbiyah in every place and this is the most emphasized. And increasing the recitation of the Qur’an and praying and it is recommended to say: Laa ilaha illallahu, Wallahu akbar. It is to be repeated, and to say:

 

“O Allah, in You I hope and You are the one I hope for, so accept my worship. Grant me guidance and sustenance in it from as much good as I ask for and do not waste me. Verily, You are the Most Generous, the Most Gracious.”

 

This night is the night of the feast. We have already mentioned the virtue of spending it in remembrance and prayer, and this noble night is associated with a noble place and its continuance in a holy place in a state of ihram. It is the place where the people of Hajj gather and after this great act of worship and the prayers of the noble are found in that place.

 

  1. Dhikr in Muzdalifah and Masy’aril Haram

Allah said:

 

“… When you depart from Arafat, then remember Allah at Masy’aril Haram (the sacred sign) and remember Him as He guided you, even though you were previously of the misguided ones.” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah: 198)

 

It is recommended to offer more du’aa’ in Muzdalifah at night, as well as dhikr, /albiyah and recitation of the Qur’an, because it is a great night, as we mentioned earlier.

 

Among the prayers recited on that night were:

 

“O Allah, I ask You to give me sustenance in this place in the form of all good and that You make all my affairs better. I ask You to remove from me all evil, for none can do that but You and none can give it but You.”

 

If you pray Fajr on that day, you should do it at the beginning of the day, and do it at dawn, then go to the Haram, which is a small mountain at the end of Muzdalifah called “Ouzah.”

 

If it is possible to ride it, he rides it. If not, he stands under it facing the Ka’bah (Qiblah). At that time, he praises, says Takbir, Tawheed, glorifies Him, and glorifies Him and multiplies Talbiyah. It is recommended to say:

 

“O Allah, as You have stopped us in the sim and shown us, so grant us the ability to remember You as You have shown us. Forgive us and have mercy on us as You have promised us with Your words, and Your true words are: (When you depart from Arafat, then remember Allah in the Sacred Mosque and remember Him as He has guided you, even though you were previously among those who went astray, then depart from where the people departed and seek forgiveness from Allah, surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful).

 

And increase speech:

 

“O our Lord, grant us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and protect us from the punishment of Hell.” And it is recommended to say:

 

“O Allah, to You is all praise and all perfection, to You is all glory and all adoration. O Allah, forgive all my past sins and protect me from future ones. Grant me sustenance in the form of good deeds that cause You to be pleased with me, O Lord of great virtue. O Allah, I intercede for You with Your greatest servants and intercede for Yourself, I ask You to provide me with a collection of good deeds and surround me with what You have granted to Your saints. I ask You to make my situation better in the duma and the hereafter. O Lord, the Most Merciful of the merciful.”

 

  1. Dhikr from Masy’aril Haram to Mina

When dawn breaks, go from the Masy’aril Haram to Mina, and the shiar is talbiyah, dhikr and supplication, and multiplying these words.

 

One should pay close attention to the recitation of the talbiyah, because this is the end of his time. Perhaps it is not destined for him to die after that.

 

  1. Dhikr in Mina

When departing from Masy’aril Haram and arriving at Mina, it is recommended to say:

 

“Praise be to Allah who has delivered me safely and soundly to him. O Allah, this is Mina, I have come to it. I am Your servant and in Your grasp, I ask You to honor me with that which You have bestowed upon Your saints. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from failure in my deeds and calamity in my religion. O Lord, the Most Merciful of the Merciful.”

 

When the stoning of Jumratrul Aqabah begins, the Talbiyah should be stopped with the first stone and Takbir should be said with each stone that is thrown. It is not recommended to stand there to pray. If he has a sacrificial animal, it should be slaughtered.

 

It is recommended when slaughtering to say:

 

 

“In the name of Allah, Allah is the Greatest. O Allah, send peace and blessings on Muhammad and his family. O Allah, (this sacrifice) comes from You and returns to You, accept this sacrifice from me, or accept it from Fulan if he slaughters it for someone else.”

 

If he shaves his head after slaughtering, then our companions recommended that he should hold his forelock with his hand when shaving and say Takbīr three times, then say:

 

“Praise be to Allah for His guidance to us and praise be to Allah for the blessings He has bestowed upon us. O Allah, this is the tip of my hair, so accept it from me, and forgive my sins. O Allah, forgive the pilgrims who shave and cut their hair. O Lord of the Most Extensive Forgiveness. Amen.”

 

When he finishes shaving, he should say Takbir and say,

 

“Praise be to Allah who has accomplished for us our worship. O Allah, increase our faith, belief, guidance and help, and forgive us, our fathers, our mothers, and all Muslims.”

 

  1. Dhikr on the Day of Tasyrig

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Nabisyah Al-Khair AlHuzali (a companion), that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The days of Tasyrig are days to eat and drink and remember Allah.”

 

So it is recommended to increase dhikr, and especially to read the Qur’an.

 

It is mustahabb to stand every day at the time of stoning on the first throw (Al-Jumratul Ula) if stoning it and facing the Ka’bah (qiblah), praising Allah, saying Takbir, bertahlil, bertasbih, praying with the presence of the heart and the solemnity of the limbs. He continued in that state merely reciting Surah al-Baqarah. So it is when the middle Jummah, and not standing on the third, namely the Agabah Jummah.

 

When he leaves Mina, his Hajj has been completed and there is no more remembrance associated with Hajj. However, he is a traveler, so it is recommended for him to say takbir, tahlil, tahmid and tamjid (glorifying) and other dhikr that are recommended for travelers. The explanation will come, in sha Allah.

 

When he enters Makkah and intends to perform ‘Umrah, he should say the same Dhikr as he does for Hajj and ‘Umrah, i.e. ihram, tawaaf, sa’i, slaughtering and shaving the head.

 

  1. Remarks when drinking Zamzam water

It was narrated from Jabir that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Zamzam water is beneficial according to what one considers when drinking it.”

 

This has been practiced by scholars and good people. They drink it for the sake of a noble cause, so they get it. The scholars said: It is recommended for the one who drinks it to ask for forgiveness or healing from illness. In between he should say:

 

“O Allah, it has reached me that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

Lamzam water is beneficial according to what is intended when drinking it. O Allah, I drink it that You may forgive me and that You may do “this” and “that” (according to his request) to me. So forgive (or grant) me, or by saying: O Allah, indeed I drank it seeking healing, so heal me.” When the pilgrim leaves Makkah to return to his homeland, he should do tawaaf al-wada’ (farewell tawaaf), then go to Multazam and stand there and say:

 

“O Allah, this house is Your house and I am Your servant, the son of Your servant and the daughter of Your servant. You have brought me on Your creatures (vehicles) which You have made easy for me, so that You run me in Your countries and You have conveyed me with Your favor, so that You help me in performing Your worship.

So, if You are pleased with me, be pleased with me more. If not, then from now on, before You remove Your house from my house, this is the time of my departure if You allow me without asking You and Your house in exchange and without turning away from You and from Your house.

O Allah, grant me health in my body and protection in my religion. Make good my return. Grant me sustenance in the form of obedience to You as long as You keep me alive. Gather for me the good of the duma and the hereafter. Verily, You are all-powerful over all things.”

 

This supplication begins and ends with praise to Allah and salutation to the Messenger of Allah as in the previous supplications. If she is a menstruating woman, it is recommended that she stand at the door of the mosque and supplicate this du’aa’, and then leave.

 

  1. Pilgrimage to the Messenger of Allah and his remembrance

It is appropriate for every pilgrim who performs Hajj to make a pilgrimage to the Prophet’s grave, whether his pilgrimage is his way or not, because his pilgrimage is the most important approach, the most fortunate deed and the most important demand.

 

When one goes on pilgrimage there, he should increase the salawat of the Messenger of Allah on his way. When his gaze falls upon the trees of Madinah and its sanctuary, he should increase the salawat and taslim upon the Messenger of Allah and invoke the blessings of Allah upon him.

 

Allah will benefit him by his pilgrimage to his grave and grant him happiness in this world and the next. And he should say:

 

“O Allah, open the doors of Your mercy and grant me sustenance in visiting Your Prophet as You grant Your saints and those who obey You and forgive me and have mercy on me. O Lord, the best of places to ask.”

 

When entering the mosque, it is recommended to say the same words as when entering any other mosque. When he has prayed the tahiyat prayer in the mosque, he should go to the grave of a noble one, face it and turn his back to the Qiblah about four cubits away from the wall of the grave, say the greeting of peace without raising his voice, and then say:

 

“May salvation be upon you, O Messenger of Allah. May salvation be upon you O Allah’s choice among His creatures. May salvation be upon you O beloved of Allah. May salvation be upon you O leader of the Messengers and the Seal of the Prophets. May salvation be upon you, your family, your companions, the inhabitants of your house and the pious people of old. I bear witness that you have conveyed the message, fulfilled the mandate and advised the people. Therefore, may Allah reward you for your service to us with the most excellent reward given to a Messenger for his service to his people.”

 

When someone tells him to convey greetings to the Messenger of Allah, he says: May salvation be upon you O Messenger of Allah as a message from Fulan son of Fulan, then retreats one cubit to his right, then greet Abu Bakr, then retreats about a cubit more to greet Umar After that return to his first place before the face of the Messenger of Allah and ask for intercession for himself and to ask for help from his Lord and pray for him, his parents, his companions, his lovers, who have done good to him and other Muslims, and try to multiply prayers. And utilizing this noble place by praising Allah, glorifying Him, saying Allah’s blessings and saluting the Messenger of Allah and multiplying them. Then go to the Rudhah between the grave and the pulpit and make supplications there.

 

It has been narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah :

 

“Between my grave and my pulpit is one of the gardens of heaven.”

 

When leaving Madinah, it is recommended to leave the mosque, pray two rak’ahs and say whatever you wish. Then approach the grave, say the greeting of peace like the first time and repeat the supplication. Then leave the Prophet’s grave saying:

 

“O Allah, do not make this separation the end of the meeting with the shrine of Your Messenger and make it easy for me to return to AlHaramain (the two shrines), an easy path with Your bounty and virtue. Grant me forgiveness and safety in the dunta and the hereafter. Return us safely and successfully to our homeland in safety.”

 

This is the end of the remembrances of Hajj that I have compiled with the help of Allah. Although some of them are long compared to this book, they are short compared to what we have memorized, and we ask Allah, the Most Gracious, to guide us to obedience and to gather us and our brothers in His place of glory (Paradise).

 

I have explained in the book of Manasik the matters relating to these remembrances in the form of completeness, furu (branches) and additions. Allah knows better.

 

To Him be all praise, enjoyment and guidance and protection.

 

Utba said: I was sitting at the grave of the Prophet when an Arab from the village came and said: May salvation be upon you O Messenger of Allah, I heard Allah say:

 

“.. If they were to examine themselves and then come to you and seek forgiveness from Allah, and the Messenger would seek forgiveness for them, they would find Allah Oft-returning and Most Merciful.” (Q.S. An-Nisa’: 64)

 

I have come to you for forgiveness of my sins and to you as an intercessor to my Lord. Then he recited a verse:

 

“O best person whose bones are buried in this grave. Be well with the grave and the mound of earth because of the good of those bones. My soul is ready to sacrifice for the grave that you inhabit. In it there is purity and in it there is generosity and mercy.”

 

Then the villager left, and I went to sleep and I saw the Prophet sleeping, so he said to me:

 

“O Urba, go to the villager and give him good news that God has forgiven him.”

 

SOME DHIKR IN JIHAD

 

The recommendation to ask for martyrdom Anas said: The Messenger of Allah met Umm Haram. He slept then woke up and laughed. Umm Haram asked: “O Messenger of Allah, what caused you to laugh?” He replied: “My Ummah was shown to me as soldiers in the way of Allah riding on ships in the sea, they are like kings on their beds, or like kings.” Umm Haram said: “O Messenger of Allah, pray to Allah that I may be made one of them.” So, the Messenger of Allah prayed for her. (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah, from Muadz that he heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“Whoever sincerely asks Allah for a martyrdom and then dies or is killed, he will receive the reward of a martyr.” Tirmidhi classifies this tradition as Hasan Sahih.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Anas, that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever asks sincerely for martyrdom will be rewarded for it, even if he does not experience it.”

 

Through Sahal bin Hunaif Muslim also narrates the Apostle’s words:

 

“Whoever asks Allah sincerely for martyrdom, Allah will raise him to the rank of martyrs, even if he dies on his bed.”

 

Advice and war strategy Buraidah said: When the Messenger of Allah appointed someone as a commander of an army or a team, he specifically advised him to fear Allah. Likewise, the Muslims who were with him should do good. Then he said:

 

“Fight in the name of Allah in His way. Fight whoever disobeys Him. Fight and do not deviate, betray, torture, do not kill small children. When you meet your enemies from the polytheists, then invite them to three things.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

Encouragement of the Muslims to fight

 

Allah said:

 

“O Prophet, encourage the Muslims to fight….” (Q.S. An-Anfal: 65)

 

Anas said: The Messenger of Allah came out when the Muhajirin and Anshar were digging #handak (protective trenches) on a cold morning. When he saw their fatigue and hunger, he said:

 

“O Allah, the true life is the life of the Hereafter. So, forgive the Anshar and Muhajirin.”

 

Supplication and takbir when fighting Allah says:

 

“O you who believe, when you fight with the (disbelievers), then be steadfast and remember Allah as much as you can, so that you may win. Obey Allah and His Messenger and do not quarrel with each other so that you may fail and lose your greatness. And be patient, surely Allah is with those who are patient.

Do not be like those who go out of their houses arrogantly, seeking praise and obstructing the way of Allah…” (Q.S. Al-Anfal: 45-47).

 

Some scholars say: This verse is the most comprehensive on warfare strategy.

 

It is narrated in the Sahih, from Ibn Abbas that when the Prophet was in his dome he said:

 

“O Allah, I demand your era and your promise. O Allah, if You will, You will not be worshipped after this day.”

 

So, Abubakar took his hand and said: “It is enough for you, O Messenger of Allah, that you have urged your Lord.” After that, he came out and said:

 

“That group will be defeated and they will retreat. The Day of Judgment is promised to them. The Hour is more wretched and more bitter.” (Q.S. Al-Oamar: 45-46)

 

It is narrated that this happened during the battle of Badr.

 

Muslim also narrated from Ibn Abbas that the Prophet faced the Qiblah, then stretched out his hands. He began to pray to his Lord and said:

 

 

“O Allah, fulfill what you have promised me. O Allah, grant me what You have promised me. O Allah, if these people who embrace Islam perish, You will not be worshipped on earth.”

 

 

He continued to pray while raising his hands, so his sash fell.

 

Abdullah bin Abi Aufa narrated that when the Messenger of Allah faced an enemy, he waited until the sun was leaning. Then, he said in front of the people:

 

“O people, do not be anxious to meet the enemy and seek safety from Allah. When you meet the enemy, be patient. Know that Paradise is under the shadow of the sword. Then, he said: O Allah, the One who sent down the Book and the One who runs the clouds and the One who defeats the alliance of the enemy, defeat them. Help us in facing them. In a narration: “O Allah, who sent down the Book, who is swift in reckoning, defeat the alliance of the enemy. O Allah, defeat them and shake them.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Anas said: One morning, the Prophet arrived in Khaibar. When the enemies saw him, they said: “Muhammad has arrived on this Thursday.” So, they took refuge in the fort. Then, the Prophet raised his hands and said: “Allah is great, Khaibar has fallen. Verily, when we come to the place of a people, the state of those who are threatened is bad in the morning.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

With a valid chain of transmission, Abu Daud narrated from Sahal bin Saad that the Prophet said:

 

“Two things are not rejected or rarely rejected: prayer in times of agan and in times of war when it is raging between one side and the other.”

 

Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i narrated from Anas that when the Prophet fought, he said:

 

“O Allah, You are my strength and my helper. With You I resist, attack and fight (the enemy).” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

Through Abu Musa Al-Ashari, Abu Daud and Nasa’i narrated that when fearing a people, the Prophet said:

 

“O Allah, we make You their opponent. And we seek refuge in You from their evil.”

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi from Ammaroh bin Za’karoh, who heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“Verily Allah & says: My true servant is the one who mentions Me when he is facing his enemy.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a weak isnad.

 

Narrated by Ibn Sunni, from Jabir bin Abdullah during the battle of Hunain, the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Do not desire to meet the enemy, for you do not know what will befall you from them. When you meet them, say: O Allah, You are our Lord and their Lord. Our hearts and their hearts are in Your hands. Only You can defeat them.”

 

Anas said: We were with the Prophet in a battle. When he met the enemy, I heard him say:

 

“O Lord of the Day of Resurrection, it is You whom we worship and to You we turn for help.”

 

So, I saw those people fall down because they were beaten by angels from in front of them and from behind them. (H.R. Ibn Sunni)

 

With a mursal isnad, Imam Shafi’i narrated in his book, Al-Umm, that the Prophet taught:

 

“Seek the fulfillment of supplication at the time of the meeting of the armies (of battle), at the time of the Iqamah of prayer and at the time of rain.”

 

According to Imam Nawawi: It is advisable to recite the verses of the Qur’an that are easy for him and to say the supplication in times of distress mentioned earlier.

 

Sahih Bukhari and Muslim mention his words:

 

“There is no God but Allah, the Great and the Merciful. There is no God but Allah, the Lord of the great Throne. There is no God but Allah, the Lord of the heavens and the Lord of the earth and the owner of the glorious Throne.” Another hadith states:

 

“There is no God but Allah, the Most Merciful and the Most Gracious. Glory be to Allah, Lord of the seven heavens and owner of the great Throne. There is no God but You, mighty is Your protection and glorious is Your praise.”

 

The Apostle also said:

 

“Allah is sufficient for us, and He is the best of those to whom affairs are entrusted.”

 

Another word:

 

“There is no power except with the help of Allah, the Mighty and Wise. What Allah wills, there is no power except with His help. We seek refuge in Allah, we seek help from Allah, we put our trust in Allah.”

 

He also stated:

 

“I commend us all to the Lord who lives and stands alone, who cannot die forever. I refuse to be distracted from us by words: There is no power but with the help of God, the Most High and the Most Great.”

 

In another hadith, the Prophet said: –

 

“O Lord who has long been good, O Lord whose goodness is above all goodness, O Lord who rules the duma and the hereafter, O Lord who lives and stands alone, O Lord who has glory and honor, O Lord who cannot be defeated by anything and no one can match his greatness, help us in the face of these enemies of ours and others. Favor us over them in health, complete salvation and speed.”

 

Words to frighten the enemy during combat

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim that the Prophet said at the time of the battle of Hunain:

 

“I am the Prophet who does not lie. I am the son of Abdul Muttalib.” It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Salamah ibn Al-Akwa, that Ali when fighting with Marhab in Khaibar, he exclaimed:

 

“I am what my mother calls the tiger.”

 

Be steadfast because of wounds Allah says:

 

“Do not think that those who are killed in the cause of Allah are men; rather, they are alive with their Lord and receive sustenance. They rejoice in what Allah has given them of His virtue and inform those who were not killed with them of the dh of the world, so that they may not fear and grieve.

They rejoice in the favors of Allah and His bounty and surely Allah does not waste the reward of the believers.

Those who answer the call of Allah and the Messenger after they have been wounded. For those who do good and fear Allah, there is a great reward. Those who receive news from the people. Verily, the people (disbelievers) have gathered against you, so fear them, then their (the Muslims’) faith increases and they say: Allah is sufficient for us, and He is the best of those to whom affairs are entrusted.

So, they returned with blessings from Allah and virtue; they were not afflicted with evil, and they followed the pleasure of Allah with great virtue.” (Q.S. Ali Imran: 169-174)

 

Speeches when the Muslims win a victory

 

When we win, we should thank Allah, praise Him and acknowledge that it is from His merit, not ours. This means that the victory is from Allah. Do not boast of numbers, for fear of defeat, as Allah says:

 

“And on the day of Hunarn, when you boasted of your great numbers, it did not benefit you in the least. The earth seemed narrow to you with its vastness, then you retreated backward.” (Q.S. At-Taubah: 25)

 

SOME DHIKR FOR TRAVELERS

 

It is recommended for those who walk by day and night and in certain circumstances to remember. And for the traveler there are additional remembrances. That is what this section is about. Since there are so many of them, they will be summarized for the intended purpose.

 

Dhikr when leaving the house

 

When going out, it is recommended to pray two rak’ahs. This recommendation is based on the hadith of Mugattam Ibn Al-Migdam (a companion of the Prophet), who said:

 

“No one leaves anything for his family that is better than the two rak’ahs he performs at home when he is traveling.” (H.R. Thabrani)

 

One of Iman Nawawi’s companions said: In the first rak’ah after reciting Surah Al-Fatihah, it is recommended to recite Surah Al-Kafirun. And in the second rak’ah after reciting Surah Al-Fatihah, it is recommended to recite Surah Al-Ikhlas.

 

There are also those who say: “In the first Rak’ah, after Surah Al-Fatihah, it is Surah Al-Falag. And in the second rak’ah is Surah An-Naas.”

 

When the greeting is finished, the Ayat Kursi is recited. According to one narration, whoever recites the Ayat Kursi before leaving his house, he will not be afflicted with anything displeasing to him until he returns to his house. When traveling, it is also recommended to recite Surah Ouraisy.

 

A jurist of the Shafi’i school of jurisprudence, Al-Imam As-Sayid Abu Al-Hasan Al-Oizwaini, who was of great prominence and knowledge, said: Surely the Ouraisy letter can cause security from harassment.

 

Abu Thahir bin Jahsuwaih said: “I wanted to travel, and I was afraid. I came to Al-Oizwaini for prayer. Before I said what I had come for, he said: Whoever wants to travel and is afraid of his enemies or wild animals, let him recite Surah Ouraisy, because reciting this Surah can bring security from all harm. So, I recited it and I have not been harmed until now.”

 

When you finish reading this Surah, it is recommended to pray sincerely and quietly. Among the best prayers are:

 

“O Allah, to You I turn for help. O Allah, make my affairs easy. Grant me more good than I ask for. And remove from me all evil. O my Lord, expand my chest, enlighten my heart and ease my affairs.

O Allah, I ask for your care. I entrust to You myself, my family, my relatives and all the blessings that You have given me and them in this world and the Hereafter. Guard us all from all harm, O Most Gracious Lord.”

 

The prayer begins and ends with praising Allah After that, salawat and salam on the Messenger of Allah. 

 

When he is about to set out, he should say the supplication narrated by Anas, that when the Messenger of Allah rose from his seat to go on a long journey, he would say:

 

“O Allah, to You I go and to You I seek refuge. O Allah, protect me from the distress that befalls me and from that which I do not pay attention to. O Allah, supply me with piety. Forgive my sins. Show me the good to which I am heading.”

 

Dhikr when leaving the house

 

It was narrated in the Musnad of Ahmad bin Hanbal and others, from Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“If Allah is entrusted with something, He will surely take care of it.”

 

It was narrated by Ibn Sunni and others, from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet explained:

 

“Whoever is traveling, let him say to those he leaves behind: I entrust my kahan to Allah, who cannot lose it.” In another saying:

 

“When any one of you goes on a journey, let him say goodbye to his brothers, for Allah makes good the supplication of his brothers.” (H.R. Thabrani)

 

It is mustahabb for the one being addressed to say as narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Oaz’ah: Ibn Umar said to me: ” Come here, I entrust you (to Allah) as the Messenger of Allah entrusted me:

 

“I entrust to Allah your religion, your trust and the end of your deeds.”

 

Al-Khattabi said: What is meant by the trust here is the family and who is left behind and the property that is entrusted to them. The mention of religion here is because traveling can cause fatigue. Hence, it may cause some of the religious affairs to be neglected.

 

It is narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, from Nafi’, that Ibn Umar said: “When the Prophet entrusted (to Allah) a man, he held his hand. He did not let go until the man let go first.

 

His words:

 

“I entrust to Allah your religion, your trust and the end of your deeds.”

 

Through Salim, Tirmidhi narrates that Ibn Umar said to a person who was traveling: Come close to me, I entrust you as the Messenger of Allah entrusted us. He said:

 

“I entrust to Allah your religion, your trust and the end of your deeds.”

 

Tirmidhi classifies it as a Sahih hasan tradition.

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud narrated that Abdullah bin Yazid Al-Khutami said: When he was about to send off the troops, the Prophet said:

 

“I entrust to Allah your religion, your trust and the end of your deeds.”

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi that Anas narrated: A man came to the Prophet and said: O Messenger of Allah, I am going to travel, so provide for me. He said:

 

“May Allah equip you with piety. The man said: Increase me. Behau said: And forgive your sins. The man said: Increase me. He said: And facilitate good for you wherever you are.” ‘Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan tradition.

 

The recommendation to ask for a will from a pious person

 

Narrated by Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, from Abu Hurairah that a man said: O Messenger of Allah, I am about to travel, so advise me. So, he said:

 

“You should fear Allah and raise your voice on every high place. When the man leaves, pray to the Messenger of Allah: O Allah, make near to him the long distance and make his journey easy.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

The saying when riding a vehicle Allah says:

 

“And He made for you ships and animals for you to ride, so that you may sit quietly on their backs, then mention the pleasure of your Lord when you have sat on them and that you may say: Glory be to God who has made this (vehicle) easy for us and we could not have done it, and indeed we will return to our Lord.” (Q.S. Az-Zukhruf: 12-14)

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i narrate that Ali bin Rabi’ah said: I saw ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib brought a horse for him to ride. When he put his foot down, he said: Bismillah (In the name of Allah).

 

When he was sitting quietly on his back, he said:

 

“Praise be to Allah who has made it easy for us and we could not have done it. Surely we will return to our Lord.”

 

Then say Alhamdulillah three times, then say Allahu Akbar three times. After that say:

 

“Glory be to You, indeed I have cursed myself, so forgive me. Indeed, no one can forgive sins but You.”

 

After that he laughed. Someone asked: “O Amirul Mukminin, what caused you to laugh?” He replied: “I saw the Prophet doing what I was doing and he laughed.” So I asked him: “O Messenger of Allah, what caused you to laugh? He replied: “Verily your Lord, the Most Holy, is astonished at His servant if he says: Forgive my sins. For he knows that no one can forgive sins except Allah.” Tirmidhi categorized this Hadith as hasan.

 

In Sahih Muslim, in the book of Manasik, it is narrated that Abdullah bin Umar said: When the Messenger of Allah sat on his camel to travel, he said three Takbirs, then said:

 

“Glory be to God who has made this (vehicle) easy for us. We could not have done it. And we will return to our Lord. O Allah, we ask You in this journey for goodness, piety and deeds that You are pleased with. O Allah, make this journey easy and make its distance from us near. O Allah, You are the companion of the journey and the representative of the family. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the weariness of travel, the gloom of sight and the evil of wealth and family.”

 

When he returns, he repeats, and adds:

 

“We go home, we repent, we worship our God, and we praise Him.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, that Abdullah bin Sarjis said: When the Messenger of Allah traveled, he sought refuge from the fatigue of travel and the hardship of return, from disobedience after obedience and from the supplication of the wronged, from ugly sights in the family and property.

 

Tirmidhi, Nasa’ and Ibn Majah also narrated from Abdullah bin Sarjas who said: When the Prophet traveled he would say:

 

“O Allah, You are the companion on the journey and the representative in the family. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the fatigue of the journey and the distress of the return, from disobedience after obedience and from the supplication of the wronged, from the ugly sight in the family and wealth.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

Remarks when boarding a ship

 

Allah said:

 

“Noah said: Ride ye in it in the name of Allah when it sails and docks.” (Q.S. Huud: 41)

 

In other words:

 

“…And He made for you ships and animals for you to ride on.” (Q.S. Az-Zukhruf: 12)

 

It was narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Hasan bin Ali that the Apostle said:

 

“What secures my Ummah from drifting away when they board a ship is speech: In the name of Allah it sails and docks. Verily my Lord is Merciful and Compassionate. They do not give Allah the credit that is due to him.”

 

The recommendation to pray while traveling

 

Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Three prayers are mustajab and there is no doubt in them: The supplication of the poorest person, the supplication of the traveler, and the supplication of a father for his child.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

Remarks when the mount is difficult to control

 

It was narrated by Ibn Sunni from Abi Abdillah Yunus ibn Ubaid ibn Dinar Al-Bashri, a tabiin known for his nobility, memorization and religious observance, who said: There is no man who is on a mount that is difficult to control, then he says in his ear:

 

“What but the religion of Allah do they desire? To Him surrender all that is in the heavens and the earth in obedience and compulsion. To Him they are returned.” But the mount is tame with Allah’s permission.

 

Greetings when entering a village

 

Nasa’i and Ibn Sunni narrated that Suhaib said: When the Prophet saw a village that he wanted to enter, he said:

 

“O Allah, Lord of the seven heavens and all that they contain, Lord of the seven earths and all that they contain, Lord of Satan and all that he leads astray, Lord of the winds and all that they blow, I ask You for the good of this village and the good of its inhabitants and the good of all that it contains. We seek refuge with You from its evil and the evil of its inhabitants and the evil of all that it contains.”

 

 Aisha said: When the Messenger of Allah saw a village that he wanted to enter, he would say:

 

“O Allah, I ask You for the good of this village and the good of all that You gather in it. I seek refuge with You from its evil and the evil of all that You have gathered therein. O Allah, grant us shame in it, protect us from its plague, delight us with its fragrance and delight us with the righteous of its inhabitants.” (H.R. Ibn Sunni)

 

Sayings when stopping somewhere

 

Muslim, Malik, Tirmidhi and others narrated from Khaulah bint Hakim, who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“Whoever stops in a place and says: I seek refuge with the perfect words of Allah from the evil of His creatures, he will not be harmed by anything until he leaves that place.”

 

It is mentioned in Sunan Abu Daud and others, that Abdullah bin Umar bin Khattab said: When the Messenger of Allah was traveling, until the time of night came, he said:

 

“O earth, my Lord and your Lord is Allah. I seek refuge in Allah from your evil, the evil of the creatures within you, and the evil of those who creep upon you. I seek refuge with you from the lion, the man, the snake, the scorpion and from the inhabitants of the land (jinn) and from the devil the father and his son.” Saying when returning from a journey

 

In Sahih Muslim it is mentioned that Anas #8 said: We came with the Prophet, Abu Talhah and Shafiyah followed him on camels. When we approached Medina, he said: We return we repent, we worship and praise our Lord. What the traveler says after the Fajr prayer

 

It is recommended for the traveler, after the Fajr prayer, to say the dhikr for travelers as mentioned above. It is also recommended to say the Dhikr as narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Abi Barzah: When the Messenger of Allah prayed Fajr, and then went out to travel, he would say it on his way in a voice that his companions could hear:

 

“O Allah, be good to me in my religion which You have made the guardian of my affairs. O Allah, be good to me my world which You have made my livelihood in it (repeated nga kah). O Allah, make good for me my Hereafter which You have made it the place of my return (repeated riga kah). O Allah, I seek refuge in Your pleasure from Your anger. O Allah, I seek refuge in You (repeated three times). Nothing can hinder what You give, nothing can give what You hinder and no one’s efforts can be beneficial without Your determination.”

 

Greetings when arriving from a trip and entering the house

 

In the book of Ibn Sunni, it is mentioned that Ibn Abbas said: When the Messenger of Allah returned from his journey and entered his house, he would say:

 

“(I ask) repentance, (I ask) repentance from God, and I return leaving no sin behind.” Remarks when coming from traveling

 

It is recommended to say: “Praise be to Allah for saving you”, or “Praise be to Allah for uniting us with you.”

 

Allah said:

 

“…If you give thanks, We will surely increase your enjoyment…” (Q.S. Ibrahim: 7)

 

Greetings to those arriving from war

 

It was narrated by Ibn Sunni that ‘Aisha said: The Messenger of Allah returned from a battle. When he entered, I greeted him and took his hand, then I said:

 

“Praise be to Allah who has helped you, glorified you and honored you.” Greetings for those arriving from Hajj

 

Still from Ibn Sunni, Ibn Umar said: A young man came to the Messenger of Allah. He said: I want to go for Hajj. At that time, he walked with the Messenger of Allah and he said:

 

“O young man, may Allah equip you with piety, direct you in goodness and protect you from distress.”

 

When the young man returned, he greeted the Prophet and he said:

 

“Young man, may Allah accept your Hajj, forgive your sins and compensate you for your spending.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Baihaqi, from Abu Hurairah , that the Messenger said:

 

“O Allah, forgive the one who performs Hajj and whom the one who performs it asks for forgiveness.”  Al-Hakim classified the hadith as authentic based on Muslim’s conditions.

 

SOME REMEMBRANCES FOR PEOPLE WHO EAT AND DRINK

 

Speech when served food

 

It was narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-Ash, that the Prophet when served food, he said:

 

“Allah bless us in the sustenance you give us and protect us from the punishment of hell. Bismillah.”

 

Recommendation to invite guests to eat

 

You should know that it is recommended for the owner of the food to say to his guest when serving the food: Bismillah, eat, or words to that effect, which authorize the start of the meal. This is not obligatory. Rather, it is sufficient to serve the food to the guests. It is sufficient to serve the food to the guests, and they may eat in this way, without the need to recite the words. Some of our companions (Imam Nawawi) said: It must be said. The correct view is the former. In the sahih traditions, the permission to do so can be interpreted as istihbab (recommendation). Tasmiyah when eating and drinking

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Umar ibn Abi Salamah, that the Messenger taught him:

 

“Mention the name of Allah and eat with your right hand.”

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Aisha that the Prophet also taught:

 

“When any of you eat, let him mention the name of Allah at the beginning. If he forgets to mention the name of Allah at the beginning, let him say: In the name of Allah at the beginning and at the end.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan sahih.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, that Jabir heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“When a man enters his house and mentions the name of Allah at the time of entering and at the time of eating, the devil says (to his companion): There is no night for you and no food. When he enters and does not mention the name of Allah at the time of entry, the devil says (to his companion): You have found lodging. And when he does not mention the name of Allah at the time of eating, the devil says (to his friend): You have found lodging and food.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim in the tradition of Anas which includes the apparent miracles of the Messenger of Allah. When he was invited by Abu Talhah and Umm Sulaim for a meal, he said: The Prophet said: Permit for ten people. So, he allowed them and they entered. The Prophet also said: Eat and mention the name of Allah. They ate, and so it went on with eighty people.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim that Hudhayfah said: When we ate with the Messenger of Allah, we did not put our hands on the food until he started and put his hands on it.

 

On one occasion, we attended a meal with him. Suddenly a little girl came, as if she were pushing, and put her hand on the food, so the Messenger of Allah held her hand. Then, an Arab from the village came, as if he were pushing, and the Messenger of Allah held his hand. He said:

 

“Verily, the devil makes lawful any food on which the name of Allah is not mentioned. He brought this girl to make it lawful, so I held her hand. The devil also brought this hillbilly to make it lawful, so I held his hand. By Allah in Whose hand is my life, verily his hand is in my hand with the hands of both of them.”

 

Then he mentioned the name of Allah and ate it.

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Nasa’i, from Umayyah bin Makhsi (a companion of the Prophet), he said: When the Messenger of Allah sat down, a man (near him) was eating. He did not mention the name of Allah until there was nothing left of his food but a morsel. When he put it in his mouth, he said: In the name of Allah is the beginning and the end. Hearing this, the Prophet laughed and said: Keep the devil eating with him. When he mentioned the name of Allah, the devil had vomited out the contents of his stomach.

 

It is narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, that Aisha said: The Messenger of Allah ate a meal with six of his companions. Then, an Arab from the village came and ate two mouthfuls. So, the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Verily, if you mention the name of Allah, it will be sufficient for the kahan.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

Jabir said that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever forgets to mention the name of Allah with his food, let him recite: Qul Huwallahu Ahad, when it is finished.”

 

The scholars are unanimously agreed on the recommendation to mention the name of Allah at the beginning of eating. If one deliberately omits it at the beginning, or forgets it, or is forced to do so, or is unable to do so for some reason, and then does so in the middle of the meal, then it is recommended to say: In the name of Allah at the beginning and at the end, as mentioned in the previous Hadīth.

 

The mention of Allah’s name when drinking water, milk, honey, soup and other beverages is like mentioning it in food in all the circumstances mentioned.

 

Scholars from the companions of Imam Nawawi and others said: “It is recommended to listen to the mention of the name of Allah so that it will remind others to mention it and they can follow.”

 

The most important thing to know about the nature of the mention and the permissible rate is to say: “Bismillahirrahmanirrahim.”

 

If he says Bismillah, that is sufficient for him and the Sunnah applies. The same applies to the person who is junub or menstruating.

 

Those who eat should mention the name of Allah. If one of them says it, it is sufficient for the others. This is according to Imam Shafi’i.

 

I have mentioned this in the book of Thabagat in the biography of Imam Shafi’i. It resembles the answer to the greeting and praying for the sneezing person. So, it is sufficient for one of the group to say.

 

Must not criticize food and drink

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, that Abu Hurairah said: The Messenger of Allah did not criticize food at all. If he liked it, he ate it. If he did not like it, then he left it.

 

In a narration added by Muslim: If he did not like it, he was silent.

 

Refusing food

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Khalid bin Walid when the Companions served a roasted monitor lizard to the Messenger of Allah. Then he brought his hand closer (as if rejecting) the food. The Companions said: “O Messenger of Allah, it is a monitor lizard.” So, he raised his hand. Khalid asked: “O Messenger of Allah, are monitor lizards haram?” He replied: “No.” However, it is not found in the land of my people, so I do not like it.

 

Compliments on the food served

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Jabir that the Prophet asked his wives for soup. They (his wives) replied: “We have nothing but vinegar.” So, he ordered them to take some and started eating with it. He praised: “How delicious this vinegar soup is (repeated twice).”

 

What a fasting person says when attending a banquet

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger said:

 

“If any of you is invited, let him come. If he fasts, let him pray. If he does not fast, let him eat.”

 

In the book of Ibn Sunni, it states:

 

“If he does not fast, let him eat. And if he fasts, let him pray for blessings.”

 

The speech of the person who is invited to eat when someone comes with him.

 

Narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abi Mas’ud Al-Anshari, he said: A man invited the Prophet to eat in a group of five. Another man followed them. When they reached the door, the Prophet said: “Indeed this man is following us. If you want him to eat, let him. If you want him to leave, let him go. The man said: All right, I allow him O Messenger of Allah.

 

Advice when eating rules are ignored

 

Narrated in Suhih Bukhari and Muslim, from Umar bin Abi Salamah he said: I was on the lap of the Messenger of Allah when I was a child. My hands moved to and fro when taking food. The Messenger of Allah taught me: “O little child, mention the name of Allah. Eat with your right hand and eat from the portion that is in front of you.

 

Salamah bin Al-Akwa said: A man ate at the Prophet’s side with his left hand. So he said: “Eat with your right hand.” The man said: “I cannot.” He said: “You will not be able to. There is no obstacle but pride. So the man could not lift it to his mouth. (H.R. Muslim)

 

When eating is not full

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Ibn Majah, from Wahshi bin Harb, that the companions of the Messenger of Allah said: “O Messenger of Allah, we eat and do not feel full.” He said: “Perhaps you are separated.” They replied: “Yes.” He said: “Come together at mealtimes and mention the name of Allah, and you will be blessed in your food.”

 

Speech when finished eating

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Abu Umamah that the Prophet when he finished eating said:

 

“All praise is abundant, good and blessed to Allah, who needs no help and is always expected and needed, O our Lord.”

 

In a narration it is said: When he finished eating, the Prophet said:

 

“Praise be to Allah, who has provided for us, satisfied us, and needs no help, and cannot be denied His pleasure.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Anas that the Prophet stated:

 

“Verily, Allah is pleased with His slave who eats food and praises Him for it and drinks drink and praises Him for it.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and the books of A/-Jumi and As. Shamail by Tirmidhi, from Abi Said Al-Khudri, that the Prophet when he finished eating, said:

 

“Praise be to Allah who has fed and watered us and made us Muslims.”

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud and Nasa’i narrated from Abu Ayub bin Zaid Al-Anshari who said: The Messenger of Allah, when he ate or drank, would say:

 

“Praise be to Allah, who fed and watered him, and made it easy for him, and gave him a way out.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah from Muadz bin Anas that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever eats food and then says: “Praise be to Allah, who has given me this food and given it to me as sustenance without any power or might on my part.” Then Allah forgives his past sins.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

Tirmidhi says that the hadith about praising Allah after eating was narrated from Ugbah ibn Amir, Abi Said, ‘Aisha, Abu Ayub and Abu Hurairah.

 

With a hasan isnad, Nasa’i and Ibn Sunni narrated from Abdurrahman bin Jubair (a tabiin) that a man who had served the Prophet for eight years told him: When food was served, the Prophet said “Bismillah.” When he finished eating, he said:

 

“O Allah, You have fed, watered, provided, satisfied, guided and done good. So, all praise be to You for all that You have given.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Sunni’s book, from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger taught:

 

“When one of you eats. And in the narration of Ibn Sunni: Whoever is given sustenance in the form of food by Allah, then he should say: “O Allah, bless us with this food and give us something better than it.”

 

And whoever is given sustenance by Allah in the form of milk, let him say: “O Allah, bless us with this drink and increase us from it. For there is nothing that can suffice as food and drink other than milk.” Tirmidhi categorizes this Hadith as hasan.

 

Prayer for the host when finishing a meal

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud and others narrated from Anas who said that the Prophet came to the house of Saad bin Ubadah. He served him bread and oil and he ate. Then, the Prophet said:

 

“The fasting people have broken their fast in your place, the righteous have eaten your food and the angels have prayed for you.”

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from a man, from Jabir he said: Abu Haitsam bin Tihan invited the Prophet to eat with his companions. When they finished eating, the Prophet said: “Repay your brother.” They asked: “O Messenger of Allah, what is the reply?” He said:

 

“Verily, the one whose house is visited and whose food is eaten and whose drink is drunk, and they (the guests) pray for him, this is his reward.”

 

Prayer when given water or milk

 

In a long tradition, Muslim relates from Miqdad who said: The Prophet raised his head to the sky, saying:

 

“O Allah, feed those who have fed me. And give drink to him who has given me drink.”

 

It is narrated in Ibn Sunni that Amr bin Hamig gave milk to the Prophet. So, he said: “O Allah, give him the pleasure of his youth.” So, he passed eighty years of age without a single gray hair on his head.

 

Narrated by Ibn Sunni, from Amr bin Akhtab who said: The Messenger of Allah asked for a drink, so I brought water in a wooden container. There was a hair in it, so I took it out. Then, the Messenger of Allah said: “O Allah, make him pure.” The narrator said: So, I saw him at the age of 93, the hair of his head and beard were still black.

 

Praise for one who honors his guests

 

Narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah who said: A man came to the Messenger of Allah and said: “I am hungry.” So he took him to the house of one of his wives. His wife said: “By God who sent you with the truth, I have nothing but water.”

 

Then, he took him to his other wife’s house. He also said so. And, all his wives said so. The Messenger of Allah said: Whoever receives this man as a guest, may Allah love him. Then, an Ansar man stood up and said: “I, O Messenger of Allah.”

 

The man went with her to his vehicle. He said to his wife: “Do you have anything?” His wife replied: No, except food for my children.” The man said: “Entice them with something. When our guest enters, then extinguish the lamp and show him that we are eating. If he wants to eat, then you go to the lamp to put it out.” Then they sat down and ate.

 

When morning came, the Messenger of Allah came to me. Then, he said: Allah has been astonished at what you two did to your guest last night. So, Allah has revealed this verse:

 

“..They prefer (others) to themselves, even if they are destitute….” (Q.S. Al-Hasyr: 9)

 

According to Imam Nawawi: This can be interpreted to mean that children do not need food as an immediate need. Usually, small children, even if they are full, still ask for food if they see someone eating. The actions of the man and woman can be interpreted to mean that both of them prioritize their guests over their own share. Attitude and speech when guests arrive”

 

Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Abu Hurairah and Abi Shuraih Al-Khuza’, that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him honor his guest.”

 

Abu Hurairah narrated: The Messenger of Allah went out one day or night. He met Abubakar and Umar. He asked: “What caused you two to come out of your houses at this time?” Both replied: “We are hungry, O Messenger of Allah.” He said: “By the Lord in whose hand my life is, I too came out hungry like you. Let us go.”

 

So, he went to the house of an Ansar man. As it turned out, he was not at home. When his wife saw him, she said: “Welcome to the family. The Messenger of Allah said to her: “Where is so-and-so?” The woman replied: He went to fetch water for us.

 

Suddenly, the Ansar came. He looked at the Messenger of Allah and his two companions, then said: “Praise be to Allah, no one has honored a guest more than me on this day.”

 

Saying when finishing a meal It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from ‘Aa’ishah that the Prophet said:

 

“Melt your food with the mention of Allah and prayer. Do not fall asleep from gluttony, so that your hearts become hardened by it.”

 

SOME THINGS RELATED TO GREETINGS, ASKING PERMISSION AND PRAYING FOR SNEEZING.

 

Allah said:

 

“…When you enter a house, greet its master, as an honor from the blessed and blessed side of Allah….” (Q.S. An-Nur: 61)

 

In other words:

 

“If you are honored with a tribute, then honor it with something better than that or repay it….” (Q.S. An-Nisa’: 86)

 

Allah also states:

 

“…Do not enter a house that is not your own until you have obtained permission and greeted the occupants…” (Q.S. An-Nur: 27)

 

Still in Surah An-Nur, verse 59, Allah mentions:

 

“When your children reach the age of puberty, let them ask permission as those before them asked permission….”

 

Allah explains:

 

“Did you not hear the news of Ibrahim’s noble guests when they entered him, and they said: Congratulations. Ibrahim replied: Congratulations!” (Q.S. Az-Zariyat: 24-25)

 

The virtue of the salam and the command to spread it

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-Ash, that a man asked the Messenger of Allah : “Which Islam is the best?” He replied:

 

“You feed and greet those you know and those you do not know.”

 

In their Sahih, Bukhari and Muslim narrate from Abu Hurairah that the Apostle explained:

 

“Allah has created Adam according to his form. He was sixty cubits long.” When Allah created him, He said: Go and greet them. That is, a group of angels who were sitting. So, listen to what they say in honor of you, for indeed it is your honor and the honor of your descendants.

So, Adam said: May salvation be upon you. They replied: May Allah’s salvation and mercy be upon you. They added: And the mercy of Allah.”

 

Al-Barra bin Azib said: The Messenger of Allah commanded us seven things: Visiting the sick, delivering the dead, praying for those who sneeze, helping the weak and persecuted, spreading the greeting of peace and carrying out or fulfilling an oath. (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Through Abu Hurairah Muslim narrates that the Messenger said:

 

“You cannot enter Paradise until you believe, and you cannot believe until you love one another. Shall I show you something that, if you do it, you will love one another? Spread the greeting of peace among yourselves.”

 

Narrated by Ad-Darimi, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and others, with good isnads, from Abdullah bin Salam who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“O mankind, spread the greeting of peace, feed the poor and establish family ties. Pray while people are sleeping, and you will enter Paradise safely.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hadith.

 

Ibn Majah and Ibn Sunni narrate from Abu Umamah who said: “The Prophet told us to spread the greeting of peace.” In his book Al-Muwaththa’, Imam Malik narrated from Ishaq bin Abdullah bin Abi Talhah that Tufail bin Ubay bin Kaab informed him that he came to Abdullah bin Umar and went with him to the market. He said: “When we went to the market, Abdullah did not pass by the vendors and the poor and anyone else but he greeted them.”

 

It is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari, that Ammar, said: “Three things which, if they are found in a person, he has accumulated faith:: Doing good and being wise, greeting all people, and giving charity when one is in need.”

 

In my opinion (Imam Nawawi), these three things have accumulated the good of this world and the Hereafter.

 

Being kind and wise requires a person to fulfill all the rights of Allah in all that he is commanded to do and to avoid all that he is forbidden to do, to fulfill the rights of people and not to claim what does not belong to him, and to be kind to himself as well. So, he does not fall into evil on his own.

 

As for greeting everyone, this means that he should not be arrogant towards anyone and there is no dispute between him and someone that would cause him not to greet them.

 

As for giving in charity when one is in need, this is a sign of complete trust in Allah, submission to Him, and love for the Muslims.

 

We ask Allah, the Most Gracious, to give us guidance on all these matters.

 

How to greet Know that the Muslim greeting is the best:

 

“May Allah’s safety and mercy and blessings be upon you.”

 

The form of the greeting does not change even if only one person is greeted. And the person being greeted responds with the same answer:

 

The evidence for this is what is narrated in Musnad Ad-Darimi, Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Imran bin Hushain who said: A man came to the Prophet and said:

 

“Assalamualaikum.” The Prophet answered him. Then the man sat down. The Prophet said: “Ten (rewards).”

 

Another person comes and says: “Assalamualaitum wa Rahmatullah.” The Prophet answered him. Then the man sat down. The Prophet said: “Twenty (rewards).”

 

After that, another person comes and says: “Assalamualaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakatuhu.” The Prophet answered him. Then the man sat down. The Prophet said: “Thirty (rewards).” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

In a narration obtained from Muadz bin Anas, Abu Daud states that there is an addition to this hadith, namely: Then another person came and said:

 

“May salvation, the mercy of Allah and His blessings and forgiveness be upon you.”

 

The Prophet said: “Forty (rewards).” And he said: Such is the reward of the major deeds.”

 

With a dhaif isnad, Ibn Sunni narrated from Anas who said: A man passed by the Prophet while he was herding the animals of his companions. The man said: “Assalamualaika ya Rasulullah.” The Prophet replied:

 

 “May salvation, Allah’s mercy, His blessings and forgiveness and His pleasure be upon you.”

 

Someone said: “O Messenger of Allah, you greeted this man with a greeting that you never gave to any of your companions?” He replied: “What prevents me from doing so, when he equals the reward of more than ten people?”

 

The least amount of greeting that can fulfill the Sunnah is to raise one’s voice so that it can be heard by the person being greeted. If he cannot hear it, it does not count as a greeting and he is not obliged to answer.

 

When answering the greeting, in order to fulfill this obligation, he should raise his voice so that the first greeter can hear him. If he cannot hear it, then he does not have to answer the greeting. This is the view of al-Mutawalli and others.

 

The permissibility of gestures of greeting with the hand and the like without speech

 

It was narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, from Amr bin Suaib from his father, from his grandfather, that the Messenger said:

 

“We are not among those who imitate others.

Do not imitate the Jews and Christians, for the greeting of the Jews is with the finger and the greeting of the Christians is with the palm.” Tirmidhi categorizes this hadith as having a weak isnad.

 

As for the Hadith narrated in the book of Tirmidhi, Asma bint Yazid, that the Messenger of Allah passed by the mosque one day and women were sitting there, so he signaled the greeting with his hand. This Hadith could mean that the Prophet combined speech and gesture. This meaning is shown by the narration of Abu Daud who said: “Then he greeted us.”

 

The law of greetings

 

You should know that greeting is a recommended Sunnah (sunnah kifayah), not obligatory. If there are several greeters, then the greeting of one of them is sufficient. If all of them give the greeting, that is better.

 

In the book of As-Siyar, Al-Qadhi Husein said: We have not found any sunnah kifayah other than this.

 

In Imam Nawawi’s opinion, what Al-Qadhi said is questionable. Our companions said: Praying for the sneezer is sunnah kifayah, as will be seen in the discussion of this matter.

 

A group of our companions, in fact all of them, said: Sacrificing the udhiyah is sunnah kifayah, within the rights of each householder. If one of them slaughters a sacrifice, it becomes a Sunnah for all of them.

 

With regard to answering the greeting, if there is only one person who is greeted, then it is obligatory for him to answer. If they are in a group, then answering the greeting is fardu kifayah upon them. If one of them answers, then the obligation is lifted from the others. If they all fail to do so, then they are sinning. And if they all answer, then it is the height of excellence and virtue.

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from ‘Ali that the Messenger said:

 

“It is sufficient for one of the passers-by to greet them, and it is sufficient for one of the sitters to greet them.”

 

It was narrated in A/-Muwathrha’, from Zaid bin Aslam, that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“When one of the people gives the greeting of peace, he is sufficient as their representative.”

 

Aisha said: The Messenger of Allah said to me: “This is Jibril greeting you.” ‘Ā’ishah replied: “May Allah’s salvation and mercy and blessings be upon him.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

If someone sends greetings through someone else, and the intermediary says: “So-and-so sends greetings to you”, it is obligatory to answer him immediately. It is advisable to answer the greeting to the sender as well, so that it is said: “Alaika wa alaihis salam” (“May peace be upon you and upon him?”).

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Ghalib Al-Qattan, from a man, he said: It was narrated to me by my father, from my grandfather, who said: My father sent me to the Messenger of Allah to convey his greetings. I went to him and said: My father sends greetings to you. So, he said: “May salvation be upon you and upon your father.”

 

Although this hadith is narrated from an unknown person, it has already been pointed out that traditions about major deeds are given leeway in their acceptance.

 

Al-Mutawalli said: If a person greets someone who cannot hear, then it is appropriate to say the words of greeting, because he is able to do so, and to sign with his hand, so that there will be understanding and a response is appropriate. If there is no combination of greeting and signaling, then it does not merit an answer.

 

He also said: Similarly, if a deaf person greets you and you want to answer him, then you should say it with your tongue and gesture an answer so that there will be understanding and you will be relieved of the obligation to answer.

 

Mutawalli continued: If a person greets a child, it is not obligatory for him to respond, because a child is not obligated. This opinion is correct. However, according to good manners and what is recommended is for him to answer.

 

Al-Qadhi Husein and al-Mutawalli said: If a child greets an adult, is it obligatory for him to respond? There are two opinions based on the validity of his Islam. If we say that his Islam is valid, then his greeting is like that of an adult, and he must answer. If we say that his Islam is not valid, then it is not obligatory to answer his greeting, rather it is recommended.

 

In my opinion (Imam Nawawi), the correct of the two types is the obligation to answer the greeting, based on the words of Allah:

 

“If you are honored with a tribute, then honor it with something better than it or repay it accordingly….” (Q.S. An-Nisa’: 86)

 

As-Syasi argued: This is an incorrect basis. If a person who has reached the age of puberty greets a group of people among whom there is a child, and the child responds and the others do not respond, then is it not obligatory for them to respond?

 

There are two opinions: The most correct of the two is the view held by al-Qadhi Husein and al-Mutawalli, that the obligation to answer is not waived, because a child is not obliged to do anything, and answering the greeting is obligatory. So it is not waived by him, just as it is not waived in the congregational prayer.

 

The second view, which is that of As-Shaasi, is that the obligation is waived, just as the call of a child to prayer is valid for an adult male, and the call to prayer is waived for them.

 

With regard to praying over a corpse, there is a difference of opinion among our companions as to whether the obligation is waived by praying over a child. The most correct of the two scholarly opinions is that the obligation is waived. This was established by Imam ash-Shaafa’i.

 

If a person gives a greeting, and then meets him again in the near future, it is recommended that he give a second, third or more greetings.

 

This opinion is corroborated by the hadith narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah, in the case of a man who prayed incorrectly. The man came and prayed. After that, he came to the Prophet and greeted him. He answered him and said: Go back and pray. Verily you did not pray. So, the man went back and prayed. After that, he came to greet the Prophet and did so three times.

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Abu Hurairah, that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“When any one of you meets his brother, let him greet him. If they are separated by a tree, wall or stone and meet, let him greet him.”

 

It is narrated in Ibn Sunni, that Anas said: “The companions of the Messenger of Allah were taking a walk. If they came across a tree or a hill, they would spread out to the right and to the left, then meet behind it. They greeted each other.”

 

If a person meets another person and the one who initiated the greeting says: “Wa alaykum salam”, Al-Mutawalli is of the view that this is not a greeting and should not be answered. This is because it is not the appropriate form to start with.

 

But if it is said: Alaika or alaikum salam without “wa”, then Imam Abu Al-Hasan Al-Wahidi ruled that it is a salam that must be answered, even if he has reversed the usual pronunciation. Al-Wahidi’s opinion is the superior one. Imamul Haramain is also of the same opinion.

 

Regarding its naming as a greeting, there are two kinds of opinions, just as there are two kinds of opinions from our companions regarding the taha/lul of the prayer with the words: “Alaikum salam.” Does exiting the prayer with that greeting count or not? The most correct view is that it does.

 

It is possible that this does not deserve an answer in every situation, based on the hadith narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and others, with a sahih isnad from Abi Jaza al-Huyaimi. He said: I came across the Messenger of Allah and said: “Alaika salam, O Messenger of Allah.” He said: “Do not say dlaika salam, for it is a tribute to the dead.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan sahih.

 

According to Imam Nawawi’s opinion, this hadith may describe a better and more perfect way. It does not mean that it is not the greeting of peace.

 

In his book, Ihya’ Ulumuddin, Al-Ghazali said: Based on this hadith, it is makrooh to say at the beginning: “Alaikum salam.”

 

According to the preferred madhhab, it is makrooh to begin the greeting with this form. If he starts with it, then it is obligatory to answer, because it is a greeting.

 

The sunnah is to start with the salam before speaking. This is a well-known practice among Muslims. This is what this section relies on.

 

As for the words of the Apostle narrated by Tirmizi:

 

“The greeting is said before speaking.”

 

Indeed this hadith is dha’if (weak). Tirmidhi also categorizes it as a munkar tradition.”

 

It is better to start with the greeting of peace, as the Prophet said in a sahih hadith:

 

“The best of the two is the one who initiates the greeting.”

 

Let two people who meet try to initiate the greeting.

 

With a jayyid isnad, Abu Daud narrated from Abu Umamah, that the Messenger said:

 

“Verily, the best of men in the sight of Allah is the one who initiates greetings to others.”

 

Also through Abu Umamah, Tirmidhi narrates: A companion asked: “O Messenger of Allah, when two people meet, which one should initiate the greeting?” He replied: “The better in the sight of Allah of the two.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

Recommended and prohibited times for greetings

 

You see, we are told to spread the greeting of peace. But it is required in some cases, relaxed in some cases and prohibited in others.

 

Among these are if the person being greeted is urinating, having intercourse, sleeping, drowsy, praying, calling the azan or ikamah, in the bathroom, or eating and the food is still in his mouth, it is not preferable to greet him. If you greet him, there is no need to answer.

 

If a person is eating and the food is not in his mouth, it is permissible to give the greeting and it is obligatory to answer. Similarly, in the case of buying and selling and other actions, it is permissible to give the greeting and it must be answered.

 

With regard to the greeting in the Friday sermon, the companions of Imam Nawawi were of the opinion: It is not preferable to offer the greeting of peace, because the audience is told to remain silent in order to listen to the khutbah.

 

If he does not, should he answer the greeting? There is a dispute about this. Some say: His greeting is not answered because of his carelessness. Others say: If we say that silence is obligatory, then it should not be answered. If we say that silence is Sunnah, then one of the attendees should answer. It is not necessary to answer more than one in each case.

 

With regard to greeting someone who is reciting the Qur’an, al-Wahidi said: It is better not to greet him because he is busy reciting. If he does greet him, it is sufficient to respond with a gesture. If he responds with words, he should start isti’adzah (asking for protection) and then return to reading.

 

Al-Wahidi’s opinion needs to be reviewed. What is correct is to greet him and it is obligatory to answer him with a word. If he is busy praying solemnly then there is a possibility that he may be perceived as someone who is busy reading. Therefore, it is not preferable to greet him, because he will be distracted.

 

It is not preferable to greet someone who is saying the talbiyah while in ihram, because it is makrooh to interrupt the talbiyah. If the greeting is given, it must be answered with the words. This is the view of Imam al-Shaafa’i and our companions (Imam Nawawi).

 

We have mentioned some circumstances in which it is disliked to give the greeting. It has also been mentioned that it does not need to be answered. The question arises: If the one greeted wishes to reply, is it obligatory or recommended? There are some details in this regard:

 

  1. For people who are urinating and the like, it is not preferable to answer the greeting. This has been stated earlier.

 

  1. For people who are eating and the like, it is recommended (not obligatory) to answer.

 

  1. For the one who is praying, it is haraam for him to say: “Wa alaikum salam.”

 

If he does that, his prayer is invalidated if he knows that it is forbidden. If he does not know, it is not invalidated according to the more correct view. If he says peace be upon him, his prayer is not invalidated, because it is a supplication, not a direct conversation.

 

What is recommended is to reply to his greeting with a gesture. If it is answered with the words after prayer, it is permissible.

 

It is not makrooh for the muezzin to reply with the usual phrases, because that is easy and does not invalidate the adhan.

 

To whom to give and answer greetings?

 

You should know that it is permissible for a Muslim who is not known for his wickedness or innovation to greet and be greeted. It is mustahabb for him to greet and it is obligatory for him to answer the greeting.

 

The companions of Imam Nawawi said: Women with women are like men with men. About women being with men, Al-Mutawalli said: If the woman is his wife, his slave girl or one of his mahrams, then she is with him like a man.

 

It is advisable for one of the two to initiate the greeting, and it is obligatory for the other to return the greeting. If the woman is not his mahram and she is a beautiful woman who may cause temptation, then the man should not greet her. If he does greet her, she should not answer him. And the woman herself should not initiate the greeting.

 

If the woman gives the greeting, there is no need to answer. If she does, it is makrooh for her. If the woman is old and not likely to cause temptation, she may greet a man. It is obligatory for the man to answer her greeting.

 

If women are gathered in a group, it is permissible for men to greet them. Or men in a group greeting a woman is permissible, if there is no fear of temptation on either side.

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and others, from Asma bint Yazid who said: The Messenger of Allah passed in front of us, a group of women, and he greeted us. This narration by Abu Daud is classified by Tirmidhi as a hasan hadith.

 

The narration of Tirmidhi is: The Messenger of Allah passed by the mosque. A group of women were sitting, so he signaled the greeting with his hand.

 

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Jabir bin Abdillah that the Messenger of Allah passed by a group of women, then greeted them.

 

Sahal bin Saad, said: “There was an old woman who was cooking and grinding sha’z seeds. When we finished the Friday prayer, we went to greet her, and she served us food.” (H.R. Bukhari)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Umm Hani bint Abu Talib who said: “I went to the Prophet on the day of the conquest of Makkah. He was taking a bath and Fatimah was covering him, so I greeted him.”

 

Regarding the people of the Zimmah (disbelievers who are under the auspices of the Islamic government), the companions of Imam Nawawi disagreed about them. The majority decided that it is not permissible to initiate the greeting of peace to them. Other scholars were of the opinion: It is not forbidden but makrooh. If they greet a Muslim, he should answer them with: “Wa alaikum.” No more than this.

 

Imam Mawardi mentions one opinion from one of Imam Nawawi’s companions that it is permissible to start the greeting to them. However, it is sufficient for the Muslim to say: Assalamualaika, and not say it with the plural (Assalamualaikum).

 

Al-Mawardi mentions an opinion that, when they begin the greeting, it is answered with: “Wa alaikum salam.” However, they do not say “wa rahmatullah.” Both of these opinions are odd and rejected.

 

It was narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Do not initiate the greeting of peace to Jews and Christians. If you meet one of them on the road, then push him to the narrowest part of the road.”

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Anas that

 

The Apostle said:

 

 “When the people of the Book greet you, say: Wa alaikum (And upon you).”

 

Through Ibn Umar Bukhari also narrated the words of the Apostle:

 

 

“If a Jew greets you, then he actually says: Assaamu alaika (May you come). So say: And may you also.”

 

Al-Mutawalli said: If you greet someone who you think is a Muslim, then it turns out that he is a disbeliever, it is recommended to take back the greeting and say to him: “Return my greeting.”

 

The purpose of this is to unsettle her and show her that there is no love between them.

 

It is narrated that Ibn ‘Umar greeted a man, then told him that he was a Jew, so Ibn ‘Umar followed him and said to him: “Return my greeting.”

 

Imam Malik was asked about a Muslim who greets a Jew or Christian, should he withdraw the greeting? He replied: No. So this is his madhhab. This is the view of Ibn al-Arabi al-Maliki.

 

Abu Saad said: If a person wants to pay homage to a Zimmi, he should not greet him with the greeting of peace, but with the words: May Allah guide you, or may Allah give you pleasure in the morning (Good morning).

 

Abu Saad’s opinion is permissible if necessary, so it is said: May you be in the morning with goodness or happiness, or may Allah give you joy, happiness and pleasure, or something similar.

 

If it is not necessary, then it is best not to say anything. This is because it is a relief, a pleasure and a display of affection for him, whereas we are not told to be harsh and forbidden to love them.

 

If a Muslim passes in front of a group of people consisting of Muslims and disbelievers, it is mustahabb to greet them and address them to the Muslims or a Muslim who is there.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Usamah bin Zaid that the Prophet passed by an assembly where Muslims, polytheists and Jews were mixed, and he greeted them.

 

If a Muslim sends a letter to a polytheist and writes salam in it or something like that, then he should write: Salam to those who follow guidance.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, in the tradition of Abu Sufyan about the story of Heraclius, the Roman king, that the Messenger of Allah wrote: From Muhammad the servant of Allah and His Messenger to Heraclius, the Roman. Greetings to whoever follows the guidance.

 

  1. Speech when visiting a sick zimmi.

 

It should be noted that the companions of Imam Nawawi differed in their opinion regarding the embracing of the Zimmi. One group recommended it and the other prohibited it. As-Syasi mentioned this difference and said: The correct view is the one that permits visiting the disbeliever briefly. This is based on the kind of respect that is associated with being a neighbor or relative. This is a good view.

 

Anas said: A young Jewish boy was the Prophet’s servant and he was sick. The Prophet came to visit him. Then he sat near his head and said: “Convert to Islam.” The boy looked at his father who was there. His father said: “Obey Aba Al-Oasim (the Prophet).” So the boy converted to Islam. Then the Prophet came out and said: “Praise be to Allah who saved him from the fire of hell.” (H.R. Bukhari)

 

If a Muslim visits a Zimmi, it is recommended to explain the virtues of Islam and to encourage him and encourage him to hasten to seek treatment. If he prays for him, he should pray that he will be guided.

 

As for those who commit innovations and major sins and do not repent, it is appropriate not to greet them or answer their greetings. This is the view of Bukhari and other scholars.

 

Bukhari argued on this point in accordance with what is narrated in the story of Kaab bin Malik when he and two of his friends did not attend the battle of Tabuk. He said: The Messenger of Allah forbade talking to us. He also said: I went to the Messenger of Allah and greeted him. I asked: Did the Messenger of Allah move his lips in response to the greeting or not? Abdullah bin Amr said: Do not greet the drinker of alcohol.

 

According to Imam Nawawi: If one is compelled to greet the wicked by visiting them and fears that damage may be caused to his religion, worldly life or otherwise by not greeting them, then he should greet them.

 

Ibn Arabi said: The scholars are of the opinion: The evil person is greeted and it is intended that As-Sglam is one of the names of Allah.

 

The meaning is: Allah is watching over you. As for small children, it is mustahabb to greet them.

 

In Sufih Bukhari and Muslim it is mentioned that Anas, passing in front of small children, greeted them. Anas said: That the Prophet did so.

 

Muslim also narrated from Anas that the Messenger of Allah passed by small children and greeted them.

 

With an authentic isnad, Abu Daud and others narrated from Anas that the Prophet passed in front of small children who were playing, so he greeted them.

 

It is narrated in Ibn Sunni and others that the Prophet said: “Assalamualaikum, children.” On manners and some issues regarding the greeting

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger said:

 

“The one who rides greets the one who walks. The one who walks greets the one who sits. The few greet the many.”

 

In another narration, Bukhari mentions:

 

“The small greet the great. The one who walks greets the one who sits. The few greet the many.”

 

This is the Sunnah. If they do the opposite, so that the one who is walking greets the one who is riding, or the one who is sitting greets both (the one who is walking and the one who is riding), it is not makrooh. Al-Mutawalli and others have explained this matter.

 

Based on this, it is not makrooh for a large person to greet a few and for a large person to greet a small. This would mean forgoing the right to greet others. This courtesy applies when two people meet on the road.

 

When someone comes to someone who is sitting, then the one who comes gives greetings, whether a child or a large person, few or many. Al-Mawardi called the latter a sunnah practice and the former a courtesy. He (Al-Mawardi) made it below the sunnah in its virtue.

 

Al-Mutawali said: If a person meets a group of people and wants to specialize his greeting to one group of them, that is not preferable, because the purpose of the greeting is friendship and harmony. Specializing in some groups may cause displeasure among others and may lead to hostility.

 

If someone is walking in the market or streets that are widely passed, where there are many people who pass, then Al-Mawardi said that the greeting here is addressed to some people, without others.

 

Al-Mawardi said: If he gave greetings to everyone he met, he would be negligent of his own interests. That person has also gone out of the habit. He continues: Salam is intended only for one of two things: It may produce affection and may get rid of displeasure.

 

Al-Mutawalli said: If a group of people greet a man and say: Waalaikum salam, and he intends to answer them all, the obligation of answering him falls upon all of them, just as if you pray for several dead bodies in one prayer, then the obligation of prayer falls upon all of them.

 

Al-Mawardi said: If someone comes to a small group, one greeting is sufficient for them. Specializing in one of them is good manners. It is enough that one of them answers him. If more answer, then it is good manners.

 

Furthermore, Al-Mawardi said: If the greeting cannot be spread out in a group, such as in a Jamik mosque or in a crowded assembly, then the sunnah of greeting is to start the greeting by the one who enters at the beginning, if he sees the people. He also fulfills the sunnah of greeting in the right of all those who hear him. It is fard upon all those who hear him to respond to the greeting.

 

If he wants to sit among them, the sunnah of greeting others who do not hear him is waived.

 

If he wants to sit among those who come after him, and he did not hear the greeting of those who came before him, then there are two opinions.

 

Firstly, the Sunnah of greeting is applicable when greeting the first of them, because they are a group. If he repeats the greeting to them, it is out of courtesy. The people of the mosque who responded to him have fulfilled the fard of kifayah for all of them.

 

Secondly, the Sunnah of greeting remains for the one who hears the greeting of the first if he wants to sit among them. Therefore, it is not obligatory for the last person to answer the greeting.

 

When entering a house, it is recommended to offer greetings, even if no one is present. That is by saying:

 

“May salvation be upon us and the righteous servants of Allah.”

 

We mentioned at the beginning of this chapter what to say when entering a house. Similarly, when entering a mosque or someone else’s house where no one is present, it is recommended to say:

 

“May salvation be upon us and the righteous servants of Allah.

May salvation be upon the ahl al-bayt and Allah’s mercy and blessings.”

 

If a person sits with a group, then stands up and leaves them, the Sunnah is to greet them with salam.

 

With good isnad, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and others narrated from Abu Hurairah , that the Messenger said:

 

“When one of you sits down in a gathering, he should greet it. And when he stands up, he should greet him. For, not the first (greeting)

 

is more entitled than the latter.” ‘Tirmidhi classifies as

 

hasan hadith.

 

The interpretation of this Hadīth is: It is obligatory for a group of people to answer the greeting to the one who greeted them and then leave them.

 

Al-Qadhi Husein and Al-Mutawalli said: It is the custom of some people to greet people when they leave. This is a prayer that is recommended and is not obligatory. This is because greeting is only done when meeting, not when parting.

 

As-Syasi rejected it, saying: This is fasid, because the greeting is Sunnah when parting, just as it is Sunnah when sitting. The above Hadith is about that.

 

If a person passes in front of one or more people and he thinks that if he gives the greeting he will not be answered, perhaps because of the arrogance of the passer-by, perhaps because he is ignoring the passer-by, or perhaps for some other reason, then he should give the greeting and not leave him because of this thought. Indeed, the salam is a command to say it. The command to the passer-by is to offer the greeting and not to produce an answer. It is possible that the passer-by may have mistakenly assumed that the passer-by would answer him.

 

With regard to the view that the greeting of the passer-by is the cause of the sin in the right of the passer-by, this is foolishness and ignorance, because the shar’i command is not waived by people through such illusions.

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Abdurrahman Ibn Shiblin, that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever answers the greeting is obligated to do so. Whoever does not answer, then he is not from among us.”

 

It is recommended that whoever greets someone and he does not answer him should speak to him in a gentle manner: “Answering the greeting is obligatory. You should answer my greeting in order to fulfill your obligation.

 

Request permission

 

Allah said:

 

“O you who believe, do not enter a house that is not your own until you have asked permission and greeted the occupants…” (Q.S. An-Nur: 27)

 

In the same Surah, Allah says:

 

“When your children reach puberty, let them ask permission as those before them asked permission…” (Q.S. An-Nur: 59)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Musa AlAshari, that the Prophet explained’:

 

“Ask for permission three times. If you are granted permission, enter. If not, go home.”

 

Through Sahal bin Saad, Bukhari and Muslim also narrate the Apostle’s words:

 

“The request for permission was only made for the sake of views.”

 

Asking permission three times has been narrated from many sources. The Sunnah is to offer the greeting of peace, then ask permission, then stand at the door, so that one cannot see who is inside the house. Then say: Assalamualaikum. May I come in? If no one answers, then say it a second and third time. If no one answers, then it is better for him to leave.

 

With a sahih isnad Abu Daud narrated from Rubayyi bin Hirash (a tabiin) who said: It was narrated to us by a man from Banu Amir who asked permission from the Messenger of Allah while he was at home. The man said: “May I?” so the Messenger of Allah said to his servant.

 

Go out to this person, then teach him how to ask permission to say to him: Say “Assalamualaikum.” May I come in? The man listens to him, then says “Assalamu alaikum”. May I enter? Listening to that the Prophet allowed entry.

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi that Kaladah ibn Hanbal said: “I came to the Prophet’s place without greeting him.” So, the Prophet said: “Go back and say: “Assalamualaikum. May I enter?” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

In this case, Al-Mawardi mentions three opinions.

 

  1. It is correct to give precedence to greetings over asking permission.
  2. Prioritizing permission over greetings.
  3. If the person seeking permission meets the host face to face before entering, then ja gives precedence to the greeting. If he does not see him face to face, then he gives precedence to the request for permission. This is the correct one.

 

The question arises: If he asks for permission three times and it is not granted to him, and he thinks that the host is not listening, then does he need to repeat the request? Ibn ‘Arabi mentioned three opinions regarding this matter, namely: Repeating it, not repeating it, if it is phrased as mentioned above, then there is no need to repeat it. If it is something else, then he should repeat it.

 

Ibn ‘Arabi adds: The most correct thing is not to repeat it at all. This view that he expressed is the one that the Sunnah intends.

 

It is appropriate for someone who asks permission of another with a greeting or by knocking on the door, to be asked: “Who are you?” He should answer Fulan bin Fulan al-Fulani, or Fulan who is called this, or something like that, so that there is full notification. It is not preferable to abbreviate the words: me, my servant, or something else that is not clear.

 

It is mentioned in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim about the incident of Isra that the Messenger explained:

 

“Then Gabriel raised me to the heavens of the world, and asked to be opened. Then it was asked again: Who is this? He answered Gabriel. Asked again: Who is with you? Gabriel replied: Muhammad. Then he took me to the second, third and other heavens. At each door in the sky someone asked: “Who is this?” He replied: Gabriel.”

 

Abu Musa, said: When the Prophet was in the garden, he sat on the well. Abu Bakr came and asked permission. He asked: “Who?” He replied: “Abu Bakr.” Umar also came and asked permission. He asked who: “Who?” He answered: “Umar.” Usman did the same. (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Jabir who said: “I came to the Messenger of Allah by knocking on the door.” He asked: “Who is this?” I replied: “Me.” He said: “Me, me, as if he did not like it.”

 

It is permissible to refer to him by what is already known if the host does not know anything else, even if there is a form of respect for him by nicknaming him, or saying. I am mufti Fulan, gadhi Fulan, shaykh Fulan, and the like.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Umm Hani’ bint Abi Talib? who said: I came to the Prophet while he was taking a bath and Fatimah was covering him. He asked: “Who is this?” I replied: “I am Umm Hani’.”

 

Abi Dhar said: I went out one night, and suddenly I saw the Messenger of Allah walking alone. So, I started walking in the shadow of the moon. Then he turned around and saw me. He asked: “Who is this?” I replied: “Abu Dhar.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim from Abu Oatadah in a tradition that includes the miracles of the Messenger of Allah and some knowledge. In that tradition, he said: The Prophet raised his head and said: “Who is this?” I replied: “Abu Oatadah.”

 

There are many incidents like this. The reason is necessity and there is no intention to boast. Close to this is what is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Hurairah, who said: “O Messenger of Allah, pray to Allah to guide Abu Hurairah’s mother.”

 

After that, I went home, then I said: “O Messenger of Allah, Allah has answered your prayer and guided Abu Hurairah’s mother.”

 

Branches of Salam

 

  1. Kiss

If one wants to kiss another person’s hand because of his austerity, piety, knowledge, nobility, honor, or other religious matters, it is not makrooh; rather it is recommended. If it is done because of his wealth and worldly interests and his position among the people of the world and so on, then it is highly disliked.

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, “from Zari’ who was in the party of Abdul Oais, he said: “We rushed down from our vehicles and kissed the hands and feet of the Prophet.”

 

As for kissing a child on the cheek by his father or kissing someone by his brother out of affection between relatives, that is Sunnah. ‘

 

There are many authentic and well-known Hadīths about this. The same applies to boys and girls. The same applies to kissing a child who is not one’s own.

 

If it is kissing with desire, then it is haraam according to consensus. The same applies to looking with desire at a non-wife.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah who said: “The Prophet kissed Hasan bin Ali and there was Aqra bin Habis At-Tamimi.” Seeing that, he said: “I have ten sons and I have kissed none of them.” The Messenger of Allah looked at him in surprise and said: “Whoever does not love is not loved by Allah.”

 

Aisha said: A group of hill people came to the Messenger of Allah and they asked: Have you ever kissed your children? They (the Companions) replied: “Yes.” The villagers said: But we, by Allah, have never kissed. Hearing this confession, the Messenger of Allah said: “What will I do if Allah takes away affection from you?” (HR. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and others, from Anas, who said: “The Messenger of Allah took his son Ibrahim and kissed him.

 

Abu Daud narrated from Al-Barra’ bin Azib who said: The first time I came to Madinah with Abu Bakr I found Aisha his daughter lying down with a fever. Abu Bakr came to her and said: “How are you, my child?” Then he kissed her on the cheek.

 

With a sahih isnad, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah narrated from Shafwan bin Assal who said: A Jew said to his friend: Go with us to this Prophet. So, they came to the Prophet and asked him about nine clear verses. The end of this tradition is: “So, they kissed his hands and feet.” The two said: “We bear witness that you are the Prophet.”

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud narrated from Iyas bin Dagfal who said: I saw Abu Nadrah kissing Hasan b. ‘Ali on the cheek.

 

Sahal bin Abdillah At-Tastari, one of the zahids of this ummah, came to Abu Daud As-Sajastani and said: “Take out your tongue with which you narrate the traditions of the Messenger of Allah so that I can kiss it.” So he kissed it. So he kissed it.”

 

The actions of the salaf in this regard are numerous.

 

It is permissible to kiss the face of a righteous dead person in order to take his blessing. It is also permissible for a person to kiss the face of his friend when he comes from traveling.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Aisha in a long tradition regarding the death of the Messenger of Allah, she said: Abu Bakr entered and uncovered the Messenger of Allah’s face, bent down and kissed him, and he wept.

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi from ‘Aisha who said: Zaid bin Harithah came to Madinah. At that time, the Messenger of Allah was in my house, then he came to him and knocked on the door. So the Prophet got up to meet him and embraced and kissed him. Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

As for embracing and kissing the faces of other than young children and other than those who come from traveling and so on, it is not preferable. Abu Muhammad al-Baghawi and other companions of Imam Nawawi wrote about the disliking of both.

 

The evidence for this is what was narrated in al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, from Anas who said: A man asked: “O Messenger of Allah, if one of us meets his brother or friend, should he bow to him? He replied: “No.” The man said: “Should he hug and kiss him?” He replied: “No.” The man said: “Should he hold her hand and shake hands with her?” He answered: “Yes.” Tirmidhi classified this as a hasan hadith.

 

This is what Imam Nawawi mentioned about kissing and hugging. It is permissible to do that when arriving from traveling and so on, and it is mukruh karohah tangih in other circumstances. This is the case with a person who has a mustache/beard and a handsome face. As for the one who does not have a mustache/beard, it is haraam to kiss him, no matter what. Whether he has arrived from traveling or not. What is clear is that embracing him is like kissing him. There is no difference in this matter, whether the act takes place between two men who are righteous or wicked, or one of them is righteous, then everything is the same.

 

  1. Shake hands

You should know that shaking hands when you meet is an agreed-upon Sunnah practice.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari that Abu Oatadah said: I asked Anas. Did the companions of the Prophet used to shake hands with each other? he replied: “Yes.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, about the tradition of Kaab bin Malik, in the story of his repentance. He said: “So Talhah b. Ubaidillah rushed to meet me, so he shook hands with me and congratulated me.”

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud narrated from Anas who said: When the Yemenis came, the Messenger of Allah said to them: “The Yemenis have come to you and they are the first to shake hands.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, from Al-Barra bin Azib that the Messenger said:

 

“No two Muslims meet and shake hands with each other, but their sins will be forgiven before they part.”

 

In his book, Al-Muwarhtha’, Imam Malik, narrated from Atha bin Abdullah Al-Khurasani, that the Prophet said:

 

“Shake hands, and envy will disappear.

Give gifts to one another, so that you may love one another and the enmity will disappear.” This is a mursal hadith.

 

You should know that shaking hands is recommended at every meeting. With regard to the handshaking that people usually do after the Fajr and ‘Asr prayers, there is no basis for it in sharee’ah. But it is permissible, because the basic principle of mushafahah (shaking hands) is Sunnah.

 

In his book, Al-Oawaid, Imam Abu Muhammad Abdus Salam states that there are five kinds of innovation: Wajib, haram, makrooh, sunnah and permissible. He said: Among the permissible innovations is shaking hands after the Fajr and ‘Asr prayers.

 

It is recommended to be sweet-faced, friendly and smile when shaking hands. In Sahih Muslim it is mentioned:

 

“Do not despise the slightest kindness, even if it comes to your brother with a happy face.”

 

It was narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Al-Barra bin Azib, that the Messenger said:

 

“Verily, if two Muslims meet and shake hands, and love and advise one another, the sins of both will be scattered (removed).”

 

In one narration it is mentioned:

 

“If two Muslims meet and shake hands and praise Allah and ask for forgiveness, Allah will forgive them both.”

 

Through Anas Ibn Sunni narrated that the Messenger said:

 

“No two servants who love each other in the way of Allah, then they meet and shake hands and say salawat to the Prophet, but their sins will be forgiven before they part, both previous and future sins.”

 

Ibn Sunni also narrated from Anas who said: The Messenger of Allah never shook hands with someone and then parted, but he said:

 

“O Allah, grant us good in this world and the next and protect us from the fire of hell.”

 

It is not preferable to bow in every situation. The evidence for this is the tradition of Anas that has already been mentioned, which says: “Should he bow to her?” The Messenger of Allah replied: “No.”

 

It is a hasan hadith as already mentioned and there is no contradiction to it. Hence, there is no way to violate it. Do not be deceived by the number of people who do so even if they are considered scholars or good people and have great qualities, Taking the example of life only from the Messenger of Allah Allah Allah says: l

 

“…What the Messenger gives you, take and what he forbids you, do not do….” (Q.S. Al-Hasyr: 7).

 

In Surah An-nur, verse , Allah says:

 

“…Let those who oppose His commandments fear that calamity will befall them or that a painful punishment will befall them.”

 

It has been stated in the Jana section from Fudhail bin Iyadh that: “Follow the path of truth. It will not harm you, least of all those who travel it. Keep yourself away from the path of misguidance. Do not be deceived by the number of those who perish. With Allah we will be guided.

 

When a person of virtue comes, it is recommended to pay respect by standing. This standing is done for the sake of kindness and respect, not for the sake of praise and exaltation. This practice was practiced by the salaf (early) and halaf (later) scholars.

 

It is highly recommended for us to make pilgrimages and pay respect to pious people, brothers, neighbors and friends and relatives. It is also recommended to do good and keep in touch with them. This should be done in the manner and at the time that suits them.

 

The hadiths and wrsar in this regard are many and well known. The best of these is narrated in Suhih Muslim from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said: A man visited his brother in another village. Allah sent an angel to observe his path. When it came to him the angel asked: “Where are you going?” The man replied: “I want to visit a brother in this village.” The angel also asked: “Are you giving him pleasure as you always do?” The man answered: “No, only that I love him in obedience to Allah.” The angel said: “I am Allah’s messenger to you, indeed Allah has loved you as you love him for Allah.”

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, from Abu Hurairah, that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever visits the sick or visits his brother in obedience to Allah, the caller will call out: It is well with you and well with your journey, and you have earned a place in Paradise.”

 

  1. The recommendation to ask for more visits to the pious

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Ibn Abbas that the Prophet asked Jibril:

 

“Do you prevent us from visiting you more than you visit us?”

 

In response, Allah revealed His words:

 

“We did not descend except by the command of your Lord, He has all that is before us and all that is behind us…” (Q.S. Maryam: 64)

 

Praying for people who sneeze and the law of yawning

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger said:

 

“Verily, Allah loves the one who sneezes and dislikes the one who yawns. If one of you sneezes and praises Allah then it is appropriate for every Muslim who hears him to say: “May Allah love you.” As for yawning, it is from the devil. If one of you yawns, let him overcome it with all his might. For when one of you yawns, the devil laughs at him.”

 

The scholars said: The meaning of this is that sneezing is good for a reason, which is the relief of the body due to the reduction of impurities and the lightening of food. This is recommended, because it weakens the passions and facilitates obedience. Whereas yawning is the opposite.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

“If anyone of you sneezes, let him say: Praise be to Allah. And let his brother or friend say: May Allah love you. When he says to him: May Allah love you. Then let the one who sneezes say: May Allah guide you and make your affairs better.”

 

Anas said: “Two men sneezed near the Prophet but he only prayed for the one. The one for whom he did not pray said: “So-and-so sneezed and you prayed for him. I also sneezed, but you did not pray for me. So, the Prophet said: “This man praises Allah while you do not praise Him.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Musa Al-Ashari heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“When one of you sneezes and praises Allah, pray for him. If he does not praise Him, then do not pray for him.”

 

Al-Barra bin Azib said: The Messenger of Allah enjoined us with seven things and forbade us from seven things. We were told to visit the sick, deliver the dead, pray for the sneezer, attend the invitation, answer the greeting, help the wronged, and fulfill the oath.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet explained:

 

“The rights of a Muslim over another Muslim are: Answering the greeting, visiting the sick: delivering the dead: attending the invitation, and praying for the sneezer.”

 

In a narration, mentioned by Muslim:

 

“The rights of a Muslim over another Muslim are six things: If you meet him, greet him; if he invites you, attend; if he asks for advice, advise him; if he sneezes and praises Allah, pray for him: if he is sick, visit him; and if he dies, deliver his body.”

 

The scholars are unanimously agreed that it is recommended for the person who sneezes to say: “Alhamdulillah. If he says: “Alhamdulillah Rabbil Alamin”, which is better. And if he says: “Alhamdulillah above all circumstances”, which is better.

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud and others narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger taught:

 

“If anyone of you sneezes, let him say: Praise be to Allah above all circumstances. And let his brother or friend say: May Allah love you. The one who sneezes should say: May Allah guide you and make your affairs better.”

 

Ibn ‘Umar relates that a man sneezed next to him, then said: “Praise be to Allah and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah.” Hearing this, Ibn Umar said: “Praise be to Allah and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah, this is not how we were taught by the Messenger of Allah. We were taught to say: “Praise be to Allah above all circumstances.” (H.R. Tirmidhi)

 

In his book, Al-Muwarhrha’, Inam Malik narrated from Nafi, that Ibn Umar taught: If one of you sneezes, then someone says: “May Allah love you.” So the person who sneezed said: “May Allah love and forgive us and you.”

 

This practice is Sunnah, not obligatory. The companions of Imam Nawawi said: Praying for the sneezer with the words Yarhamukallah (May Allah have mercy on you) is a sunnah kifayah. If some of the people present say it, it is sufficient for them.

 

But it is preferable that it be said by each of them. The Prophet said:

 

“It is the right of every Muslim who hears it to say to him: May Allah love you.”

 

If the sneezer does not praise Allah, there is no need to pray for him. Praising Allah and praying for the sneezer and his response can at least be heard by those who are nearby. If the sneezer says other words that are not praises to Allah, then he does not need to be prayed for.

 

Salim bin Ubaid Al-Asja’i said: While we were with the Messenger of Allah, a man sneezed among us and said: “Assalamualaikum (may salvation be upon you).” So,

 

The Messenger of Allah replied: “May salvation be upon you and upon your mother.” Then he said:

 

“When any one of you sneezes, let him praise Allah. Let those who are with him say: May Allah love you. The person should reply: May Allah forgive us and our guest.” (H.R. Abu Daud and Tirmidhi)

 

If someone sneezes during prayer, it is recommended to say: Alhamdulillah, and to make himself heard. This is our madhhab. The companions of Imam Malik had three opinions. One of them is this and was chosen by Ibn Arabi. The second is to praise in his heart. The third is Sahnun’s opinion, which is neither to praise openly nor in his heart.

 

It is mustahabb for the one who sneezes to place his hand, shirt or something similar over his mouth and lower his voice.

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Abu Hurairah who said: “When he sneezed, the Messenger of Allah put his hand or his shirt over his mouth and lowered his voice.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

Ibn Sunni narrated from Abdullah bin Zubair that the Messenger said:

 

“Verily, Allah does not like the raising of the voice when yawning and sneezing.”

 

Through Umm Salamah Ibn Sunni also narrated the words of the Messenger:

 

“Outrageous vaporization and loud sneezing are from the devil.”

 

If a person sneezes several times, it is mustahabb to pray for him, up to three times.

 

Muslim relates that Salamah ibn Al-Akwa’ once heard the Prophet say to a man who sneezed nearby: “May Allah love you.” Then he sneezed again. So the Prophet said: This man has a cold.”

 

As for the narration of Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, then Salamah said: “A man sneezed near the Messenger of Allah while I was there.” The Messenger of Allah said: “May Allah love you.” Then the man sneezed a second and third time. So, the Messenger said: “May Allah love you. This man has a cold.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan hadith.

 

There is a saying of the Prophet narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Ubaidillah ibn Rifaah:

 

“The sneezer is prayed for three times. If more, if you wish, pray for him again. If you wish, do not pray for him.”

 

So this is a weak hadith, as Tirmidhi says: It is a gharib hadith and its isnad is unknown.

 

It is narrated in Ibn Sunni, with an isnad in which there is a man whose circumstances cannot be ascertained. The rest of the isnad is sahih from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said:

 

“When one of you sneezes, let his seatmate pray for him. If more than three times, then he has a cold. And it is not prayed for after three times.”

 

The scholars disagree on this point. Ibn Arabi said: Some say that after the second sneeze it is said that the person has a cold. Some say after the third sneeze. There are also those who say after the fourth sneeze. The most correct is the third sneeze.

 

He continued: The meaning is that you are not among those who are prayed for after this, because you have a cold. Sickness is not a relief from sneezing.

 

If someone says: If he is sick, then he should be prayed for and asked for mercy (from Allah), because he is more deserving of prayer than others. The answer is that it is recommended to pray for him. But this is not the prescribed supplication for the sneezer, rather it is the supplication of a Muslim for another Muslim to be healthy, safe and so on. This does not include supplication for the sneezer.

 

If a person sneezes and does not praise Allah, it has been explained that he is not prayed for. Similarly, if he praises Allah and no one hears him, then there is no need to pray for him. If they are in a group, and only some of them hear him, then it is preferable that he be prayed for by those who hear him, without others.

 

Ibn ‘Arabi mentions the difference in praying for the sneezing person by those who do not hear the praise of Allah while they hear their friend praying for the person. Some say that he was prayed for, because he was aware of his sneezing and his praise (to Allah) by the supplication uttered by his friend. Some said that he was not, because he did not hear him.

 

You should know that if a person does not praise Allah in the first place, it is advisable for those who are close to him to remind him to praise Him. This is the preferred view.

 

  1. When a Jew sneezes

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and others narrated that Abu Musa Al-Ashari said: The Jews pretended to sneeze near the Messenger of Allah hoping that he would pray for them saying: “May Allah love you.” Seeing this, he said: “May Allah guide you and make your affairs better.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

In his Musnad, Abi Ya’la Al-Mushili narrated from Abu Hurairah, that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever speaks and then sneezes at the same time is right.”

 

The narrators are reliable and competent, but Ugbah ibn Al-Walid is questionable. Most of the memorizers and Imams rely on the narrations from the people of Sham. That is what has been narrated from Muawiyah ibn Yahya As-Syami.

 

If a person yawns, the Sunnah is to prevent it as much as possible, based on the sahih hadith that has been mentioned. It is recommended to put one’s hand over one’s mouth, based on the Hadith narrated in Sahih Muslim from Abi Said Al-Khudri that the Prophet taught:

 

“When one of you yawns (from sleepiness), let him hold his hand over his mouth. For surely the devil enters.”

 

Whether the yawning occurs during prayer or outside of it, it is recommended to put the hand over the mouth. What is not preferable for the one who is praying is to put his hand over his mouth, if there is no need for it, such as yawning and the like.

 

Praise Praising the one who praises him with his good qualities sometimes takes place in the presence of the person being praised and sometimes in his absence. It is not forbidden to praise without the person being present. The exception is when the praiser praises carelessly and lies, so it is forbidden on the basis of lying, not on the basis of its nature as praise.

 

Praise that does not contain falsehood is favored if it serves a good purpose and does not cause harm by reaching the person being praised, so that he may be charmed or other consequences.

 

As for praising in the presence of the person being praised, there are many traditions that indicate its permissibility or recommendation. There are also many traditions that indicate its prohibition.

 

The scholars said: The way to combine these traditions is to say: If the person being praised has perfect faith, good conviction and a clean soul and perfect knowledge so that he cannot be mesmerized and not be deceived by the praise and cannot play tricks on himself, then it is neither forbidden nor disliked. If there is a fear of any of these things arising, then it is highly disliked to praise him.

 

Among the traditions that prohibit it is the one narrated in Sahih Muslim from Miqdad , that a man praised Uthman so Migdad deliberately knelt down and started sprinkling earth on his face. Usman asked him: “What are you doing?” Migdad replied: Verily the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“When you see people praising, then sprinkle dirt on their faces.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Musa AlAshari who said: The Prophet heard one man praising and flattering another. So he said: “You have destroyed or cut off that man’s back.”

 

Through Abi Bakrah., Bukhari and Muslim mention that a man was mentioned near the Prophet. Apparently, another man praised the man who was mentioned. Hearing this, the Prophet said:

 

“Woe to you for cutting your friend’s throat (pronounced blessings). If one of you has to praise, then let him say: I think he is such and such. If he thinks that the person is such and such, then it is Allah who reckons with him. No one can purify except Allah.”

 

As for the permissible traditions, there are many of them. However, we will point out some of them. Among them is the statement of the Messenger of Allah in a sahih hadith to Abu Bakr: “What do you think of two people while Allah is the third?”

 

In another hadith: “You are not among them, i.e. not among those who drag their clothes with pride.”

 

To Abu Bakr the Apostle also said: “O Abu Bakr, do not weep. Verily the most trustworthy person in friendship and wealth is you. If I were to appoint a companion from among my people, I would appoint you as my companion.”

 

The Messenger & also said: “I wish you to be one of them, that is, of those who are sent in from all the gates of Paradise.”

 

In another hadith: “Send him in and tell him that he has entered Paradise.”

 

The Prophet said: “I entered Paradise. When I saw a palace, I asked: To whom does this belong? The angels replied: ‘Umar’s. I wanted to enter it, but I remembered your jealousy. Umar said: By my father and mother, can I be jealous of you?”

 

In another hadith: “O ‘Umar, the devil does not meet you while you are walking on one side, but he walks on the side you are not on.”

 

On one occasion, the Prophet stated: “Open the door for Usman and tell him that he will enter Paradise.”

 

In another hadith the Prophet said to ‘Ali: “You are part of me and I am part of you.”

 

The Apostle also said to Ali: “You are not pleased with me to occupy the position that Aaron occupied with

 

Moses?”

 

In another tradition, the Prophet said to Bilal: “I hear the sound of your sandals in heaven.”

 

He said to Ubay bin Kaab: “You have the pleasure of knowledge, Aba Mundzir.”

 

To Abdullah bin Salam, the Apostle stated: “You remain on Islam until death.”

 

In another hadith, the Prophet explained to two Ansar: “Allah is laughing or marveling at the deeds of both of you.”

 

Also to the Ansar, the Apostle stated: “You are among my most beloved people.”

 

In another hadith, he praised Asyaj Abdul Oais: “Verily in you are two qualities that Allah and His Messenger love: Forgiveness and patience.”

 

All these traditions are well known in the Sahih. That is why I have not added to them. The examples of traditions that we have mentioned regarding the praise of the Messenger of Allah in the presence of the person being praised are numerous. As for the praise of the Companions, the Tabiin and the scholars after them, they are too numerous.

 

At the end of the book of zakat from /hya “Ulumuddin, Al-Ghazali said: When a person gives charity, it is proper for the recipient to see. If the giver of charity is one who likes to be thanked for his charity and likes to publicize it, then the recipient of charity should conceal it, because fulfilling his right is not helping him injustice, and asking him to be thanked is injustice. On the other hand, if it is known from his circumstances that he does not like to be thanked and does not intend to be, then the recipient of charity should thank him and emphasize his charity.

 

Sufyan At-Isauri said: Whoever knows himself, he cannot be harmed by people’s praise.

 

Al-Ghazali adds: The details of these meanings should be paid attention to by the one who maintains his heart, because indeed the actions of the limbs and the neglect of these details can make the devil laugh because of the amount of hardship and lack of benefit.

 

The parable of this knowledge is the saying that learning a matter is better than a year’s worship. For with this knowledge lives a lifetime of worship. And with ignorance, a lifetime of worship dies and is of no benefit.

 

Praise and mention of various good things Allah says:

 

“Do not purify (praise) yourselves….” (Q.S. An-Najm: 32)

 

You should know that mentioning one’s good deeds is of two kinds:

 

Blameworthy and praiseworthy.

 

What is reprehensible is when mentioning good deeds for the sake of pride, highlighting one’s height and privileges to others.

 

What is praiseworthy is when there is religious advice. This is done by enjoining good, forbidding evil, advising, showing benefit, teaching, educating, warning, reconciling between two people, warding off harm from him, or the like. Then mentioning his virtues with the intention that this praise is closer to what he said or that what he said is not found in others.

 

There are many texts that support this, such as the Prophet’s words:

 

“I am the one who does not lie. I am the leader of the children of Adam. I am the one whose land was first divided. I am the one who knows Allah best and is the most pious among you. Verily, I spend the night with my Lord.”

 

In the Qur’anic verse, it is mentioned that Joseph begged:

 

“Make me the keeper of the treasury of the earth; surely I am very careful and cognizant.” (Q.S. Yusuf: 55)

 

What is reprehensible is when mentioning good deeds for the sake of pride, highlighting one’s height and privileges to others.

 

What is praiseworthy is when there is religious advice. This is done by enjoining good, forbidding evil, advising, showing benefit, teaching, educating, warning, reconciling between two people, warding off harm from him, or the like. Then mentioning his virtues with the intention that this praise is closer to what he said or that what he said is not found in others.

 

There are many texts that support this, such as the Prophet’s words:

 

“I am the one who does not lie. I am the leader of the children of Adam. I am the one whose land was first divided. I am the one who knows Allah best and is the most pious among you. Indeed, I spend the night with my Lord.”

 

In the Qur’anic verse, it is mentioned that Joseph begged:

 

“Make me the keeper of the treasury of the earth; surely I am very careful and cognizant.” (Q.S. Yusuf: 55)

 

Issues related to the discussion of this section

 

It is recommended to answer people who call you with “labbaik wa sa’daik” or “labbaik” only.

 

It is recommended to say to those who come to him “marhaban” and to say to those who do good to him or see good deeds from him: “May Allah take care of you and may Allah reward you with good and the like.”

 

The evidence for this is from many sahih and well-known traditions.

 

SOME DHIKR OF MARRIAGE

 

Remarks when proposing

 

It is advisable for the suitor to begin by praising Allah and praising Him and saluting the Messenger of Allah, as well as saying: “I bear witness that there is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner. I also bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. I have come for your daughter, so-and-so, or your sister, so-and-so bint Fulan, or something like that.”

 

Abu Daud, Ibn Majah, and others narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger said:

 

“Every conversation, and it is in some narrations: Any business that does not begin with Alhamdulillah (praise be to Allah) is lacking in blessings.” This hadith is classified as hasan.

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Abu Hurairah, that the Prophet said:

 

“Any sermon that does not have tashahhud in it is like a broken hand.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

Offer to marry his son

 

When the husband of his daughter Hafsah died, Umar said: I met Usman, and I offered Hafsah to him. I said: If you wish, I will marry you to my daughter Hafsah.” Usman replied: “I will consider this matter first.” Some nights passed, then he went to Umar and said: “I have decided not to marry at this time.” Then Umar went to Abu Bakr Siddig and said: “If you wish, I will marry you to my daughter Hafsah.” Abu Bakr was silent. (H.R. Bukhari)

 

Speech at the time of the marriage contract

 

It is recommended to give a sermon before the marriage contract that covers the issues mentioned above and goes beyond them. Whether the person giving the sermon is the person doing the marriage or someone else.

 

The most important of these is that narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and others, with a sahih isnad from ‘Abdullāh ibn Mas’ud who said: The Messenger of Allah taught us the khutbah at the time of the marriage contract, which is:

 

“Praise be to Allah, to whom we turn for help and forgiveness, and to whom we seek refuge from our own evil. Whoever Allah guides, no one can misguide him. And whoever He leads astray, no one can guide him. I testify that there is no God but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. O mankind, fear your Lord who has created you from a single Soul and created from it its mate and propagated from it many men and women. And fear Allah, in whose name you ask one another, and fear from breaking family ties. Verily, Allah is always watching over you. O you who believe, fear Allah with true piety and die not but as seasons. O you who have believed, fear Allah and speak the truth, and Allah will reform your deeds and forgive your sins. Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has gained a great gain.” This is one of Abu Daud’s narrations.

 

In another narration, after the Prophet’s words (before the verse) are as follows:

 

“Allah sent him with the truth as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner of the Day of Resurrection. Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has attained the truth. Whoever disobeys them has only harmed himself and not harmed Allah in the least.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

The companions of Imam Nawawi said: With this it is recommended to say: “I marry you on the basis of what Allah has enjoined, which is good companionship or good release.”

 

This khutbah is at least: “Praise be to Allah and peace be upon the Messenger of Allah. I advise you to fear Allah.”

 

You should know that this sermon is Sunnah. If it is not said at all, the marriage is valid according to scholarly consensus. Daud AdDahiri is of the view: It is not valid. The scholars are of the opinion: They did not regard Daud’s opinion as a significant difference and were not affected by his opposition.

 

For the groom, the preferred school of thought says that he does not say the khutbah, but if the guardian of the bride says: “I marry you to So-and-so,” then he responds: “I accept the marriage.” It is also permissible to say: “I accept the marriage.”

 

If he had said: “Praise be to Allah and salawat upon the Messenger of Allah, I accept.” Then the marriage is valid. The words said between the jab and the contract do not affect him, because there is only a small gap in the contract.

 

Some of the companions of Imam Nawawi were of the opinion: It invalidates the marriage. Some of them said that it does not invalidate it, rather it is recommended to do it. What is correct is what has been stated, which is not to do it. If it is wrong to do so, it does not invalidate the marriage.

 

Remarks after the marriage ceremony

 

It is recommended to say to the groom: “May Allah bless you, or, may Allah bless you and gather you both in goodness.”

 

It is recommended to say to the husband and wife: “May Allah bless you in your pairing and gather you in goodness.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Anas that when Abdurrahman bin Auf informed the Prophet that he had married, he said: “May Allah bless you.”

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and others narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet prayed for people who marry:

 

“May Allah bless you and bless you and gather you both in goodness.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

What husbands say to their wives on their wedding night

 

It is recommended to mention the name of Allah and hold his forelock” when you first meet and say: May Allah bless us. Also to say as narrated by Abu Daud, Ibn Majah, Ibn Sunni and others, from Amr bin Shuaib, from his father, from his grandfather, that the Prophet said:

 

“When any of you marries a woman or acquires a slave, let him say: O Allah, I ask You for her good and the good You have created in her. I also seek refuge with You from her evil and the evil You have created in her. When buying a camel, he should hold the top of its hump and say this. In one narration: 1a should also hold the tip of its hair and pray for blessings on the zstri and the servant.”

 

Greetings to a man after meeting his wife

 

Anas said: The Messenger of Allah married Zainab. He held a wedding banquet with bread and meat. The Hadith mentions the nature of wa/mah and the number of invitations. Then he said: The Messenger of Allah went out to ‘Aisha’s room and said:

 

“May salvation be upon you ahl al-bayt and Allah’s mercy and blessings.” ‘Ā’ishah replied: “May the salvation and mercy of Allah be upon you. How did you find your wives? May Allah bless you.” Then he visited the rooms of all his wives and spoke to them. Then he visited the rooms of all his wives and spoke to them as he had spoken to ‘Aisha. They said what Aisha had said. (H.R. Bukhari)

 

Speech during intercourse

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Abbas that the Prophet said:

 

“Suppose one of you, when having intercourse with his wife, says: In the name of Allah. O Allah, keep us away from the devil. Also keep the devil away from the child You give. Then it is destined that the two of them have a child, surely the devil cannot harm him.”

 

In Bukhari’s narration: “Undoubtedly the devil cannot harm her forever.” The Apostle’s husband asked Jabir: “Did you marry a virgin or a widow?” Jabir replied: “I married a widow.” He said: “Why don’t you marry a virgin so that you seduce her and she seduces you?” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Through Aisha, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i narrate the Apostle’s words:

 

“The most perfect believer is the one who is the best in manners among the believers and the most gentle among them towards his wife.”

 

Manners of speaking to wife’s family

 

It is advisable for the husband not to speak to any of his wife’s relatives with words that mention intercourse, kissing, embracing, or any other kind of pleasure or that have that meaning.

 

Ali said: “I am a man who often emits madhiy. I was ashamed to ask the Messenger of Allah about it because of the position of his daughter by my side. So, I sent Migdad to ask him.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Speech during childbirth

 

It is advisable to recite prayers in times of distress as mentioned.

 

It is narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Fatimah that the Prophet ordered Umm Salamah and Zainab bint Jahshin to recite the Ayat Kursi, Surah Al-A’raf verse 54 until the end of the verse, and Al-Muawwizaram (Al-Falag and An-Naas) by her side when she was about to give birth.

 

Azan in the baby’s ear

 

Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and others mention the testimony of Abi Rafi , a slave of the Messenger, who said: “I saw the Messenger of Allah recite the call to prayer in the ear of Hussein b. ‘Ali when Fatimah gave birth to him.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

Some companions of Imam Nawawi said: It is recommended to say the adhan in his right ear and say the ikamah in his left ear.

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni from Husein ibn ‘Ali that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever gets a newborn child, then says the adhan in his right ear and says the ikamah in his left ear, surely he will not be disturbed by Ummu Sibyan (a type of jinn who disturbs small children)”

 

ABOUT THE NAMES

 

It is mustahabb to name a baby on the seventh day of its birth or on the day of its birth.

 

Regarding the recommendation on the seventh day, it is reported by Tirmidhi from Amr ibn Shuaib, from his father, from his grandfather, that the Prophet ordered to name the baby on the seventh day of his birth and cut the umbilical cord and hold an akikah (ceremony of cutting the baby’s hair marked by slaughtering an animal, such as a goat). Tirmidhi classifies this tradition as hasan.

 

With a sahih isnad, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and others narrated from Samurah bin Jundub, that the Messenger said:

 

“Every young child is dependent on his akikah which is slaughtered for him at the age of seven days and he is shaved and given a name.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim and others, from Anas, that the Prophet stated:

 

“Tonight I have a son, so I will name him after my father (Prophet) Ibrahim.”

 

Anas said:” Abi Talhah had a child, so I brought him to the Prophet and he kissed his mouth and named him Abdullah.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Sahal bin Saad As-Saidi said: “When Al-Mundzir bin Abi Usaid was born, he was brought to the Messenger of Allah. He placed him on his thigh while Abu Usaid was sitting. The Prophet was distracted by something in front of him. Then Abu Usaid told him to lift him from his thigh. Then they took him home.”

 

The Prophet remembered, so he asked: “Where is the child?” Abu Usaid replied: “We have brought him home, O Messenger of Allah.” He asked: “What is his name?” Abu Usaid answered: “Fulan.” He said: “No, but his name was Al-Mundzir. So he named him Al-Mundzir at that time.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

The recommendation to give a good name

 

With a jayyid isnad, Abu Daud narrated from Abi Darda that the Prophet said:

 

“Verily, you will be called on the Day of Resurrection by your names and the names of your fathers, so make good your names.” The names most favored by Allah

 

It was narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Ibn Umar that the Prophet said:

 

“Verily, your most favorable names to Allah are Abdullah and Abdurrahman.”

 

Jabir, said: “A man among us had a child, so he named him Al-Oasim.” We said: “We cannot call you Aba Al-Oasim and there is no honor.” So, the man told the Prophet and he said: “Name your son Abdurrahman.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Through Abi Wuhaib Al-Jasymi, Abu Daud, Nasa’i and others narrated that the Messenger said:

 

“Use the names of the prophets and the names that Allah likes best are Abdullah and Abdurrahman. The most correct of these are: Haris and Hammam. The ugliest of them are Harb and Murrah.”

 

Suggestions for congratulations and the response of the person being congratulated

 

It is recommended to congratulate the one who gets a child. The companions of Imam Nawawi said: It is recommended to congratulate according to what is narrated from Husein ibn ‘Ali that he taught people to congratulate. He said: Say: May Allah bless you and your child. May you be grateful to the Giver. May the child reach adulthood and be devoted to you.

 

It is recommended to answer the congratulator with the words: May Allah bless you. May Allah reward you with good. May Allah grant you something like that. Or, may Allah increase your reward.

 

Prohibition of giving unfavorable names

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

“Verily, the lowest name in the sight of Allah is that of a man who takes the name of the king of kings.”

 

In a narration, Muslim mentions:

 

“The most wrathful person in the sight of Allah on the Day of Resurrection and the ugliest is the one who takes the name of the king of kings, while there is no king but Allah.”

 

Prohibition of calling fathers and teachers by name

 

It is narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Abu Hurairah, that the Prophet saw a man with a child. He asked the child: “Who is this?” The child replied: “My father.” He said: “Do not walk in front of him, do not do him any harm, do not sit before him and do not call him by his name.”

 

Ibn Abbas said: “Juwairiyah’s name used to be Barrah, so the Messenger of Allah changed it to Juwairiyah. He did not like to be called out of the house of Barrah.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Said ibn Al-Musayyib ibn Hazan, from his father, that his father came to the Prophet. He asked: “What is your name?” He replied: “Hazan (hard ground).” He said: “Your name is Sahal (easy).” The man said: I do not want to change the name my father gave me.” Ibn Al-Musayyib said: “Then we still have hardness of heart.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Umar that the Prophet changed the name Ashiyah (combative) to Jamilah (beautiful).

 

In Sunan Abu Daud, Nasa’i and others it is mentioned that when Suraih Hani’ Al-Haritsi came with his people to the Messenger of Allah he heard them nicknaming him Abi Al-Hakim (Mr. Judge). So the Messenger of Allah called him and asked: “Verily Allah is the Judge and He is the one who decides the law. So, why are you called Abi Al-Hakim?” He replied: “When my people dispute about a matter, they come to me and I decide between them so that each party is satisfied.”

 

Hearing that, the Prophet praised him and asked: “How good is this, what is the name of your son?” Abu Suraih replied: “My sons are named Suraih, Muslim and Abdullah.” He asked: “Who is the greatest among them?” I answered: “Suraih.” He said: “Then you are Abu Suraih (the father of Suraih).”

 

The prohibition and permissibility of calling people nicknames

 

  1. Ban

Allah said:

 

“… Do not call each other by bad names…” (Q.S. Al-Hujurat: 11)

 

The scholars are unanimously agreed that it is haraam to call a person by a nickname that he dislikes, whether it is his nature, such as blind, lame, one-eyed, striped, scabby, yellow, hunchbacked, deaf, blue, snub, cleft, stump, lame and so on, or it is a trait of his father, mother or something else that he dislikes.

 

The scholars are also unanimous on the permissibility of referring to it as recognition for those who cannot recognize it otherwise.

 

  1. Permissibility

Among them was Abu Bakr As-Siddig. His name was Abdullah bin Usman, his nickname was Atig. This is the sahih one agreed upon by the majority of scholars, hadith scholars and historians.

 

Some say his name was Atig, as narrated by AlHafidh Abu Al-Oasim Ibn Asakir in his book Al-Arraf. The correct one is the first one and the scholars agree that it is a good nickname.

 

They disagree as to why he was named Atiq. It was narrated from ‘Aisha that the Messenger of Allah said: “Abu Bakr is the one whom Allah freed from the fire of hell.” She (Aisha) said: “So since then he has been named Atiq.”

 

Mush’ab Ibn Zubayr and other textual scholars said: He was named Atiq, because there was nothing blameworthy in his lineage, and some say there was more than that.

 

Also Abu Turab, as a nickname for Ali bin Abi Talib.. Another nickname is Abu Al-Hasan.

 

It is mentioned in an authentic hadith that the Messenger of Allah found ‘Ali sleeping in the mosque and his body was covered with dirt. So he said: “Get up O Aba Turab (Father of Soil), get up O Aba Turab.” Thus, this good and favorable nickname remains with him.”

 

Nicknames for people who don’t have children

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and others, from Aisha who said: “O Messenger of Allah, my friends all have nicknames.” He said: “Use the nickname of your son (nephew), Abdullah.” What was meant was Abdullah ibn Zubair, the son of his sister Asma’ bint Abu Bakr, and ‘Ā’ishah was called Ummu Abdullah (Mother of Abdullah). This is what is sahih.

 

As narrated in Ibn Sunni’s book, Aisha said: “I had a miscarriage, so the Prophet named him Abdullah and called me Ummu Abdullah.” So this is a da’eef hadith.

 

Ban on using the nickname Abu Al-Oasim

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from a group of Companions, including Jabir and Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

“Name (your children) by my name and do not call them by my nicknames.”

 

The scholars disagree about the nickname Abu Al-Oasim on three points. Imam al-Shaafa’i was of the view that it is not permissible for a person to use the nickname Abu al-Oasim, whether his name is Muhammad or not. Among those who narrated from As-Shaafa’i were the trustworthy imams of memorization, the fuqaha and hadith experts, namely: Abu Bakr Al-Baihaqi, Abu Muhammad Al-Baghawi in his book At-Tahdzib in the beginning of Nikah and Abu Al-Oasim Ibn Asakir in Zarikh Damascus.

 

The second school of thought is the school of Malik, that it is permissible to use the nickname Abu Al-Oasim for those named Muhammad and for others. The third school of thought is that it is not permissible for those whose name is Muhammad and it is permissible for others.

 

Imam Abu Al-Oasim Ar-Rafi’i said: It seems that this third school of thought is more correct because people have been using this title throughout the ages without denying it. The opinion mentioned by the one who belongs to this school of thought is a clear misinterpretation of the hadith.

 

As for the possibility of people doing so, even though those who use these nicknames are famous imams and prominent figures, and they are exemplary in important religious matters, this confirms the view of Maalik regarding its absolute permissibility, and they have understood from this life that it is specific to the time of the Messenger of Allah, as it is well-known that the reason for the prohibition is in the nickname of the Jews Abu Al-Oasim and their calling him Aba Al-Oasim to annoy the Messenger of Allah, while this meaning has disappeared.

 

KINDS OF DHIKR

 

It should be noted that this chapter will mention several kinds of dhikr and supplications that are of great benefit. And there is no stipulation on the order in which they should be discussed.

 

The recommendation to praise Allah when receiving good news

 

You should know that it is recommended for those who are blessed or averted from calamity to prostrate themselves as a sign of gratitude to Allah and to praise Him. The hadiths and traditions concerning this are many and well known.

 

In a long tradition, it is narrated that ‘Umar 4 sent his son ‘Abd Allah to ‘A’ishah asking her permission to be buried with his companion. When ‘Abd Allah arrived, ‘Umar asked: “How did it go?” Ja replied: “As you wanted, O Amirul Mukminin, she has given permission.” Umar said: “Praise be to Allah, nothing is more important to me than that.” (H.R.Bukhari)

 

Utterances when hearing the crowing of a rooster, the neighing of a donkey and the barking of a dog

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

“When you hear the neighing of a donkey, then seek refuge in Allah from the temptation of the devil, for indeed he sees the devil. And when you hear the crowing of a rooster, seek refuge in Allah from its virtue, for indeed it sees angels.”

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Jabir bin Abdillah that the Messenger taught:

 

“When you hear the barking of dogs and the neighing of donkeys by night, then seek refuge in Allah, for they see what you cannot see.”

 

Remarks when seeing a fire

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Amr bin Suaib, from his grandfather, that the Prophet said:

 

“When you see a fire, then say takbir. Verily, the takbir can extinguish it.”

 

Speech when rising from the majlis

 

Through Abu Hurairah, Tirmidhi and others mention the words of the Apostle, namely:

 

“Whoever sits in a gathering and says many bad words there, then says before getting up from his seat: Glory be to You, O Allah, and all praise be to You. I testify that there is no god but You. I seek forgiveness from You and repent to You. So, his sins are forgiven at that time.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and others, from Abi Barzah, (Nadhlah), who said: If you want to get up from the assembly. The Messenger of Allah : Say”:

 

“Glory be to You O Allah and all praise be to You. I testify that there is no god but You. I seek forgiveness from You and I repent to You. A man said: O Messenger of Allah, you said the words that you said earlier. He said: It is an atonement for the error that occurred in the assembly.”

 

It is narrated in Hiyar Al-Auliya’ that ‘Ali said: Whoever wants to have a full scale (on the Day of Judgment), then he should say at the end of his assembly or when standing:

 

“Glory be to your Lord who has exceptions from what they attribute. May salvation be upon the messengers. And all praise be to Allah, the Lord of all worlds.”

 

Prayer in a group

 

Tirmidhi narrated from Ibn Umar who said: Rarely did the Messenger of Allah get up from his seat before praying for his companions:

 

“O Allah, grant us a fear of You that will stand between us and disobeying You. Grant us obedience to You that will lead us with it to Your Paradise. And grant us confidence that will alleviate the calamities of the duma upon us. O Allah, grant us pleasure with our hearing, our sight and our strength as long as You keep us alive. Keep it strong in us. Avenge those who oppress us. Do not make our calamity in this religion. Do not make the world our greatest desire. Do not limit our knowledge to that. And do not allow those who do not love us to rule over us.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

The Makruh of standing up from the gathering before mentioning the Asma Allah

 

It was narrated with a sahih isnad in Sunan Abu Daud and others, from Abu Hurairah , that the Messenger said:

 

“There is not a people who stand up from an assembly and do not mention the name of Allah, but it is as if they stand up from the carcass of a donkey, and they will be afflicted with regret.”

 

Abu Daud also narrated from Abu Hurairah, that the Messenger affirmed:

 

 

“Whoever sits in a place without mentioning the Asma of Allah will be deficient in the sight of Allah. And whoever lies down in a place without mentioning the Asma of Allah, he too will be deficient in the sight of Allah.”

 

Still through Abu Hurairah Tirmidhi narrates that the Prophet explained:

 

“No people sit in a place without mentioning the Asma Allah and without saluting their Prophet, but they suffer a shortcoming in His sight. If Allah wills, they will be tortured. And if Allah wills, they will be forgiven.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

Zikr on the streets

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

“No people sit in an assembly without mentioning Allah but they are deficient (in the sight of Allah). And no one walks through the streets without mentioning Allah but he suffers a deficiency (in the sight of Allah).”

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni and Dalail An-Nubuwah, by Baihaqi, from Abu Umamah Al-Bahili, who said: Gabriel came to the Messenger of Allah while he was at Tabuk and said: “O Muhammad, witness the corpse of Muawiyah bin Muawiyah Al-Muzani.” Then, the Messenger of Allah went out and Gabriel descended with seventy thousand angels. He placed his right wing over the mountains, so that they were lowered and placed his left wing over the earth, so that he could see Makkah and Madinah. After that, the body was prayed for by the Messenger of Allah and Gabriel and the angels. When it was finished, he asked: “O Gabriel, by what did Muawiyah attain this degree?” He replied: “By his habit of reciting Qul Huwallahu Ahad while standing, riding and walking.” Speech when angry

 

Allah said:

 

“…Those who patiently restrain their anger and those who forgive…” (Q.S. Ali Imran: 134)

 

In another letter:

 

“Perhaps the devil comes to tempt you, so seek refuge in Allah. Verily He is All-Hearing and All-Knowing.” (Q.S. Fussilat: 36)

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“It is not the mighty man who is good at wrestling. Rather, a mighty man is one who can control himself in anger.”

 

Through Ibn Mas’ud, Muslim narrates the Apostle saying: “What do you think of the wrestling champion among you?” We replied: “One who cannot be defeated by others.” He said: “That is not it. Rather, he is the one who can control himself when angry.”

 

Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrated from Muadz bin Anas Al-Juhani (a companion of the Prophet), that he stated”:

 

“Whoever restrains his anger when he is able to do so, Allah will call him before the people on the Day of Judgment to choose which angel he likes.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

Sulaiman bin Shurad said: “I was sitting with the Messenger of Allah and there were two people cursing each other.” One of them was already red in the face and stiffened his neck. So, the Messenger of Allah said: Verily, I know a word which, if he says it, his anger will disappear. If he says: “I seek refuge with Allah from the accursed devil, his anger will cease.” The Companions said to him: The Prophet said: “Seek refuge with Allah from the accursed devil.” The man replied: “Am I being tempted by the devil?” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim).

 

Aisha said: The Prophet came to me when I was angry. So, he took hold of my nose and stroked it and said: O Uwais (Aisha), say:

 

“O Allah, forgive my sins, remove my anger and protect me from the devil.” (H.R. Ibn Sunni)

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Atiyah bin Urwah AsSadi, that the Messenger said:

 

“Indeed, anger is from the devil and the devil is created from fire and fire can only be extinguished with water. So, when one of you becomes angry, let him perform ablution.”

 

Sayings when you love someone

 

Abu Daud and Tirmidhi narrated from Migdam bin Madikarib, that the Prophet taught:

 

“If one loves his brother, let him tell him that he loves him.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

Anas said: A man was with the Prophet. At that time, a man passed in front of him. He said: “O Messenger of Allah, I love this man.” He asked: “Did you tell him?” The man replied: “No.” He said: “Tell him.” So the man followed him and said: “I love you in the way of Allah. I love you in the way of Allah.” The man said: “I also love you as you love me.” (H.R. Abu Daud)

 

Holding Muadz’s hand, he said:

 

“O Mu’adz, by Allah, indeed I love you. I advise you not to leave every prayer with the words: O Allah, help me to mention You and to thank You and to perfect my worship of You.” (H.R. Abu Daud and Nasa’i)

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi, from Yazid bin Nuamah Ad-Dhabi, that the Messenger of Allah said”:

 

“If a man befriends another, let him ask him about his name, his father’s name, and his tribe, for that is more indicative of love.”

 

Sayings when seeing sick people

 

Narrated by Tirmidhi, from Abu Hurairah “that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever sees someone who is afflicted and says: “Praise be to Allah, who has saved me from the calamity that was inflicted on you and has favored me over many of His creatures with an advantage”. Then the ordeal will not befall him.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

Through Umar bin Khattab Tirmidhi also narrated that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever sees someone who is afflicted and says: “Praise be to Allah who has saved me from the ordeal inflicted upon you and has favored me over many of His creatures with an advantage. So he is saved from that ordeal no matter what.” Timidhi categorizes this hadith as having a weak isnad.

 

Some scholars say: The supplication should be said quietly, so that the afflicted person does not hear, so that he does not take offense. Unless the trial is a sin, then it is permissible to say it in front of him.

 

Remarks when entering the market

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi, from Umar bin Khattab that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever enters the market saying: “There is no God but Allah and there is no partner for Him. He has all power and to Him belongs all praise. He gives life and death. He lives and cannot die. His dominion encompasses all good and He is in control of everything. So Allah writes for him a million good things, erases from him a million bad things and raises him a million degrees.”

 

In one of his narrations, Al-Hakim added: And a house was built for him in Paradise. One of the narrators states: I came to Khurasan. I met Outaibah b. Muslim and said: I have come to you with a gift. So I narrated the hadith to him. After that Outaibah b. Muslim rode in his spear until he reached the market and said it then he left.

 

Al-Hakim said: In this section there are several narrations, including from Jabir, Abu Hurayrah, Buraidah al-Aslami and Anas. He said: The closest of the conditions of this section is the tradition of Buraidah with the wording:

 

“In the name of Allah. O Allah, I ask You for the good of this market and the good of all that is in it. And I seek refuge with You from its evil and the evil of all that it contains. O Allah, I seek refuge with You that I may not commit perjury or trade at a loss therein.”

 

Remarks when looking in a mirror

 

Ali, said: When the Prophet looked at the mirror, he said:

 

“Praise be to Allah. O Allah, as you have made my form beautiful, so make my character beautiful.” (H.R. Ibn Sunni)

 

Also from Ibn Sunni, Anas said: When the Messenger of Allah looked at his face in the mirror, he said:

 

“Praise be to Allah who has perfected my form and then arranged it, honored my face and then made it beautiful and made me of the people of the seasons.”

 

Remarks when sparking

 

It was narrated by Ibn Sunni from ‘Ali that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever recites the verse of Kursi at the time of swearing in, benefits the person who is swearing in.”

 

Remarks for ringing in the ears

 

A slave of the Messenger, Abi Rafi’ mentioned that he had said:

 

“When the ear of one of you is ringing, let him mention me and say salawat to me. And he should say: May Allah reward with goodness whoever mentions me.”

 

Remarks if leg cramps

 

In the book of Ibn Sunni it is mentioned that Haitsam bin Manasi said: We were with Abdullah bin Umar. Suddenly, his leg spasmed. A man said to him: “Name the person whom you love the most.” So, Abdullah said: “Ya Muhammad.” Suddenly, he stood up. It was as if he was freed from his bonds.

 

Also from the book of Ibn Sunni, it is mentioned that Mujahid said: A man had a leg spasm near Ibn ‘Abbas. So, Ibn ‘Abbas said: “Name the person you love the most.” So, the man said: “Muhammad.” Then, the spasm disappeared.

 

The permissibility of condemning oppressors and persecutors of Muslims

 

It is clear that it is permissible to curse the oppressors and persecutors of the Muslims. This is based on several texts in the Qur’an and Sunnah.

 

Hadiths on this subject are numerous, among which it has been narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from ‘Ali that the Prophet said on the day of the battle of Ahzab:

 

“May Allah fill their houses and graves with fire, just as they have deprived us of the ‘Asr prayer.”

 

From several avenues, Bukhari and Muslim narrate that the Messenger of Allah cursed those who killed Qur’an reciters and continued cursing them for a month while pleading: “O Allah, curse the tribes of Ri’il and Zakwan and Ushayyah.”

 

Through Ibn Mas’ud, Bukhari and Muslim narrate in a long tradition the story of Abu Jahl and his companions from the Ouraisy. When they put camel dung on the Prophet’s back he cursed them. If he cursed, he did it three times. Then he said: “O Allah, act against the Ouraisy (three times).” And continued: “O Allah, take action against Abu Jahl and Utbah bin Rabi’ah.” He also mentioned others until there were seven of them.

 

Through Abu Hurairah, Bukhari and Muslim also narrate the Apostle’s request which reads:

 

“O Allah, harden your footsteps on the Mudhar tribe. O Allah, inflict upon them years like the years of Prophet Yusuf (which were full of drought).”

 

Jabir bin Samurah said: The people of Kufa complained about Saad bin Abi Waqqash to Umar bin Khattab. So he dismissed him and replaced him. It is mentioned in this hadith that ‘Umar sent some men to Kufa to inquire about him. Every time he reached the mosque he asked about Saad. The people praised him until he entered the mosque of Banu Absin.

 

Then, a man rose up among them named Usamah Ibn Oatadah, who was called Aba Sadah. He said: If you ask us for information, then it is true that Saad did not go with the army, did not divide fairly and did not act justly in deciding cases. Saad replied: By Allah, I will mention three things. O Allah, if your servant lies and acts for the sake of praise and pride, then lengthen his life, alleviate his poverty, and give him trials. After that, the person said: “I am an old man who is afflicted, afflicted by the supplication (curse) of Saad.”

 

Said Abdul Malik bin Umair who narrated this story from Jabir bin Samurah: “So, I saw after that his eyebrows fell out because of his old age. And when he met girls in the streets, he pinched them.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Urwah Ibn Zubair, that Said bin Zaid was complained about by Arwah bint Aus to Marwan Ibn Al-Hakam and claimed that Said took a piece of her land. Said replied:” Do I dare to take a piece of

 

his land after I heard from the Messenger of Allah Marwan asked: “What did you hear from the Messenger of Allah?” Said replied: I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“Whoever takes an inch of land in amaya, the land will be wrapped around him up to the seven layers of the earth.” Marwan said: “I do not need to ask you for proof after this.” Then Said said:

 

O Allah, if she is lying, then blind her eyes and end her life in her land. As it turned out, the woman’s eyes were blinded. As she was walking on her land, she suddenly fell into a pit, and died.

 

Disavowal of innovators and sinners

 

Abu Burdah bin Abu Musa said: Abu Musa was in so much pain that he fainted and put his head in the lap of a woman from his family. Then, a woman from his family cried out, while he could not resist her at all.

 

When he came to his senses, he said: “I gave up something that the Messenger of Allah disliked. Verily, the Messenger of Allah dislikes a woman who shouts loudly, a woman who shaves her hair and a woman who tears her clothes in times of calamity.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

It was narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Yahya bin Ya’mar, who said: I said to Ibn ‘Umar: “O father of Abdur-Rahman, there have been before us people who recited the Qur’an. They thought that there is no destiny and that actions are only initiated by man. He said: “If you meet them, then tell them that I do not belong to them and they do not belong to me.”

 

Speech when seeing evil

 

Ibn Mas’ud said: When the Prophet entered Makkah on the day of its conquest, there were three hundred and sixty areas around the Ka’bah, so he began to destroy them with a stick in his hand, saying:

 

“The truth has come and falsehood has perished. Indeed, falsehood is bound to perish. The truth has come and neither falsehood can start nor can it repeat. (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

The speech of one who speaks foul words

 

Hudhayfah, said: “I complained to the Messenger of Allah about my poor speech.” So, he asked: “When did you ask for forgiveness?” He replied: “I ask Allah for forgiveness one hundred times every day.” (H.R. Ibn Majah and Ibn Sunni)

 

Speech when the vehicle rebels

 

Narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Abi Al-Malih (a Tabiin), from a man, he said: I was riding behind the Prophet. At that time, my vehicle revolted. I said: “Woe to the devil.” He said: “Do not say: Woe to the devil. Verily, if you say these words, the devil grows until he resembles a house. Satan also said: By my power. Rather, say: Bismillah. If you say that, the devil becomes small until he looks like a fly.”

 

Prayer for good deeds

 

Abdullah bin Abbas said: “The Prophet was about to relieve himself. So, I put water for his ablution.” When he came out, he asked: “Who has put this?” So I told him. He said: “O Allah, give him knowledge of religion.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim).

 

In a long tradition, which includes various miracles, Abu Oatadah said: The Messenger of Allah walked until midnight, while I walked beside him. When he became sleepy, he sat crookedly on the vehicle. So I straightened him up without waking him up, so that he was upright on his vehicle. Then he continued walking until the morning. The Prophet again tilted his seat. I straightened him up without waking him up, so that he stood upright on his vehicle.

Then it went on until the last hour of the morning. He was also sleepy and more lopsided than the previous time, so he almost fell down. I straightened him up. Then, he raised his head and asked: “Who is this?” I replied: “Abu Oatadah.” He also asked: “When did you start walking with me?” I replied: “I have been traveling since last night.” He said: “May Allah guard you as you guard His Prophet.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi, from Usamah bin Zaid 4, that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever receives good treatment, then says to the person who did it: May Allah reward you with good, then he has spread praise.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

Nasa’i, Ibn Majah and Ibn Sunni narrated from Abdullah bin Abi Rabiah (a companion of the Prophet) who said: The Prophet owed me forty thousand. When he got the money, he paid it to me and said:

 

“May Allah bless you in your family and your wealth. The reward for debt is only praise and repayment.”

 

Jarir bin Abdullah Al-Bajali said: In the days of ignorance, there was a house of the Khas’am tribe called Kakbah Yamaniyah and named after Zul Khalsah. So the Messenger of Allah asked me: “Do you want to free me from Zul Khalsah?” Then I set out with one hundred and fifty horsemen from Ahmas? We defeated and killed those who were there. After that, we went to the Messenger of Allah and reported to him about it. So, he prayed for us and Ahmas.

 

In a narration: So, the Messenger of Allah prayed for blessings for Ahmas’ horses and riders five times.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah came to the Zamzam well while the Companions were drinking and working there. He said: “Work, you are doing a good deed.”

 

Prompt to reply to prayer

 

Aisha said: The Messenger of Allah was presented with a goat. He said: Share the meat. After the servants had divided it, Aisha asked: “What did they say?” The servant replied: They said: “May Allah bless you.” So ‘Ā’ishah said: “May Allah bless them. We replied as they said, and the reward remains for us.” (H.R. Ibn Sunni)

 

When good deeds are done

 

It was narrated in the book of Ibn Sunni, from Said Ibn Al-Musayib, from Abi Ayub Al-Anshari that he took something that was attached to the beard of the Messenger of Allah. So, the Messenger of Allah said: “May Allah remove from you what you dislike, father of Job.”

 

In a narration, from Saad, that Abi Ayub took some dirt from the Messenger of Allah. So, he said: “No evil will befall you, father of Job. No harm will come to you.”

 

Abdullah bin Bakrin Al-Bahili said: “Umar took something from a man’s beard (or from his head).” So, the man said: “May Allah remove evil from you.” Umar, said: “Since we entered Islam, evil has been removed from us by Allah. However, when the evil (annoyance) has been removed from you, then say: “May your hand have taken something good.” (H.R. Ibn Sunni)

 

When harvesting the first fruit

 

Abu Hurairah said: When the people saw the first harvest of fruit, they brought it to the Messenger of Allah. When the Messenger of Allah took it, he said: “May Allah bless us with our fruits and our city. And bless the size of our sacks and our mugs.” Then he called the smallest child and gave it to him.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

The recommendation to be reasonable in advising and teaching knowledge

 

It is advisable for the one who advises or teaches knowledge to be reasonable and not to prolong it so much that it bores them. This is so that they do not become bored and the goodness of the knowledge and its greatness do not disappear from their hearts. This is also so that they will not hate knowledge and be reluctant to listen to good things, so that they may fall into danger.

 

Shafiq bin Salamah said: Ibn Mas’ud advises us every Thursday. A man said to him: “O father of Abdur-Rahman, I want you to advise us every day. Hearing that, Ibn Mas’ud said: “What prevents me from doing so is that I do not like to bore you. I am being reasonable in advising as the Messenger of Allah was reasonable in advising us, for fear that we would become bored.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Ammar bin Yasir, that the Prophet said:

 

“Verily, the length of a person’s prayer and the shortness of his sermon are signs that he is fickle. So, lengthen the prayer and shorten the sermon.”

 

Ibn Sihab Az-Zuhri said: “If a gathering lasts a long time, then the devil takes part in it.”

 

The virtue of showing kindness and the recommendation to do it Allah says: ke

 

“…Help one another in goodness and piety…” (Q.S. Al-Maidah: 2)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Hurairah , that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever invites to goodness will be rewarded with the same reward as those who follow him. His reward will not be less than theirs in any way. And whoever invites to misguidance, then he gets a sin like the sin of those who follow him. His sin will be no less than theirs.”

 

It was narrated by Muslim from Abi Mas’ud Al-Anshari Al-Badri, that he stated:

 

“Whoever points out a good deed will be rewarded with the same reward as the one who does it.”

 

Through Sahal bin Saad , Bukhari and Muslim narrate that the Messenger of Allah said to Ali

 

“By Allah, the guidance you give to one person is better for you than a red camel.”

 

The Prophet also said:

 

“Allah always helps His servant as long as he helps his brother.”

 

The hadiths in this chapter are many. And they are mentioned in authentic narrations. It is sufficient to cite these as examples.

 

The suggestion to point out those who know more about a science

 

Suraih bin Hani said: I came to ‘A’ishah to ask her about wiping over the shoes of the khuff She replied: “Ask ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib because he used to travel with the Messenger of Allah . So, we asked him…” (until the end of the hadith). (H.R. Muslim)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, a long tradition about the story of Saad bin Hisham bin Amir, when he wanted to ask about the Witr prayer of the Messenger of Allah. Saad went to Ibn Abbas and asked him about it. So, Ibn Abbas said: “Shall I show you the person who knows best among the inhabitants of the earth about the Witr prayer of the Messenger of Allah Saad asked: “Who?” Ibn Abbas replied: “Aisha. Go to her and ask her…” (until the end of the Hadith).

 

In Sahih Bukhari it is mentioned that Imran bin Hattan asked Aisha about silk. She replied: “Go to Ibn Abbas and ask him.” So, I asked him. Ibn Abbas said: “Ask Ibn ‘Umar.” So I asked Ibn ‘Umar. He said: “Abu Hafshin (Umar bin Khattab) told me that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Verily, the man who wears silk in his duma is one who has no share in the Hereafter.”

 

The speech of one who is invited to observe God’s law

 

It is appropriate for the person to whom it is said: Between me and you is “the Book of Allah” or “the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah” or “the opinion of the Muslim scholars” to say: “We hear and we obey.” Allah’s Word:

 

“As for the believers, when they are invited to Allah and His Messenger to decide between them, they say: We hear and we obey. They are the fortunate ones.” (Q.S. An-Nuur: 51)

 

Turn away from those who are ignorant Allah says:

 

“Take forgiveness and enjoin goodness and turn away from the ignorant.” (Q.S. Al-Arraaf: 199)

 

In other words:

 

“When they hear useless speech, they turn away from it and say: Our deeds for us and your deeds for you, may you be saved. We do not want those who are ignorant.” (Q.S. Al-Oashash: 55)

 

In Surah An-Najm, verse 29, Allah emphasizes:

 

“Turn away from those who do not mention Us…”

 

God also teaches:

 

“..Forgive with a good forgiveness” (Q.S. Al-Hjjr: 85)

 

Abdullah bin Mas’ud said: When the battle of Hunain took place, the Messenger of Allah favored those who were among the Arab leaders in the distribution of the spoils of war. So, a man said: “By Allah, there is no justice in this distribution and no expectation of Allah’s pleasure in it.” Ibn Mas’ud said: “By Allah, I will surely inform the Messenger of Allah.” Then I came to him and reported it to him. So, his face changed and became red like dye. Then he said: “Who can do justice if Allah and His Messenger do not do justice?” He added: “May Allah have mercy on Moses, he was harassed more than this, but he was patient.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Ibn Abbas said: Uyainah bin Hishn bin Hudhayfah came to the place of his brother’s son Al-Hurr bin Oais. Ja was among those who were close to Umar bin Khattab. They always attended Umar’s gatherings. They were often consulted. Uyainah said to Al-Hurr: O son of my brother, you are well known to Amirul Mukminin, so ask permission for me to meet him. So, he asked for permission and Umar granted it. When he entered, he said: “O Ibn Al-Khattab, by Allah, you do not give us much and do not do justice to us.” Umar was so angry that he wanted to hit him. Seeing that, Al-Hurr said: “O Amirul Mukminin, verily Allah said to His Prophet :

 

“Take forgiveness and enjoin goodness and turn away from the ignorant.” (Q.S. Al-A’raaf: 199)

 

Surely this man is among the ignorant. By Allah, Umar did not violate that verse when it was recited to him. He always heeds what is written in His Book. (H.R. Bukhari)

 

Advice to a superior person

 

You should know that this part is very important. People are obliged to give advice and counsel. It is obligatory to give advice and counsel to every child and person, telling them to do good and forbidding them to do evil. This should be done so long as there is no suspicion that the advice will cause harm.

 

Allah said:

 

“Invite to the path of your Lord with wisdom and good advice and refute them with a better word.” (Q.S. An-Nahl: 125)

 

Many people ignore this, especially those with a high social status. They think that if advice is given, it will cause embarrassment. In fact, it is a mistake and ignorance that is exposed.

 

Surely it does not cause shame. It is humiliation and weakness and carelessness. Shame always leads to good, whereas this can lead to bad. So, it is not shame.

 

According to Rabbaniyyin scholars and religious scholars, shyness is an ethic that encourages people to abandon bad actions and does not lead to carelessness in determining people’s rights. This definition is in accordance with what Al-Junaid stated in Al-Ousyairi’s work, namely: Shame is seeing pleasure and carelessness. Between the two is what is called shame.

 

In fact, this issue has been discussed at length by Imam Nawawi in his Sahih Muslim commentary.

 

The recommendation to keep promises Allah says:

 

“Keep the promise of Allah when you make a promise…” (Q.S. An-Nahl: 91)

 

In the first verse of Surah Al-Maidah, Allah states:

 

“O you who believe, keep your promises…”

 

In other words:

 

“… Keep your word; indeed, your word will be questioned.” (Q.S. Al-Isra’: 34)

 

The verses on this subject are many. The most emphatic are:

 

“O you who believe, why do you say what you do not do. Great is the wrath of Allah when you say what you do not do.” (Q.S. Ash-Shaf: 2-3)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Hurairah, that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The sign of a hypocrite is nga: If he speaks he lies, if he promises he reneges and if he is given a trust he covets.” One narration adds: “Even if he fasts and prays and considers himself a Muslim.”

 

The scholars agree that it is not prohibited for a person to promise something to another person. It is obligatory for him to fulfill his promise. The issue is: Is it obligatory or recommended?

 

There is a difference of opinion among the scholars. Imam Shafi’i and Abu Haneefah and most of the scholars are of the view that it is recommended. If he does not do it, he will lose the virtue of it. He has also done something that is disliked with great displeasure. However, there is no sin on him.

 

A group of scholars are of the view that it is obligatory. Imam Abu Bakr Ibn Al-Arabi Al-Maliki said: The great man who adhered to this school of thought was ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul Aziz. The Maalikis are of the third school of thought that if the promise is linked to a cause, such as saying: “Marry you and give you so much.” Or “swear that you will not swear at me and you will get this much.” Or something like that, then it is obligatory to keep it. If the promise is absolute (not binding), then it is not obligatory.

 

Those who stipulate that it is obligatory argue that it is similar to a hibah. In fact, according to the majority of scholars, a grant does not take effect until it is received. According to the Maliki school, it takes effect before it is possessed.

 

The recommendation to pray to the person who offers a gift

 

Anas 4 said: When the Muhajireen arrived in Madinah, Abdur-Rahman ibn Auf stayed at Saad Ibn Rabi’. He said to him: “I include you in my wealth and give you one of my wives.” Abdurrahman said: “May Allah bless you with your wife and your wealth.” When a disbeliever does good

 

You should know that it is not permissible to pray for forgiveness for a disbeliever or anything like that. But it is permissible to pray for guidance, health and safety for that person.

 

It was narrated by Ibn Sunni that Anas said: The Prophet asked a Jew for a drink and he gave it to him. So he said to him: “May Allah make you gray.” It turned out that the man did not have gray hair until the end of his life.

 

Speech when afraid of harm by eye sight

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said: “The eye (hot glance) is the right (reality).”

 

Umm Salamah stated that the Prophet saw in his house a slave girl who had a deformity on her face. So he said:

 

“Recite the rugyah (verse of refutation) against him, for he has (harmful) views” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Abu Daud narrated that ‘Aisha said: A person who has a burning (sharp) eye is told to make ablution. Then the water is used for bathing by the affected person. The isnaad is saheeh according to the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim.

 

Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah narrated from Abi Said AlKhudri who said: “The Messenger of Allah sought refuge from the jinn and the eyes of men, so it was revealed that

Al-Muwwazatain (Al-Falag and An-Naas). So, when these two verses were revealed, he used them and left everything else.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger fortified Hasan and Husayn:

 

“I protect you with the perfect words of Allah from all devils and venomous animals, as well as from all harmful glances. Indeed, your father (Prophet Ibrahim) protected Ishmael and Ishaq with them (Al-Muawwizatain).”

 

Said bin Hakim said: When the Prophet feared harming something with his eyes, he would say:

 

 

“O Allah, bless him and cause him no harm.” (H.R. Ibn Sunni)

 

It was narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Anas that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever sees something that amazes him, then he says: “What Allah wills, there is no power except with His help: then even he cannot harm it.”

 

It is also narrated in Ibn Sunni, from Sahal bin Hanif that the Prophet stated:

 

“If any one of you sees something that impresses him, either in himself or in his wealth, then let him supplicate for blessings upon it. Verily, the sight of mara iru is right.”

 

Through Amir bin Rabiah, Ibn Sunni narrated that the Prophet also said:

 

“When any one of you looks at himself and his wealth and is amazed at what he sees, he should pray for blessings.”

 

In his book Ar-Ta’lg Fil Mazhab, Al-Qadhi Husein states: One day, one of the prophets saw his people. He was amazed at their large numbers. So, 70,000 of them died. Then, Allah revealed to him:

 

“You have destroyed them with your eyes. Had you shielded them when you looked, they would not have perished.” The prophet asked: “With what did I shield them?” So, Allah revealed to him: You say,

 

“I cover you with the living and independent God, who cannot let go forever. I ward off harm from you with words: There is no power except with the help of Allah, the Most High and the Most Great.”

 

It was al-Qadhi’s habit, when he saw his companions and was impressed by their character and goodness, to protect them with this remembrance.

 

Sayings when seeing something you like and dislike

 

With a jayyid isnad, Ibn Majah and Ibn Sunni narrated that ‘Aisha said: When the Messenger of Allah saw something he liked, he would say:

 

“Praise be to Allah, by whose pleasure good deeds are made perfect. And when he saw something he disliked, he would say: Praise be to Allah above all circumstances.” Al-Hakim categorized this hadith as having a sahih isnad.

 

When looking at the sky

 

It is recommended to say:

 

“O our Lord, You did not create this (the heavens) in vain, Glory be to You, so protect us from the fire of hell.” (Q.S. Ali Imran: 191)

 

This saying is based on the hadith of Ibn Abbas narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim that the Messenger of Allah said that. Speech when prejudice arises Muawiyah ibn Al-Hakam As-Sulami (a companion of the Prophet) said: “O Messenger of Allah, there are people among us who are prejudiced about something.” He said: “It is something that they feel in their hearts. So, do not discourage them.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

Ugbah bin Amir Al-Juhani said: The Prophet was asked about bad premonitions, so he said:

 

“The right thing is to be prejudiced, and not to reject Muslims. When you see something that causes prejudice (irasar) that you do not like, then say: O Allah, no one can bring good except You, no one can remove evil except You, and there is no power except with Your help.” (H.R. Ibn Sunni)

 

Speech when entering the bathroom

 

It is recommended to mention Allah and ask Him for Paradise and seek His protection from Hellfire.

 

With isnad dharf, Ibn Sunni narrated from Abu Hurairah the saying of the Apostle:

 

“The best of houses is a bath that a Muslim enters, and when he enters it, he asks Allah for Paradise and seeks His protection from Hellfire.”

 

Encouragement for silence Jarir bin Abdillah said: The Prophet commanded me during the Farewell Hajj: “Tell the people to be silent.” He continued: “Do not become disbelievers after my departure and kill one another.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

The importance of asking for information and giving explanations

 

Allah said:

 

“And We do not send a messenger except in the language of his people so that he may explain to them….” (Q.S. Ibrahim: 4)

 

Ali said: “Speak before the people with what they know. Do you like Allah and His Messenger to be denied?” (H.R. Bukhari)

 

Aisha said: “The speech of the Messenger of Allah is clear and can be understood by anyone who hears.” (H.R. Abu Daud)

 

Anas said: “When the Prophet spoke a word, he repeated it three times until it was understood. When he came to the Muslims, he greeted them three times.” (H.R. Bukhari)

 

Sahal bin Saad As-Saidi said: I saw the Messenger of Allah standing on the pulpit, then he said Takbir. The people behind him also said Takbir. Then he recited and bowed. The people behind him also bowed. Then he raised his head, went back, and prostrated himself on the ground. When he finished his prayer, he returned to the pulpit and faced them, saying:

 

“O people, I do this solely for you to follow and for you to learn my prayer.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari that Ali drank while standing. He said: I saw the Messenger of Allah doing it, as you see me doing it.

 

The hadiths and reports in this section are numerous and well known in the sahih books.

 

Furthermore, it is recommended that if one sees his teacher or others whom he follows doing something that seems to be contrary to custom to ask him about it with the intention of seeking guidance.

 

If the person has done it out of forgetfulness, he should correct it. If he did it deliberately and correctly, then he should explain it to him.

 

In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim it is narrated that Usamah bin Zaid said: The Messenger of Allah departed from Arafat. When he reached Shi’ib, he stopped and urinated, then performed ablution. I asked:

 

“O Messenger of Allah, do we not pray?” He replied: “The prayer is before you.”

 

According to the opinion of Imam Nawawi: Usamah said so, because he suspected that the Prophet had forgotten to pray Maghrib, and the time had entered when he came out. In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, Saad ibn Abi Waqqash’s question is mentioned: “O Messenger of Allah, why did you behave so with so-and-so? By Allah, I see that he is a believer.”

 

According to the testimony of Buraidah 4, on the day of the conquest of Makkah, the Prophet performed several prayers with one ablution. Seeing that, Umar said: “You have done something that you have never done before.” He replied: “I did that on purpose, O Umar.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

The importance of deliberation Allah says:

 

“…And consult with them in all matters….” – (Q.S. Ali Imran: 159)

 

This verse is sufficient as evidence without anything else. If Allah enjoined His Prophet to deliberate, then even more so for others.

 

For those who want to do something, it is advisable to consult a person who is reliable in terms of his religion, his experience, his intelligence, his advice, his purity and his compassion.

 

It is advisable to consult with a group of people who possess this trait and seek much advice from them. Also, telling them the purpose of the deliberation and explaining to them the good and bad that it entails. This is if he knows about it.

 

The sahih hadiths about ‘Umar ibn Khattab’s deliberation with his Companions and his return to their opinions are numerous and well known’.

 

The use of deliberation is to accept the opinion of the advisor, as long as there is no negative influence from the opinion he gives. The advisor should put his best foot forward in giving advice.

 

Through Tamim Ad-Dairy Muslim relates that the Messenger said:

 

“Religion is advice. The Companions asked: For whom, O Messenger of Allah He replied: To Allah, His Book, His Messenger and the leaders of the Muslims and the common people among them.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger said: “The advisor is burdened with a trust.”

 

Encouragement to speak kindly

 

Allah said:

 

“…Humble your wings (do not be arrogant) towards the believers.” (Q.S. Al-Hjjr: 88)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Adiy bin Hatim that the Prophet said:

 

“Guard yourselves from Hellfire, even by giving half a date in charity. If you cannot afford it, then by saying a good word.”

 

Through Abu Hurairah Bukhari and Muslim narrate that the Prophet also said:

 

“Every member of the human body can give charity every day at the rising of the sun. Doing justice between two people is charity. Helping someone by putting or raising his goods on his vehicle is charity. A kind word is charity. Every step towards the mosque is a charity. Removing a nuisance from the road is charity.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Dhar that the Apostle explained:

 

“Do not despise the slightest kindness, even if you meet your brother with a radiant face.”

 

Aisha said: The speech of the Messenger of Allah is clear and can be understood by whoever hears it.” (H.R. Abu Daud)

 

Anas said: “When the Prophet spoke a word, he repeated it three times until it was understood. If he came to the Muslims, he would greet them three times.” (H.R. Bukhari)

 

About banter

 

It was narrated by Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Anas, that the Prophet said to him: “O one who has two ears.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

Abu Daud and Tirmidhi narrate that a man came to the Prophet and said: “O Messenger of Allah, take me.” So he said: “I will take you on a camel.” The man asked: “O Messenger of Allah, what can I do with a camel?” The Messenger of Allah replied: “Does not the camel only give birth to camels?” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan sahih.

 

Through Abu Hurairah, Tirmidhi narrates that the Companions asked: “O Messenger of Allah, are you joking with us?” He replied: “I speak nothing but the truth.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

Ibn Abbas said that the Prophet said:

 

“Do not fight your brother and do not joke with him.

Do not promise something and not fulfill it.” (H.R. Tirmidhi)

 

The scholars said: The joking that is forbidden is that which is outrageous and continuous. This is because it can lead to laughter and hardening of the heart, distracting from the remembrance of Allah and from thinking about religious duties, and often causes annoyance and resentment and takes away authority.

 

What is permissible is what the Prophet did. In fact, the Prophet only did it at certain times of the day because of a need and to calm the soul of the person he was talking to and comfort him. This is not prohibited, rather it is a Sunnah action.

 

Help

 

Allah said:

 

“Whoever gives good help will have his share of it. And whoever gives evil aid will have his share of it. And Allah is All-Powerful over all things.” (Q.S. An-Nisa’: 85)

 

Abu Musa Al-Ashari said: When the Prophet was approached by someone asking for something, he went to his companions and said: “Give help, and you will be rewarded. Allah decides what He likes through the words of His Prophet.”

 

In one narration: “Ask me for help, and you will be rewarded. Let Allah decide what He wills through the words of His Prophet.” (H.R.Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Ibn Abbas in the story of Barirah and her husband, the Prophet offered her: What if you return to him?” She asked: O Messenger of Allah, are you telling me to?” He replied: “I am only asking for leniency.” Barirah said: “I don’t need it anymore.”

 

Encouragement and congratulations

 

Allah said:

 

“Then the angel called to Zacharias, as he stood praying in the mihrab: “Verily Allah has brought you glad tidings of the coming of Yahya….” (Q.S. Ali Imran: 39)

 

Allah also said:

 

“When Our messengers came to Abraham with glad tidings…” (Q.S. Al-Ankabut: 31)

 

In other words: :

 

“And We gave him the glad tidings of the birth of a patient son” (Q.S. Ash-Shaffat: 101).

 

In Surah Az-Zaariyat, verse 28, Allah says:

 

“..They (the angels) said: Do not be afraid. Then they informed him of the birth of a clever child.”

 

In Surah Al-Hijjr, verse 53, Allah also says:

 

(the angels) said: Fear not. Indeed, we are informing you of the birth of a clever child.”

 

Allah told Sarah, Abraham’s wife:

 

“And his wife stood up and laughed. Then We informed her of the birth of Ishaq, and after Ishaq was Ya’qub.” (Q.S. Huud:71)

 

In another Surah, Allah says:

 

“When the angels said: O Maryam, verily Allah informs you with a word from him…” (Q.S. Ali Imran: 45)

 

Allah also said:

 

“That is what Allah announces to His servants who believe and do good…” (Q.S. Ash-Shuura: 23)

 

God commands:

 

“Then, give glad tidings to My servants who listen to speech and follow the best of it.” (Q.S. Az-Zumar: 17-18)

 

Allah mentioned:

 

“Rejoice in the paradise that has been promised to you.” (Q.S. Fushshilat: 30)

 

In Surah Al-Hadid, verse 12, Allah states:

 

“The day when you will see the believers and the believers glittering with light in front of them and on their right. This day you will have the joy of a paradise with rivers flowing underneath….”

 

In Surah At-Taubah, verse 21, Allah also states: “

 

“Their Lord informs them of the glad tidings of His mercy and favor and Paradise. In it, they will have everlasting enjoyment.”

 

Hadiths about glad tidings are mentioned in many sahih and well-known books. Among them is the Hadīth informing Khadija of a house in Paradise for her made of jewels. In it there will be no weariness or fuss.

 

Also the tradition of Kaab b. Malik on the story of his repentance. He said: “I heard a cry that said: “O Kaab b. Malik, rejoice.” So people came to give us glad tidings, and I went to the Messenger of Allah People met me in turn to congratulate me on my realization. They said: “Congratulations with Allah’s forgiveness upon you.”

 

When I arrived at the mosque, I found the Messenger of Allah surrounded by people. Then Talhah b. Ubaidillah came running inside until he shook my hand and congratulated me. The event that presented Talhah was not forgotten by Kaab.

 

Kaab said: “When I greeted the Messenger of Allah, he beamed with joy.” He said: “Be happy with the best day that has passed since you were born to your mother.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Amazed by saying Tasbih, Tahlil, etc.

 

Abu Hurairah said that the Prophet met him while he was junub. He avoided him and went to take a bath. The Prophet noticed this. When he came, he asked: “Where were you, Abu Hurairah?” he replied: “O Messenger of Allah, you met me while I was junub, so it would not be appropriate for me to sit with you before bathing.” Finally he said: “Glory be to Allah, the believer is not unclean.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Aisha said: A woman asked the Prophet how to purify herself from menstruation. So he told her to take a bath. He also gave a method: “Take a piece of cotton mixed with myrrh and wash with it.” The woman asked: “How do I purify with it?” The Prophet replied: “Purify with it.” The woman asked:

 

“How?” He said: “Glory be to Allah, purify yourself.” So, I sent the woman to me and said: “Wash away the traces of your blood.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Anas said: Ar-Rabi’ Ummi Harithah’s sister injured someone. So the people complained to the Prophet. The Prophet replied: “A-Qishas, Al-Oishas.” Umm Rubayyi’ said: “O Messenger of Allah, do you have to perform gishas on so-and-so when Allah did not perform gishas on him?” The Prophet said: “Glory be to Allah, Umm Rubayyi’, gishas is established in the Book of Allah.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

In a long tradition, Imran bin Hushain relates the story of a captive woman. She fled on the camel of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) while vowing: “If Allah saves her, he will slaughter her. Later, the woman came, and they told the Messenger of Allah. He said: “Glory be to Allah, how terrible is the recompense.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

Abu Musa Al-Ashari dp mentioned in the hadith isti’dzan (asking permission), that he said to Umar: “O Ibn Khattab, do not torture the companions of the Messenger of Allah.” He said: “Glory be to Allah, I only hear something, so I carry it out.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim about the long tradition of ‘Abdullah ibn Salim, when it was said: “Verily you are among the people of Paradise.” he said: “Glory be to Allah, it is not proper for a person to say what he does not know.”

 

Invitation to do good and prohibition to do bad

 

Allah said:

 

“Let there be among you a people who call to good and enjoin the good and forbid the evil: and they are the fortunate ones.” (Q.S. Ali Imran: 104)

 

In other words:

 

“Take forgiveness and urge to do good…” (Q.S. Al-A’raaf: 199)

 

In Surah At-Taubah, verse 71, Allah states:

 

“The believers and the believers are the guardians of some of them. They enjoin good and forbid evil…”

 

In other words:

 

“They do not forbid each other the evil deeds they do…” (Q.S. Al-Maidah: 79)

 

Abi Said Al-Khudri said: I heard the Messenger of Allah say: “Whoever among you sees a bad deed, let him prevent it with his hand. If he cannot, then with his tongue. If he cannot, then with his heart. That is the weakest faith.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

Tirmidhi narrates that Hudhayfah said: The Prophet said: “By Allah in whose hand my life is. You should enjoin good and forbid evil. Or else Allah will inflict His punishment upon you and then you will pray to Him but your prayer will not be answered.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah with a valid chain of isnad from Abu Bakr Ash-Shiddig who said: ” O people, have you read this verse:

 

“O you who believe, take heed to yourselves, and do no harm to those who lead you astray, when you are guided.” (Q.S. Al-Maidah: 105)

 

Verily, I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“Verily, when people see those who do evil and do not forbid it, Allah will spread His punishment over them.”

 

It was narrated by Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Abi Said, that the Prophet said: “The best jihad is to speak the truth in the presence of a salim (evil) ruler.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

The hadiths mentioned in this chapter are very well-known, and the noble verse has been misinterpreted by ignorant people and interpreted in a way that is not in accordance with the true meaning. The true meaning is: If you do what you are told to do, there will be no harm to you and no misguidance that will befall others.

 

Among His commands is to enjoin doing good and forbidding doing evil.

 

Allah’s words in this regard are:

 

” . The Messenger was not assigned to deliver only….” (Q.S. Al-Ankabut: 18).

 

ORAL CARE

 

Allah said:

 

“No one utters a word, but the angels Ragib and Arid are with him.” (Q.S. Oaaf: 18)

 

In other words:

 

“Verily your Lord is always watching.” (Q.S. Al-Fajr: 14)

 

You know that it is proper for every mukallaf to guard his tongue against speech that is not good. If his speech and his silence are both good, then it is Sunnah for him to remain silent. Because sometimes permissible speech can lead to haram or makrooh speech. Usually, this kind of talk is more common, while safety must be prioritized.

 

Abu Hurairah said that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him speak well or be silent.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

The Hadith is agreed upon as authentic. The meaning of the Hadith is: It is not proper for a person to speak unless his speech is good, i.e., if there is an apparent benefit. If there is any doubt about the benefit, it is better not to speak.

 

Imam Shafi’i said: “When you want to speak, think before you speak. If there is benefit, then speak. If in doubt, do not speak, until the good appears.”

 

Abu Musa Al-Ashari said: I asked the Messenger of Allah: “Which Muslim is the best?” He replied: “The one who never harasses the Muslims with his tongue or hand.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Sahal bin Sa’d said that the Prophet said: “Whoever guarantees for me his tongue (speech) and his private parts (not committing adultery), I will guarantee Paradise for him.” (H.R. Bukhari)

 

Abu Hurairah said that he heard the Prophet say: “Verily, people sometimes utter words that they do not think about (whether they are good or bad), so that they may plunge into the fire of Hell which is farther than the distance between the east and the west.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Abu Hurairah said that the Prophet said: “Verily, a man sometimes speaks words that earn the pleasure of Allah and bring benefit, so that Allah will raise him up a few degrees. And verily, a man sometimes speaks words that incur the anger of Allah and do not serve any purpose, so that he may be plunged into the fire of hell.” (H.R. Bukhari)

 

It was narrated in Al-Muwaththa’, by Imam Malik and in the books of Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, from Bilal Ibn Al-Harith Al-Muzani that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Verily, a man sometimes speaks words that earn Allah’s favor that he does not expect to earn, so that Allah will earn his favor until the day of meeting Him (the Day of Resurrection). And, indeed, a man sometimes speaks words that incur the anger of Allah, and he does not expect to do so, so Allah will make him angry until the day of meeting Him.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah, from Sufyan bin Abdillah who said: I asked him: “O Messenger of Allah, tell me something that I can hold on to.” He said: “Say: My Lord is Allah, then do good.” I asked: “O Messenger of Allah, what is there to fear for me?” So he held his own tongue and said: “This.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

Tirmidhi also narrated from Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah said: “Do not talk much without mentioning Allah, for indeed talking much without mentioning Him can lead to hardness of heart. Indeed, the people who are furthest from Allah are those whose hearts are hardened.”

 

Still from Tirmidhi who narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever is protected by Allah from the evil of his tongue (wapannya) and the evil of his private parts (adultery), he will enter Paradise.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

Narrated by Tirimizi, from Lugbah bin Amir he asked: “O Messenger of Allah, what is salvation?” He replied:

 

“Hold your tongue against bad words and let your house be spacious for you and weep for your sins.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

Tirmidhi also narrated from Abi Said Al-Khudri that the Prophet said: “When the son of Adam (man) enters the morning, then all the limbs warn the tongue saying: Fear Allah concerning ourselves, for indeed we depend on you. If you are straight (doing good), then we are straight. When you are crooked (doing evil), we are too.”

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah from Umm Habibah that the Prophet said:

 

“Every word of the son of Adam (man) will harm him, except enjoining good and forbidding evil or the remembrance of Allah.”

 

Tirmidhi narrated that Mu’adz asked him: “O Messenger of Allah, tell me of a deed that will enter Paradise and keep me away from Hellfire.” He stated:

 

“You have asked about a great thing, and it is easy for those whom Allah guides”, namely: “You worship Allah and associate nothing with Him”. Establish prayer. Give the zakat. Fasting in the month of Ramadan. And perform the pilgrimage to the House of Allah.”

 

He continued: “Shall I show you the doors of goodness?” The Prophet explained: “Fasting is a shield and charity can extinguish sins like water extinguishes fire, and the prayers that one performs late at night.”

 

Then he recited:

 

“Their bodies are far from the bed (not sleeping in the middle of the night)….” (Q.S. As-Sajdah: 16)

 

After that he said: “Shall I tell you the subject matter, the joints and the summit?” I replied: “Of course, O Messenger of Allah.” He said: “The subject matter is Islam, the joint is prayer and the summit is jihad.” He also stated: “Shall I tell you what these things mean?” I replied: “Of course, O Messenger of Allah.” So, he held his tongue and said: “Prevent this from happening to you.” I asked: “O Messenger of Allah, will we be punished for something we said?” He replied: “I pity you. Are not the people who fall into hellfire the victims of their tongues?” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, from Abu Hurairah, that the Prophet said:

 

“The best characteristic of Islam is that a person leaves everything that does not concern him.” (Hadith hasan)

 

Abdullah bin Amru Ibn Al-Ash said that the Prophet said: “Whoever keeps silent (from speaking ill) will be saved.” (H.R. Tirmidhi)

 

The isnaad of this Hadīth is weak, but I mention it to clarify it because it is a well-known Hadīth and there are many such authentic Hadīths. In fact, the matan (content) of the hadith is sufficient for those who are guided.

 

There are many reports from the sa/af and others in this chapter. Therefore, there is no need to mention them.

 

We need to point out that what we have mentioned is a reminder to refrain from doing the wrong thing.

 

It is narrated that Qiss bin Saidah and Aktham bin Shaifi got together. One said to the other: “How many vices of the son of Adam have you found?” He replied: “Too many to count and the ones I have found are eight thousand evils. I have found one thing that if you do, you will cover all of them.” His friend asked: “What is it?” The other replied: “Guarding the tongue.”

 

Abi Ali Fudhail bin Iyadh said: “Whoever considers his talk to be among his deeds, will have little talk in matters that do not belong to him.”

 

Imam Shafi’i said to his friend: “O Rabi! Do not utter words that do not concern you, for surely if you do so, they will overpower you, while you cannot overpower them.”

 

It was narrated from Abdullah bin Mas’ud that he said: “There is nothing more worth guarding than the tongue.”

 

Another said: “The tongue is like a wild animal. If you do not bind it, it will devour you.”

 

Ustadz Abi Al-Oasim Al-Qusyairi in his famous treatise states: Silence is the cause of salvation, and that is the point. While silence at its time is a man’s trait as he says something at the time it is needed. That is the noblest character.

 

He said: I heard Aba Ali Ad-Daggag state: “Whoever keeps silent from speaking the truth is like a mute devil.”

 

The silence of those who fight against lust is because they know the evil of speech and its treatment, as well as the prominence of praiseworthy qualities and the tendency to gain privileges with good speech and other defects.

 

This is the behavior of those who care for the soul and is one of their stances on the law of debate and moral education. Among their shi’ir are:

 

“O man, guard your tongue. Do not let it sting you like a snake: How many people have gone to the grave because of their tongue. Yet it is feared by the brave.”

 

Ar-Riyasi said:

 

“By your age, surely my sins have forgotten me from the sins of the Umayyads. Their reckoning is up to my Lord. To Him ends the knowledge, not to me. I do not feel any loss for what they have done. If Allah improves my affairs.” It should be noted that these two things (gossip and namimah) are among the worst and most widespread of actions among people, so that few are saved from them. The reason for discussing them is that it is important to warn people about them.

 

Gossip is mentioning something that is disliked in another person, whether it is found in his body, religion, world, self, or form, character, wealth, children, father, husband, servant, clothing, walk and movements. Whether you mention it with your speech or writing, or you hint at it with your eyes, hands or head, and the like.

 

Regarding the body, such as: blind, lame, watery eyes, bald, short, tall, black, yellow.

 

With regard to religion, such as: being unfaithful, a thief, a traitor, a wrongdoer, disregarding prayer, not bothering with unclean things, not being filial to one’s father, not paying the appropriate amount of zakat and backbiting.

 

Concerning the world, such as: insolence, belittling people, disregarding people’s rights, talking too much, eating or sleeping too much, not sleeping at the right time, sitting out of place.

 

About his parents, such as: the father was a fascist, a Negro, a cobbler, a gunsmith, a carpenter, an ironworker, a weaver.

 

Regarding ethics, such as: bad manners, arrogant, defiant, often rash, pushy, careless, weak-hearted, sullen, immoral and so on.

 

Regarding clothes, such as: the size of the sleeves, the length of the cut, the dirtiness of the clothes and so on.

 

Others are gossiped about (viewed similarly) to the ones we have mentioned. In summary, gossip is mentioning something that Dzulqarnain does not like.

 

Imam Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali quoted the yak (agreement) of the Muslims that ghibah is: When you mention something to another person that he dislikes.

 

As for namimah, it is to convey one person’s conversation to another with the aim of creating discord between the two.

 

The Muslims are unanimously agreed that gossip and namimah are forbidden. The various arguments in this regard are:

 

God’s Word:

 

“Do not find fault with one another among yourselves…” (Q.S. Al-Hujurat: 12)

 

In Surah Al-Humazah, in verse 1, Allah states:

 

“Woe to every swearer and critic.”

 

It is mentioned in other words:

 

“The reviler (of people) walks about complaining.” (Q.S. Al-Oalam: 11)

 

Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah passed by a grave and said: “Verily these two grave-dwellers are being tortured. They are not being tortured for a major sin (in their opinion).” In Bukhari’s narration: “Indeed, he committed a major sin. One of them likes to go around to tell people’s disgrace while the other does not clean his limbs from his urine.”

 

It was narrated by Muslim, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said: “Do you know what gossip is? The Companions replied: “Allah and His Messenger know better.” He said: “When you say something to your brother that he does not like.” Someone asked: “What if what I say is in accordance with his existence?” He replied:

 

“If what you say is true, then you have backbitten him, and if it is not true, then you have slandered him.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Abi Bakrah, that the Prophet said in his sermon on the day of slaughtering the sacrifice in Mina during the Farewell Hajj:

 

“Indeed your blood, property and honor are forbidden to you, as is the honor of this day of yours, in this month in this land of yours. Have I not told you this?”

 

Aisha stated: “I said to the Messenger of Allah: It is enough that you find Shafiyyah such and such a person.” (In one narration: A short person).” So, the Prophet said: “You have spoken a word that if it were mixed with sea water, it would be mixed with it.” (H.R. Tirmidhi)

 

Tirmidhi relates the words of ‘A’ishah: I told him about someone, and he said: “What I like is that I tell about a person while I have such and such characteristics.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

The above Hadith is the most emphatic of the Prophet’s words against talking about people’s faults. I (Imam Nawawi) have not found any hadith text that reproaches him more than the above.

 

Allah said:

 

 

“He does not speak according to his lust. He (the Qur’an) is nothing but a revelation revealed to him.” (Q.S. An-Najm: 3-4)

 

Abu Daud narrated from Anas that the Messenger of Allah said: “When I ascended to the heavens, I passed by a people who had nails of copper scratching their faces and chests. I asked: “O Gabriel, who are they?” Jibril replied: “These are those who like to eat human flesh (backbite people) and attack their honor.”

 

It was narrated by Abu Daud, from Said bin Zaid, that the Messenger of Allah said: “Verily, one of the greatest usury is attacking the honor of a Muslim without right.”

 

It was also narrated by Tirmidhi, from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said: “A Muslim is a brother to another Muslim. It is not permissible to betray him, to deceive him and to avoid him. Every Muslim against another Muslim is forbidden his honor, property and blood. Piety is here (in the chest). The evil of one who insults his Muslim brother is sufficient.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

Some important points related to gossip

 

We have mentioned that gossip is when you mention something to someone that he dislikes, either with your words, hands or head.

 

To be precise, whatever you describe to others about the shortcomings of a Muslim is haraam gossip. This includes imitating a person by pretending to be lame or hunched over, or by making other gestures similar to those of the person being insulted. This is haraam without any disagreement.

 

One of these things is when an author mentions someone by name in his writing, saying: So-and-so said this, with the intention of explaining it, then that is haraam.

 

If he wants to point out his faults so that he will not be imitated, or explain his weaknesses in knowledge so that he will not be deceived by them and accept his opinion, then this is not gossip; rather it is obligatory advice that will be rewarded if it does what is intended.

 

Similarly, if a people or group says this, as a statement of guilt for mistakes and so on, then that is not gossip. Gossip is mentioning a particular person or group of people.

 

You should know that just as gossip is forbidden for the one who does it, it is also forbidden for the listener to condone it. It is obligatory for others to forbid it. Otherwise, there is a fear of harm.

 

If he fears this, he should deny it with his heart and avoid the gathering, if he can avoid it. If he is able to refute it with his words or cut off the gossip with other talk, he should do so. Otherwise, it is a sin.

 

If he says “be silent”, even though his heart likes to hear it, then Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali said: “That is hypocrisy that does not exempt him from sin, and he should hate it with his heart.”

 

If he is forced to stand in such a gathering, and he is unable to deny it or the proof is not accepted, and he cannot avoid it in any of the ways, then it is haraam to listen to gossip. The trick is to mention the name of Allah with his tongue and heart or with his heart while thinking about other matters so that he will be distracted from listening to it.

 

Allah said:

 

“When you see those who are conversing (making fun of) Our verses, then stand back from them until they are conversing about other matters. If the devil distracts you, then do not sit after this warning with the people who are antaya.” (Q.S. Al-An’am: 68)

 

It was narrated from Ibrahim ibn Adham that he once attended a wedding banquet. The audience mentioned someone who had not come, saying: “That man is lazy.” So, Ibrahim said: “I have done this myself, for I have attended a place where people gossip.” Then he went out and did not eat for three days.

 

The poet mentions:

 

“Guard your hearing from hearing evil, just as you guard your tongue from uttering it. Indeed, when you listen to evil, you are the same as the one who does it, so be careful.”

 

How to reject gossip

 

It should be noted that this chapter is heavily supported by evidence from the Qur’an and Sunnah. But it will be summarized by referring to some of them. So whoever is guided by it is prevented from doing so. And whoever does not receive it will not be able to change, even if he reads many volumes.

 

The main thrust of this chapter is to bring out the texts that have been mentioned regarding the prohibition of gossip, then reflect on the words of Allah:

 

“There is no word that a man utters, but there is with him a watchful eye” (Q.S. Oaaf: 18).

 

In Surah An-Nuur, verse 15, Allah states:

 

“And you think it is not a sin, but in the sight of Allah it is a great sin” (Q.S. An-Nuur: 15).

 

It was narrated from Hasan al-Bashri that a man said to him: “Surely you are making fun of me.” So he said: “Your rank does not reach my side to include you in my good deeds.”

 

Ibn Mubarak # stated: “If I had to backbite someone, I would reveal the disgrace of my parents, because they are more deserving of my kindness.”

 

Permissible gossip

 

You should know that although gossip is haraam in principle, it is permissible for various purposes. What makes gossip permissible is a legitimate aim based on sharee’ah that cannot be achieved except through it.

 

Six factors make gossip permissible. The first is the complaint of being wronged. It is permissible for the wronged person to complain to the king, gadhi (judge) or others who have the power to judge him. He should mention: So-and-so wronged me and did this to me and took something that I had. And so on.

 

The second is to use it to change evil and prevent evil from becoming good. So, he says to the person whom he expects to be able to remove the evil, with the statement: So-and-so has done this, so prevent him from doing that. The aim is to intercede to remove the evil. If it does not have that purpose, it is still haraam.

 

Thirdly, asking for a fatwa (explanation of religious law) by saying to the mufti: My father, brother or so-and-so has wronged me by doing this. Is it permissible for him to do that? And how can I get away from him and get my rights and reject the injustice that has befallen me? Or something like that.

 

It is the same when it is said: My wife did this to me, or my husband did this to me, and so on. Such expressions are permissible, but it is better to say it without mentioning the person, saying: What do you think of a man who does this, or a husband who does this, or a wife who does this? Or something like that. That is the best way.

 

Direct mention is permissible, based on Hindun’s statement: “O Messenger of Allah, indeed Abu Sufyan is a miser.” The Messenger of Allah did not forbid it.

 

Throwing, warning the Muslims of someone’s evil and advising them. It is of several kinds. Among them is criticizing those who are blameworthy among the hadith narrators and witnesses. Such a method is permissible by consensus of the Muslims rather it becomes obligatory due to the importance of the matter.

 

An example of this is: If someone asks you for advice on marrying off his child, cooperating in a job, entrusting something to someone or dealing with him in trade, then you must remind him of what you know about him with the intention of giving him advice.

 

If it is sufficient to say: It is not good for you to deal with him or to delay him, or not to do this or that, it is not permissible to go beyond mentioning his evils. If the intention cannot be fulfilled except by explaining the fact, then mention it clearly. This includes: If you see someone buying something that is known to be bad, then you should explain it, so that the buyer knows about it.

 

Also, if you see a jurist frequenting an innovator or a wicked person in order to gain knowledge from him, and you fear that the jurist may be harmed, then you should advise him by explaining his situation. This is based on the desire to advise.

 

It is not uncommon to find someone who has authority and does not exercise it properly, perhaps because he is not an expert, perhaps because he is unjust or ignorant and so on. So it is obligatory to inform the one who is more powerful than him so that he can replace him by appointing the right person. Or you should know about it so that you can deal with him according to his situation, so as not to be deceived by him, and try to make him realize that he is doing something good or to replace him.

 

Fifthly, one who openly commits wickedness or innovation, such as one who openly drinks alcohol, usurps people’s rights and extorts and taxes them by force, and does things that are unlawful, then it is permissible to call him by what he does. It is haraam to call him by other defects. Unless there is some other reason for its permissibility than what we have mentioned.

 

Sixthly, to introduce. If a person is known by his nickname, such as: the lame, the deaf, the blind, the cross-eyed or so on, then it is permissible to mention him with the intention of introducing him, and it is haraam to mention him with the intention of ridiculing. If it is possible to refer to it in another way, that is better. These are the six factors that the scholars have stated are permissible g/ibah.

 

Among them is Imam Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali in Ihya Ulumuddin. The evidence is clear in the form of valid and well-known traditions. These reasons have been agreed upon as to the permissibility of gossiping with them.

 

‘Aisha stated that a man asked permission to see the Prophet and he said: “Permit him. It is a bad brother from this family.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Bukhari quoted him as saying that it is permissible to backbite people who do mischief and cause trouble.

 

Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Mas’ud who said: The Messenger of Allah distributed the spoils of war, and an Ansar man said: “By Allah, Muhammad does not seek the pleasure of Allah with this distribution.” So I went to the Messenger of Allah and told him, and he changed his face and said: “May Allah love Moses. He has been harassed much more than this, yet he has remained patient.”

 

In one narration, Ibn Mas’ud said: “I will not speak to him after this.” Bukhari quoted him regarding a person informing his brother of what people have said about him.

 

Aisha ap said that the Messenger of Allah said:” I do not think so-and-so and so-and-so know anything about our religion.” (H.R. Bukhari)

 

Al-Laits b. Sa’d, one of its narrators, said: “These two men are hypocrites.”

 

Bukhari and Muslim narrate that Zaid bin Argam said: “We went out with the Messenger of Allah on a journey. Then the people were in difficulty. Then, Abdullah bin Ubay said: Do not provide for those who are with the Messenger of Allah. Hearing that, those who were around him dispersed. He also said: If we return to Medina, surely the noble people will drive out the lowly (believers) from there. So, I came to the Prophet to inform him of this, and he sent a messenger to Abdullah bin Ubay. After that, Allah revealed the verse that vindicated him:

 

“When the hypocrites come to you….” (Q.S. Al-Munafiqun: 1)

 

In the Sahih, the hadith of Fatimah bint Oais is mentioned and the Prophet said to her: “Mu’awiyah is a poor man, while Abu Jahm likes to hit.”

 

Attitude when there is gossip

 

Know that it is proper for the one who hears someone else badmouthing a Muslim to say no and prevent the person from doing so. If he cannot do it with his tongue, he should do it with his hand. If he cannot do both, he should leave the assembly.

 

If he hears gossip about his teacher or someone else who has an interest in him, or someone who has virtue and goodness, then it is more noteworthy.

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi, from Abi Darda’, that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever defends the honor of his brother, on the Day of Judgment he will be honored.

On the Day of Resurrection, Allah will keep the fire of Hell away from his face.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

Itban said that the Prophet stood up to pray. The companions asked: “Where is Malik bin Dukhshum?” A man replied: “That is the hypocrite who does not love Allah and His Messenger.” Hearing that, the Prophet said: “Do not say that. Don’t you see that he has said ‘La ilaaha Illallah’, and he expects the pleasure of Allah with it?” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

It was narrated by Abu Daud from Jabir bin Abdullah and Abi Talhah, that the Messenger of Allah said: “Whoever spares a Muslim when his honor is attacked and his dignity is defamed, then Allah spares him in a state where he expects His help. No one helps a Muslim when his honor is defamed and his dignity is attacked, but Allah helps him in the state in which he expects His help.”

 

Abu Daud also narrated from Muadz bin Anas that the Messenger said:

 

“Whoever protects a believer from a hypocrite, Allah will send one of the angels to protect his flesh from Hellfire on the Day of Judgment. And whoever insults a Muslim with the intention of disparaging him, Allah holds him on the bridge of Hell, so that he will be free from what he said.” Gossip in the heart

 

Be aware that prejudice is as haram as its utterance. Just as it is haraam for you to speak ill of someone to another person. It is also haraam to speak of yourself in that way and to speak ill of him.

 

Allah said:

 

” . Avoid much prejudice…” (Q.S. Al-Hujurat: 12)

 

The Prophet said:

 

“Avoid presumption, for presumption is the most false of words.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah)

 

What is meant by this is to make conjectures and justify them, and to speak ill of others.

 

If such whispers and inner voices are not long-lasting, then they are forgiven by scholarly consensus. Because there is no choice for him in the matter, and there is no way for him to free himself.

 

This is what is meant in the sahih hadith, where the Prophet said:

 

“Verily, Allah forgives my Ummah for what it whispers, before it is said or done.”

 

The scholars are of the opinion: It is the same whether the whisper of the heart is gossip, disbelief or something else. If a person thinks of disbelief in his heart in the form of a whisper without intending to utter it, then he removes it at that moment, then he is not a disbeliever and there is no sin on him.

 

It was mentioned in the chapter on was-was, in the sahih hadith, that the Companions said: “O Messenger of Allah, one of us has found something important to say.” He said: “That is clear faith.” There is also another hadith that has the same meaning.

 

The reason for forgiving is the difficulty of avoiding it, whereas what is possible is avoiding its continuation. Hence, its continuance and justification are haram.

 

However this whisper of the heart comes to you, bringing gossip and other sins, you must reject it by turning away from it and mentioning various interpretations that divert it from its external meaning.

 

Imam Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali said in Ihya’ Ulumuddin: If there arises in your heart any ill-will, it is the misgivings of the devil brought upon you. You should deny it, for it is the worst of wickedness.

 

Allah said:

 

“If a wicked person comes with news, then investigate, so that you do not afflict a people with ignorance, so that you may regret what you have done.” (Q.S. Al-Hujurat: 6)

 

One of the signs of bad faith is a change in your heart. You turn away from him and consider him a burden. You no longer pay attention to him and respect him and consider him bad. For the devil sometimes draws the heart closer with the smallest delusions to the vices of men, and impresses upon it that you are clever and intelligent and quick to act.

 

Verily, the believer sees with the light of Allah. To be precise, he reveals the deceit of the devil and his misguidance. Even if you get the news from a just man, do not confirm it and do not deny it so that you may not be prejudiced against either of them.

 

No matter how much whispering occurs in your heart about a Muslim, try to pay attention and honor him, because that makes the devil angry and withdraws from you, so that he does not raise such a thing again to you, for fear of your being busy praying for that person.

 

No matter how much detail you know about a Muslim’s faults with no doubtful reason, advise him in secret and do not let the devil deceive you, causing you to backbite him. When you advise him, do not do so with the pleasure of knowing his shortcomings, so that he looks at you admiringly and you look at him condescendingly.

 

Intend to free him from sin. Just as you grieve for yourself when you are deprived. You must make sure that without your advice you prefer his deliverance to his deliverance with your advice. These are the words of Al-Ghazali.

 

I have stated that it is obligatory to stop prejudice if it arises in him. He should not do so if there is no legal reason for him to think that.

 

If that is the case, it is permissible to think about a person’s shortcomings and point them out. This is the same as criticizing witnesses, narrators and the like, which we have mentioned in the chapter on permissible gossip. Atonement for gossip and repentance from it It should be noted that whoever commits a sin should repent immediately. Repentance is one of the rights of Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, and it requires three things: Stopping the sin right away, regretting the act, and resolving not to repeat it.

 

These three things are conditions that must be fulfilled. The fourth is to return the right to its owner, or to apologize and ask to be released from it. It is obligatory for the gossiper to repent with these four things. Because gossip is a human right that must be sought from the one being gossiped about.

 

Is it sufficient for him to say: I gossiped about you, so justify me? Or does he have to explain what he gossiped about?

 

There are two opinions from the companions of Imam Shafi’i.

 

Firstly, the explanation is required. If it is released without explaining it, it is not valid. This is the case if he is relieved of an unknown asset.

 

Secondly, it is not required. Because it is a forgiven matter, it is not required to know it. It is different with wealth.

 

The former is superior. This is because people sometimes forgive one gossip without forgiving the other.

 

If the gossiped-about person is dead or absent, then it is not permissible to exonerate him. However, the scholars said: He should offer more isrighfar and supplication for him, and do more good deeds.

 

It is advisable for the one who is gossiped about to forgive him for the gossip, and it is not obligatory for him to do so, because it is a matter of granting and exercising rights, so it is up to him to choose. However, it is advisable for him to forgive her, so that he can save his Muslim brother from being ruined by this sin. He will also receive a great reward from Allah for forgiving him and loving him.

 

Allah said:

 

“And those who restrain their anger and forgive others their mistakes. And Allah loves those who do good.” (Q.S. Ali Imran: 134)

 

The way to make him realize this is to remind him that this has already happened and there is no way to make it go away. Therefore, it is unfortunate that he loses his reward and the opportunity to free his Muslim brother. Allah says:

 

“Whoever is patient and forgiving is indeed among the wise.” (Q.S. Ash-Shura: 43)

 

Allah also said:

 

“Forgive….” (Q.S. Al-Araf: 199)

 

In a sahih hadith, the Prophet said:

 

“Allah always helps His servant, as long as His servant helps his brother.”

 

Jmam Shafi’i said: “Whoever asks to be pleased, while he does not want to be pleased, then he is a devil.”

 

The salaf were also poetic:

 

It was said to me, so-and-so has disgraced you. And a man’s remaining in disgrace is ugly. I said, he has come to me and apologized. Our penance is to apologize.

This opinion that we have mentioned is an encouragement to forgive. Said Ibn Al-Musayyib said: “I do not justify those who harm me.” Ibn Sirin also said: “I do not forbid it to anyone, let alone make it permissible. Because Allah has forbidden gossip and I will not forbid what Allah has forbidden forever.”

 

This opinion is weak and wrong. The one who forgives does not make the unlawful lawful; rather, he waives the right that was given to him.

 

The texts of the Qur’an and Sunnah are clear on the recommendation to forgive and to grant special rights to the one who aborted the marriage. Or we can interpret Ibn Sirin’s words as: I do not allow people to backbite me, ever. This is the correct one.

 

Suppose people say: “I will allow my honor to be reversed for the one who backbites me”. This does not make it permissible, rather it is haraam for anyone to do it, just as it is haraam to backbite others.

 

As for the hadith that reads: “Can none of you do like Abi Dhamdham, who when he left his house said: “I give my honor to the people.”

 

The definition is: I do not sue the one who harmed me, either in this world or in the Hereafter. This is useful in the use of demands that occur before forgiving them. What happens afterward, there must be a new forgiveness.

 

Namimah

 

We have mentioned the reasons for its prohibition and the threats against it. We have also explained its essence, albeit briefly. In this chapter, we will add more information.

 

Imam Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali said: Namimah is generally defined as one who likes to convey one’s talk to the person he is talking about. It is like saying: So-and-so says this about you.

 

Namimah is not just that. It is defined as expressing something that one dislikes, whether it is disliked by the one who utters the words or the one to whom they are spoken.

 

It can be expressed through words, writing, symbols, signs, and the like. It is the same: Whether it is a bad thing or something else. The essence of namimah is the spreading of secrets and revealing something that one does not like to reveal.

 

It is proper for a person to keep silent about the situation of the people he sees. Unless there is some benefit in mentioning it, or in refusing to commit sin. If a person sees someone who is hiding his wealth, and he mentions it, then that is nami.ah.

 

Al-Ghazali said: Whoever has a mamimah delivered to him and it is said: So-and-so told you this, then he should do six things:

 

  1. Not believing it. Because the perpetrator of namimah is a wicked person and his news is rejected.

 

  1. Forbidding him from doing so, advising him and demonizing his actions.

 

  1. Hate it for the sake of Allah, because it is hated by Allah and hatred for His sake is obligatory.

 

  1. Not harboring prejudice against the person to whom one is speaking. Based on the word of Allah:

“…Avoid most presumptions….” (Q.S. Al-Hujurat: 12).

 

  1. The talk that is delivered does not cause you to spy and investigate the truth. Allah says: “Do not seek people’s disgrace.” (Q.S. Al-Hujurat: 12).

 

  1. He does not take pleasure in what is forbidden to the perpetrator of namimah, nor does he share his ramuimah.

 

It is narrated that a man mentioned the deeds of others to Umar bin Abdul Aziz. So, Umar said: “If you wish, we will investigate your matter. If you lie, then you are included in this verse: If a wicked person comes to you with news, investigate…” (Q.S. Al-Hujurat: 6).

 

If you speak the truth, then you are among those mentioned in this verse: “Love of reproach and walking in disputes.” (Q.S. Al-Oalam: 11).

 

And if you wish, we forgive.” The man said: Forgive, O Amirul Mukminin. I will not do that again, ever.

 

A man wrote to Shahih b. Ibad to ask him to take a large amount of an orphan’s property. So, he wrote back: “Namimah is ugly, even if it is true, the dead are loved by Allah, and orphans are protected by Allah.

 

Wealth is multiplied by Allah, while the one who commits namimah is cursed by Him.” Prohibition of speech”

 

It was narrated by Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Ibn Mas’ud that the Messenger said:

 

“Let none of my companions say anything about anyone, for I wish to meet you with a clean heart.”

 

Prohibition of attacking lineage

 

Allah said:

 

“Do not follow what you do not know. Indeed, hearing and sight and the heart will each be questioned.” (Q.S. Al-Isra: 36)

 

Narrated by Muslim, from Abu Hurairah , that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“There are two things in people that cause them to disbelieve: attacking their lineage and mourning the dead.”

 

Prohibition of boasting

 

Allah said:

 

“Do not consider yourselves pure. He (Allah) knows better who is pious.” (QS. An-Najm: 32)

 

It was narrated by Muslim and Abu Daud, from the Companion Iyadh bin Himam, that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Verily, Allah has revealed to me that you should humble yourselves, so that neither the one should be ashamed of the other nor the one should boast over the other.”

 

Prohibition of showing hatred towards Muslims

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi, from Watsilah Ibn Al-Asga’, that the Messenger said:

 

“Do not show hatred towards your brother, so that Allah loves him and afflicts you.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a Hasan Hadith.

 

God declares:

 

“Those who reproach those who do good among the believers, about charity. And those who have earned nothing but their labor, then they make fun of those who give charity. Allah mocks them also and for them is a painful torment.” (Q.S. At-Taubah: 79)

 

In other words:

 

“O you who believe, let not men despise other men, for it is possible that the despised may be better than the despised, nor let women despise other women, for it is possible that the despised may be better than the despised. Do not insult your neighbor and do not call each other by bad names…” (Q.S. Al-Hujurat: 11)

 

In Surah Al-Humazah, in verse 1, Allah states: “Woe (punishment) to every swearer and reviler.”

 

There are many traditions that mention the prohibition of this act. Among them is the tradition narrated by Muslim from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

“Do not provoke one another and do not quarrel with one another. Do not hate one another and do not shun one another. Let not one of you sell what the other sells, and be ye servants of Allah, brothers. A Muslim is a brother to another Muslim. Do not mistreat, neglect and insult him. Piety is here (points to his chest three times). Enough of the evil of the Muslim who insults his fellow Muslim. Every Muslim over another Muslim is forbidden his blood, his property and his honor.” (H.R. Muslim, from Abu Hurairah)

 

In a narration by Muslim, from Ibn Mas’ud, the Prophet stated:

 

“There will not enter Paradise anyone in whose heart there is pride, even a little. A man said: Verily, people want to wear fine clothes and sandals. He said: Verily, Allah is good and loves beauty. Pride is rejecting the truth and insulting people.”

 

False testimony

 

Allah said:

 

“..And avoid false speech.” (Q.S. AlHajj: 30)

 

It is also said in Surah Al-Isra’, verse 36: “Do not follow what you do not know. Indeed, hearing, sight and heart will all be questioned.”

 

Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Abi Bakrah Nafi Ibn AlHarith, that the Messenger said: “Shall I tell you about the greatest sin (repeated three times)? We replied: “Of course, O Messenger of Allah.” The Messenger of Allah # stated: “Ascribing partners to Allah and disobeying parents.” After leaning back, he sat down and said: “Also false speech and false testimony.” He kept repeating this until we said, “I hope he will be silent.”

 

Prohibition on bringing up gifts

 

Allah said:

 

“O you who believe, do not cancel your charity by reviling and hurting…” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah: 264)

 

It was narrated by Muslim from Abi Dzarr that the Messenger of Allah said: “Three kinds of people Allah will not speak to on the Day of Resurrection. He does not see them and does not purify them. They will also receive a painful torment. The Messenger of Allah said this three times. Abu Dharr asked him: In vain and at a loss, who are they, O Messenger of Allah? He replied: The one who drags his long clothes while walking arrogantly, the one who likes to pry for gifts and the one who sells his goods under false oath.”

 

Prohibition of cursing

 

It was narrated by Bukhari and Muslim from Tsabit bin Dahhak that the Prophet said:

 

“Cursing a believer is like killing him.”

 

It was narrated by Muslim, from Abu Hurairah, that the Messenger said:

 

“A righteous man should not curse.”

 

In another saying, the Prophet stated: “Those who curse cannot be helpers and witnesses on the Day of Resurrection.” (H.R. Muslim, from Abi Darda’ 2)

 

Abu Daud and Tirmidhi narrated from Samurah bin Jundub that the Apostle warned:

 

“Do not curse each other with the curse of Allah and not with His wrath and hellfire.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan sahih.

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi from Ibn Mas’ud that the Prophet said:

 

“He is not a believer who reviles and curses, speaks foul words and speaks badly.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

In another saying, he explained:

 

“When a man curses something, the curse rises to the heavens, and the doors of the heavens are shut before it. Then it descends to the earth, and the doors of the heavens are shut in front of it. Then he looks to the right and left. When he finds no way, he returns to the one cursed, if he deserves it. If not, then the curse returns to the one who issued it.” (H.R. Abu Daud, from Abi Darda’)

 

It was narrated by Abu Daud and Tirmidhi from Ibn Abbas that the Prophet also said:

 

“Whoever curses something out of place, the curse will return to him.”

 

Imran bin Hushain said: When the Messenger of Allah was traveling, an Ansar woman was heard to be annoyed with her camel and cursed it. So, he said: “Take everything that is on the camel and leave it alone, for it is cursed.” Imran said: It is as if I see that camel now wandering around without anyone taking care of it. (H.R. Muslim)

 

The scholars disagree about the Islam of Hushain, the father of Imran, and his friendship with the Messenger of Allah. The correct view is that he was a Muslim and a friend of the Messenger of Allah. That is why I mention it.

 

Condemn the perpetrators of immorality

 

There are many sayings of the Prophet narrated by Bukhari and Muslim about this, including: “Allah curses the joiner of hair and the one who asks to have his hair joined.” “Allah curses the usurer.” “Allah curses the sculptor of images.” “Allah curses the thief of the shield.”

 

He also said: O Allah, curse the tribes of Ri’il and Zakwan and Ushayyah, they have defied Allah and His Messenger. These three are Arab tribes.

 

In another saying, he stated: “Allah cursed the Jews. They were forbidden to eat gajih, but they sold it.”

 

The Prophet explained “Allah has cursed the Jews and Christians, because they have made the graves of their prophets a place of prayer.”

 

In another saying, it is stated: “God curses the man who imitates a woman and the woman who imitates a man.”

 

Jabir stated that the Prophet saw a donkey that had been branded with a hot iron on its face. So he said: “Allah cursed the one who branded it.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

Ibn Umar passed by the Ouraisy youths who had tied a bird and thrown it. So he said: “Allah curses whoever does this.” Indeed the Messenger had said: “Allah curses whoever makes a living thing a target” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim).

 

It should be noted that cursing a Muslim is haraam according to Muslim consensus. It is permissible to curse those who have reprehensible characteristics, such as saying: May Allah curse the wrongdoers, may Allah curse the disbelievers, may Allah curse the Jews and Christians, may Allah curse the wicked, may Allah curse the carvers of images.

 

As for cursing someone who has a certain trait, such as a Jew, Christian, cruel person, adulterer, sculptor, thief or usurer, the existence of these traditions indicates that it is not prohibited.

 

Al-Ghazali mentions that it is forbidden, except for people who we know are dead disbelievers, such as: Abu Lahab, Abu Jahal, Pharaoh, Haman and others like them. He said: Because cursing takes away from the mercy of Allah and we do not know what the end of this wicked or disbeliever will be.

 

As for those whom the Messenger of Allah cursed specifically, it may be assumed that the Messenger of Allah knew of their death in disbelief.

 

Coming close to cursing is wishing ill upon others. It is even praying for the one who is doing wrong, such as saying: May Allah not make your body healthy and may Allah not save it and the like. All of that is reprehensible. It is equally despicable to curse all animals and inanimate objects.

 

Anas ap said that the Prophet saw a man leading a fattened camel. So, he said: “Ride him.” The man said: “It is a fat camel.” He repeated: “Ride him.” The man said: “It is a fat camel.” He said a third time: “Ride him, woe to you.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Abi Said Al-Khudri said: “When we were with the Messenger of Allah he was dividing the spoils of war. There came to him Dzul Khuwaisharah, a man from Banu Tamim. He said: “O Messenger of Allah, do justice.” The Messenger of Allah replied: “Woe to you. Who will do justice if I do not.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Adiy bin Hatim stated that a man delivered a sermon near the Messenger of Allah. The man said: “Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has taken the right path. And whoever disobeys them has gone astray.” The Messenger of Allah said: “What a bad preacher you are.” Say: “Whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

Jabir bin Abdillah ak said, that a slave of Al-Hatib came to the Messenger of Allah. He complained about his master: “O Messenger of Allah, let Hatib go to hell.” The Messenger of Allah replied: “You are lying. He will not go to hell, because he participated in the battle of Badr and the treaty of Hudaibiyah.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

The prohibition of yelling at the weak Allah says:

 

“As for orphans, do not mistreat them, and as for beggars, do not yell at them.” (Q.S. Adh-Dhuha: 9-10)

 

Another word:

 

“Do not drive away those who worship their Lord in the morning and evening, while they seek the pleasure of Allah.” (Q.S. Al-An’am: 52)

 

In Surah Al-Kahf, verse 28, Allah says: “Keep your hearts with those who worship their Lord in the morning and evening, while they seek the pleasure of Allah, and do not avert your eyes from them.” Allah also says: “Humble your wings (do not be arrogant) towards the believers.” (Q.S. Al-Hijr: 88)

 

A’idz bin Amru said that Abu Sufyan came to Salman and Suhaib and Bilal in a group. Then they said: “The swords of Allah do not find their mark on the necks of the enemies of Allah.” So Abubakar said: “Did you tell it to the old Ouraisy and their leader?” So he went to the Prophet and told him. He said: “O Abubakar, have you angered them? If you have angered them, then you have angered your Lord.” Then Abubakar went to them and said: “My brothers, have I angered you?” They replied: “No.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

Various uses of designations and sayings Designation of disbelievers

 

Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, from Sahal ibn Hunaif and

 

‘Aisha that the Prophet said:

 

“Let not one of you say: ‘I am jaha’. Rather, say: “Myself sempi?”

 

It is haraam to say: If I do this, then I will become a Jew or Christian, or leave Islam, and so on.

 

If he said that with the intention of attributing it to his departure from Islam, then he became a kaafir at that time, and the rulings of the apostate apply to him. If he did not intend that, then he is not a disbeliever, but he has done something that is forbidden. So it is obligatory for him to repent, by stopping sinning immediately and regretting what he has done and resolving not to do it again. It is obligatory to ask Allah for forgiveness and say: “There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”

 

Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Umar that the Messenger said:

 

“If someone says to his brother: “Ya kafir”, then one of the two will get it. If it is in accordance with what he said, then it will be valid. If not, it will come back to him.”

 

It was narrated by Bukhari and Muslim from Abu Dhar that he heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“Whoever prays for someone with disbelief or says he is an enemy of Allah, when he is not, then it will be returned to him.”

 

Suppose a Muslim curses another Muslim by saying: O Allah, take away faith from him. If he disobeys him by saying that, is he disbelieved by this supplication? The correct view is that he is not disbelieved. The proof for this view is the words of Allah, which tell us about Moses:

 

“O our Lord, destroy their wealth and harden their day, so that they may not believe.” (Q.S. Yunus: 88)

 

If the disbelievers force a Muslim to utter the word kufr while his heart is still believing, he is not disbelieved by the text of the Qur’an and the consensus of the Muslims.

 

There are five opinions regarding the pronunciation of the word kufr to protect against killing. The first is that it is better to be patient about being killed and not to utter the word kufr. The evidence to support this view is from the authentic traditions and the actions of the Companions.

 

Secondly, it is better to say the word kufr to protect himself from being killed.

 

Thirdly, if it is something that is good for the Muslims, in the hope of retaliating against the enemy or implementing the rulings of sharee’ah, then it is better to say it. Otherwise, it is better to be patient.

 

Fourthly, if he is among the scholars and the like who are the role models of the people, then it is better to be patient, so that the common people will not be deceived by him.

 

Fifthly, it is obligatory for him to say it on the basis of what Allah says in Surah al-Baqarah, verse 195: “Do not plunge yourselves into destruction.” This opinion is very weak.

 

If a Muslim forces a disbeliever to recite the two creeds, if he is a harby, his Islam is valid, because it is a justified force.

 

If he is a Zimmi (a person of the Book under the auspices of the Islamic government), then he is not a Muslim, because we cannot interfere with him. So the compulsion against him is without right. There is a weak opinion that he becomes Muslim because he is told to do the right thing.

 

  1. Designation of Khalifatullah

For someone who runs the affairs of the Muslims, it is more appropriate to be called the Khalifah of the Messenger of Allah and Amirw Mukminin, not Khahifatullah. It was narrated in Sharhu Sunnah by Imam Abi Muhammad Al-Baghawi who said: It is permissible for the leader who takes care of the Muslims to be called Amirul Mukminin and Al-Khalifah, even if he contradicts the lifestyle of the just Imams. This is because he takes care of the interests of the believers. He is called Caliph because he succeeds the previous leader.

 

A person is not called Kharifarullah after Adam and David Allah says: “…Verily I have made on the earth a Khalifah (representative) ….” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah: 30).

 

In other words: “O David, indeed We have made you Caliph on the earth…” (Q.S. Shaad: 26)

 

It was narrated from Ibn Abi Mulaikah, that a man said to Abu Bakr Shiddiq:” O Khalifatullah.” He replied: “I am the Caliph of Muhammad and I am pleased with that title.”

 

A man said to Umar bin Abdul Aziz: “O Khalifarullah.” He replied: “Woe to you. You have reached (called) with a far reach (call). Indeed my mother named me Umar. Had you called me by this name, I would have accepted it. Then I grew old and was called Abu Hafshin. Had you called me by that title, I would have accepted it. Then you appointed me to take care of you. So, you called me Amirul Mukminin. Had I been called by that title, it would have been sufficient for you.”

 

Al-Imam Al-Gadhi Abu Hasan Al-Mawardi Al-Bashri AsSyafii in his book Al-Ahtam Ash-Sulthanryyah, said: “The Imam is called Caliph, because he replaces the Messenger of Allah in taking care of his people.” It is possible to say Al-Khalifah and it is possible to say Caliph of the Messenger of Allah.

 

The scholars disagree about the title Kharifatullah. Some say it is permissible, because he is exercising the rights of Allah and His creation. This is based on the words of Allah: “He made you Caliphs (rulers) on earth…” (Q.S. Fathir: 39)

 

The majority of scholars rejected this and regarded those who said it as fajir (sinful). This is what Al-Mawardi said.

 

The first to be called Amirul Mukminin was Umar bin Khattab. There is no dispute about that among the scholars. As for the conjecture that the title belongs to Musaylima, this is an error and ignorance that goes against the consensus of the scholars.

 

Imam Hafidh Ibn Abdil Barr mentioned in his book Al-Isti’ab, regarding the names of the Companions. He explains that Umar was called Amirul Mukminin for the first time. And Abubakar was called the Caliph of the Messenger of Allah.

 

3, The King of Kings

It is haraam to call a king or any other being Sahan Sah, because it means King of kings. It is not permissible to attribute such a title to anyone other than Allah.

 

Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

“Verily the lowest name in the sight of Allah is he who takes the name of the King of kings.”

 

  1. Mention of As-Sayid

Know that As-Sayid is prescribed for the one who surpasses his people and is the highest in rank among them, prescribed for the leader and the noble one, prescribed for the patient one, prescribed for the generous one and for the employer and the husband.

 

There are many hadith-reports that assign the title Sayid to a person of distinction. Among them is in Sahih Bukhari from Abi Bakrah that the Prophet raised al-Hasan b. ‘Ali on the pulpit and said:

 

“Verily this son of mine is a leader. And may Allah reconcile with him between two groups of Muslims.”

 

In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, Abi Said Al-Khudri narrated, that the Messenger of Allah said to the Ansar when Saad bin Muadz came: Stand up to welcome your leader.

 

It was narrated by Muslim from Abu Hurairah that Saad bin Ubadah asked: “O Messenger of Allah, what do you think of a man who finds his wife alone with another man?” Mala, he said: “See what your leader says.”

 

Regarding the prohibition of speaking to certain groups, it is narrated with a jayyid (good) isnad in Sunan Abu Daud, from Buraydah that the Messenger said:

 

“Do not call “Sayid” (leader) to a hypocrite. If he becomes a leader, then you have angered your Lord, Allah.”

 

Based on these proofs, it is permissible to call so-and-so Sayid and ya Sayid and the like, if he is a noble and good person, whether by virtue of his knowledge, kindness or otherwise. If he is a wicked person or an accused in his religion or the like, it is not permissible to call him Sayid. See the narration from Imam Abu Sulaiman Al-Khattabi in Ma’alim AsSunan, regarding the mixing of the two.

 

  1. Two other statements that are not allowed

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Jabir that the Messenger of Allah met Umm Sa’ib or Ummil Musayyib and asked: “Why are you trembling, Umm Sa’ib?” Ja replied: “It is a fever. May Allah not bless her.” He said: “Do not revile him, for he removes the sins of the children of Adam as a blow removes iron filings.”

 

With a valid isnad, Abu Daud narrated from Zaid bin Khalid Al-Juhani that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Do not cuss the rooster, for he wakes people up for prayer.”

 

  1. Prayer that is forbidden

It is forbidden to ask for forgiveness and the like for those who die as disbelievers. Allah says:

 

“It is not proper for the prophet and the believers to ask forgiveness for the polytheists, even if they are relatives, after it has become clear to them that the polytheists are the inhabitants of Hell.” (Q.S. At-Taubah: 113)

 

  1. Prohibited cursing

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Mas’ud that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Abusing Muslims is a sinful act.”

 

Among the despicable words that are commonly used are addressing people who are hostile to them: you donkey, you bastard, you dog, and so on. Such remarks are bad for two reasons:

 

The first is lying and the second is annoying. It is different from saying: Hai cruel and the like. Such words are permissible, because of the emergency in times of hostility, and are usually true.

 

  1. When whispering is forbidden

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Mas’ud that the Messenger said:

 

“When there are three of you, let not two whisper in the presence of the other, so that you may mingle with the people. Indeed, that action grieves him.”

 

“It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Umar that-Rasulullah said: When there are three people, let not two whisper to each other without the third. In Sunan Abu Daud and Abu Shalih, the narrator adds: I asked Ibn Umar: “What about four people?” He replied: “It will not bother you.”

 

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It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Mas’ud that the Messenger said:

 

“Let no woman associate with another woman and then describe her husband as if she were looking at him.”

 

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  2. It is not preferable to say in supplication: O Allah, forgive me if You wish, or if You wish. Hence, one should make sure of the request.

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Let not one of you say: O Allah, forgive me if You will. O Allah, have mercy on me if You will. Let him make sure of his request, for no one can force Him.”

 

In a narration added by Muslim:

 

“But let him be sure and magnify his desire. Verily, what Allah gives is not too great for Him.”

 

  1. It is not permissible to swear by anything other than the name of Allah and His attributes. This includes the Prophet, the Ka’bah, angels, the trust, life, the soul and so on. Among the most disliked is swearing by a trust.

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Umar that the Prophet said:

 

“Verily, Allah forbids you to swear by your fathers. Whoever swears, let him swear by Allah, or remain silent.”

 

A strong threat regarding the prohibition of swearing by a trust, has been mentioned in Sunan Abu Daud with a valid isnad, from Buraydah that the Apostle stated:

 

“Whoever swears by a trust is not one of us.”

 

It is also disliked to swear a lot in buying and selling, even if it is true. It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abi Oatadah, that he heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“Do not swear a lot in buying and selling, because it may be sold and then lose its blessing.”

 

It is not desirable for a person who commits a sin or the like to tell others about it. Rather, he should repent to Allah and stop doing it immediately, regretting what he has done and resolving not to do it again. These three things are the interrelated pillars of repentance. His repentance is not valid except with these three.

 

If he tells his teacher or someone else, in the hope that this will help him to find a way out of his sin, or to teach him how to avoid doing that, or to tell him the reason for it, or to pray for him, and so on, then it is permissible. In fact, it is good. What is disliked is if it is not for that purpose.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah, that he heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“All my Ummah are released except those who transgress. Indeed, among the transgressors is the one who does something (sinful) at night, then in the morning: while Allah & has covered it over him, he says: O So-and-so, last night I did “this” and “that”, while last night his Lord had covered him, while in the morning, he unmasks Allah over him.”

 

  1. It is haraam for the mukallaf to tell his slave or his wife or his child anything that may harm them, if what is told is not a command to do good or a prohibition to do evil.

 

God’s Word:

 

“Help one another in goodness and piety and do not help one another in sin and enmity.” (Q.S. Al-Maidah: 2)

 

In other words:

 

“He does not utter a word, but there are with him Ragib and Atid.” (Q.S. Oaaf: 18)

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Nasa’i, from Abu Hurairah , that the Messenger of Allah stated:

 

“Whoever corrupts someone’s wife or his slave is not one of us.”

 

  1. It is forbidden to ask for the pleasure of Allah, other than Paradise.

 

It was narrated by Abu Daud, from Jabir that the Messenger said:

 

“Ask not with the face of Allah, the fruit of Paradise.”

 

  1. It is forbidden to prevent those who invoke Allah and seek His help.

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Nasa’i with an isnad authenticated by Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Umar, that the Messenger affirmed:

 

“Whoever seeks refuge with Allah, then protect him and whoever asks Allah for something, then grant him and whoever invites you, then fulfill his invitation and whoever does good, then repay him. If you do not get what you gave him, then pray for him, until you know that you have repaid him.”

 

Some important advice

 

Among the despicable phrases are: insulting, arguing and quarreling. Imam Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali said: Insult is criticizing the speech of another person in order to point out his shortcomings. The aim is only to insult the one who said it, as well as to show his own privileges to the insulted person.

 

As for debate, it is like a matter of highlighting schools of thought and justifying them.

 

And arguing is insubordination in speech in order to achieve one’s goals in terms of wealth or otherwise. Sometimes it occurs at the beginning and sometimes it is a refutation, while insulting does not occur except as a refutation.

 

You should know that debate is sometimes with haq and at other times with bari.

 

Allah said:

 

“Do not argue with the People of the Book, but with a better word…” (Q.S. Al-Ankabut: 46)

 

In other words:

 

“And thump them with a better word…” (Q.S. An-Nahl: 125)

 

In Surah Ghafir, verse 4, Allah states:

 

“Do not dispute the verses of Allah but those who disbelieve.”

 

Relying on the truth is praiseworthy. But arguing against the truth, or arguing without knowledge, is reprehensible. We will discuss its permissibility and reprehensibility based on the texts.

 

Al-Mujadalah and Al-Jidal have one meaning. See Tahzib Al-Asma’ wa Al-Lughat.

 

A scholar said: I have not seen anything that is more likely to lead away from religion, more likely to diminish self-respect, more likely to take away pleasure, and more likely to distract the heart, than quarrels.

 

When I say: Man must fight to defend his rights. The answer is as Imam Al-Ghazali states, that censure is only for the one who fights with falsehood or without knowledge, such as a deputy gadhi. He becomes a representative in a complaint before he knows which side the truth is on, so he accepts the complaint without knowledge.

 

One of the despicable ones is the one who demands his right, not just his need. He also shows hostility and lies in order to annoy and dominate his opponent.

 

Similarly, whoever mixes complaints with annoying words, when he does not need them in obtaining his rights. Similarly, the one who complains, just because he is determined to oppress his opponent and defeat him, is blameworthy.

 

As for the persecuted person who defends his cause in accordance with sharee’ah, without hostility or exaggeration, and who adds to his demands beyond what is necessary without intending to disobey or interfere, his action is not forbidden. So long as there is a way to leave, that is better. This is because it is difficult to regulate speech and complaining reasonably, and complaining can stimulate the heart and cause anger.

 

When his anger is aroused, envy arises between the two, so that each takes pleasure in the evil of the other and is saddened by his joy and attacks his honor.

 

Whoever complains tends to experience these evils, at least the heart becomes negligent so that in his prayers and his thoughts are constantly reminded of disputes and complaints. Thus, his state cannot become tranquil.

 

Quarrels are the source of evil. So are arguments and insults. So, it is proper not to complain unless there is an unavoidable need. At that time, he also guards his tongue and heart from the evil of complaining.

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi from Ibn Abbas that the Prophet said:

 

“Your sins are enough if you keep fighting:”

 

It is not preferable for the one who, after the ‘Isha prayer, engages in permissible talk. What I mean by permissible is that doing it and not doing it are the same.

 

As for talk that is haraam or makrooh, it is even more haraam and makrooh at this time.

 

As for talking about good things, such as learning knowledge, stories of righteous people, good manners, and talking with guests, there is nothing wrong with that; rather it is encouraged. There are many sahih traditions about it.

 

Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Abi Barzah that the Prophet disliked sleeping before the Isha prayer, and disliked talking afterwards.

 

As for the traditions that allow it, they are numerous. Among them is the hadith of Ibn ‘Umar in Sahihain (Bukhari and Muslim), that the Messenger of Allah prayed ‘Isha at the end of his life. When he said the greeting, he said:

 

“Do you know about this night? Indeed, in a hundred years, there will not be left among those who live on the earth today a single person.”

 

Bukhari and Muslim also narrated from Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari that the Messenger of Allah delayed the prayer until late at night, then the Messenger of Allah came out and prayed with the Companions. When he finished, he said to those present:

 

“Calm down, let me tell you something that pleases you. It is one of Allah’s blessings upon you that none of the people are praying at this time except you.”

 

Through Anas Bukhari explains that they were waiting for the Prophet. Then he came to them, while the night was almost over. Then he prayed Isha with them. After that, he said:

 

“Behold, after the people have prayed, they fall asleep: Indeed you remain in your prayer waiting for another prayer.”

 

Among the prohibited things is spreading secrets. Hadiths on this subject are numerous. If it involves harm and disturbance, then it is forbidden.

 

It was narrated by Abu Daud and Tirmidhi, from Jabir that the Messenger said:

 

“If someone narrates something and then it passes, it is a trust.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

Without a need, it is forbidden to ask someone why he hit his wife.

 

In a sahih hadith it is stated:

 

“Part of the goodness of Islam is that a person leaves things that are not his business.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah, from Umar bin Khattab that the Prophet said:

 

“No man should be asked why he hit his wife.”

 

As for poetry, it has been narrated in the Musnad of Abi Ya’la al-Mushili with a hasan hadith from ‘Aisha, who said: The Messenger of Allah was asked about poetry, so he replied: “It is a statement in which the good is good and the bad is bad.”

 

It has been mentioned in some authentic traditions that the Messenger of Allah listened to poetry and told Hasan b. Tsabit to revile the disbelievers. In one of his sayings, it is stated: “Indeed, wisdom can be learned from poetry.”

 

In contrast to bad verse, he emphasized in his saying: “”The filling of a man’s stomach with pus is better for him than the filling of (bad) poetry.””

 

It is also forbidden to speak foul words and make hasty statements. There are many sahih hadiths regarding this prohibition. For example, describing something that is sensitive. This kind of talk is often found in the phrases intercourse and the like. Although this kind of talk is true, it is better to use figures of speech, and to say something that can be understood to mean the same thing. In some of His words, Allah has given guidance, including:

 

“It is forbidden to you during the night (month) of fasting to mix with your wives….” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah: 187)

 

In other words:

 

“When you divorce a woman (your wife), before you have touched her…” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah: 237)

 

You should know that when it is necessary to make an explanatory statement in order to teach a lesson, because it is feared that one may understand something else, it is necessary to explain it so that one can understand the true meaning. The importance of clear expression is because understanding in this case is more important than just observing good manners.

 

Tirmidhi narrated from Abdullah bin Mas’ud that the Prophet was angry with the one who did not guard his tongue. He said:

 

“It is not the believer who reviles and curses and speaks foul and loudly.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah have narrated from Anas that the Messenger affirmed:

 

“No filthy word about a thing can make it worse, and no shame about a thing can make it better.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

It is forbidden to yell at one’s father or mother or other parents. Allah says:

 

“Your Lord commands you to worship none but Him and to do good to both parents. If either of them is old or both, do not say “cis” to either of them, nor do you scold either of them, and speak to both of them noble (gentle) words. Humble yourself to them out of compassion, and say: O my Lord, have mercy on them, as they nursed me when I was a child.” (Q.S. Al-lsra’: 23-24)

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abdullah bin Amr Ibn Al-Ash, that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Among the major sins is one who reviles his parents. The Companions asked: “O Messenger of Allah, can a person revile his parents?” Behau replied: “Yes. If he reviles the father of another person, that person will revile his father and if he reviles the mother of another person, that person will revile his mother.”

 

It was narrated by Abu Daud and Tirmidhi that Ibn ‘Umar explained: “I have a wife whom I love, but ‘Umar does not like her.” So, he said to me: “Divorce her.” Then Umar came to the Messenger of Allah and told him about it. So, the Prophet said: “Divorce her.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

Lies

 

The Muslims are unanimously agreed that it is haraam to speak falsely. Therefore, there is no need to go into detail. This discussion will focus on some of the exceptions. The study will be based on traditions that have been agreed upon.

 

It was narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The sign of a hypocrite is threefold: When speaking he lies, when promising he does not keep and when given trust he betrays.”

 

Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Abdullah bin Amr Ibn Al’Ash that the Prophet said:

 

“Four things which if they are found in a person, he is a true hypocrite, and if they are found in one of them, he is a hypocrite until he abandons it: When trust is given he betrays, when he speaks he lies, when he promises he reneges and when he is hostile he commits abominations.”

 

As for what is exempted, it has been narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Ummi Kultsum that she heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“He who makes peace between men is not a liar,” he said.

 

telling a good story or saying a good word.”

 

Muslim adds in a narration that Umm Kultsum said: I did not hear the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) allow anything to be said by people except in three cases: Warfare and reconciling between people, the speech of a man to his wife and a wife to her husband.

 

This is a tradition about the permissibility of some lies. The scholars are of the opinion that such lying is permissible because it is in the interest of what is available.

 

One order of research has been undertaken by Al-Ghazali. It was right when he said: Speech is a means to an end. So, any praiseworthy goal that can be achieved is by telling the truth or lying for its entirety. Lying in that case is forbidden, because it is unnecessary.

 

If it can only be achieved by lying and not by telling the truth, then lying here is permissible, so long as achieving the goal is permissible and obligatory if the goal is a necessity.

 

If a Muslim is hiding from an evil person and is asked about him, it is obligatory to lie to conceal it. Similarly, if there is a deposit and an evil person asks about it with the intention of taking it, then it is obligatory to lie to conceal it. If he informs him of the entrustment and it is taken from him by force, then it is obligatory to replace it.

 

If a Muslim is asked to swear an oath, he should swear and use sarcasm in his oath. If he swears and does not insinuate, he is lying according to the most correct school of thought. Similarly, if the aim is warfare or reconciliation between Muslims or appealing to the victim of a crime to forgive the crime, which cannot be achieved except by lying, then lying is not haraam. Again, if the purpose cannot be achieved except by lying and to be cautious, then taurtyah should be said.

 

The meaning of tauriyah is to say words for the right purpose, and not to lie to himself, even if the words are false on the surface. If he does not intend this, but speaks false words, then it is not haraam in this case.

 

Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali adds: The same applies to anything that pertains to a goal that is right for him or for others.

 

That which is for his benefit is: If a wicked man asks about his property in order to take it, he may deny it. Or if he is asked by the king about a heinous deed he has committed that is a sin against Allah, he may deny it. For example: I did not commit adultery or I did not drink alcohol.

 

There are several traditions that advise the one who confesses his sin to withdraw his confession. As for the benefit of others, it is like a person who asks about his brother’s secret and then denies it and so on.

 

It is necessary to weigh up the harm caused by lying and the harm caused by telling the truth. If speaking the truth causes more harm, then it is permissible to lie. If it is the other way around, or if there is any doubt, then it is forbidden to lie.

 

If it is permissible to lie and the purpose for which it is permissible is related to oneself, then it is recommended not to lie. When it is related to others, it is not permissible to take the rights of others for granted. The wise thing to do is to refrain from it in every permissible situation, unless it is obligatory.

 

It should be noted that according to the school of Ahl al-Sunnah, lying is telling something that is contrary to the truth. Whether it is done intentionally or not. However, it is not a sin if it is not intentional. The evidence for this is the Prophet’s hadith:

 

“Whoever lies against me intentionally, be content to reside in hell.” Keep the conversation secret

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Hafs bin Ashim, a noble tabiin, from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

“It is enough for a man to lie when he tells everything he hears.”

 

Muslim has narrated from Umar bin Khattab who asserted: “It is enough for a person to lie if he tells everything he hears.”

 

Bad speech and bad deeds Allah says: “Perhaps the devil has come to tempt you, so seek refuge in Allah…” (Q.S. Fushshilat: 36)

 

In other words:

 

“And those who, when they do evil or wrong themselves, remember Allah and ask forgiveness for their sin. And there is none who forgives sins except Allah. And they have no remorse for what they have done, while they know. Their reward is forgiveness from their Lord and Paradise with rivers flowing beneath, and that is the best of rewards for those who do good.” (Q.S. Ali Imran: 135-136)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Abi Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever swears and says in his oath by Latta and Uzza (names of idols), then let him say: There is no God but Allah. And whoever says to his friend: Let me bet with you, then let him give in charity.”

 

SET OF PRAYERS

 

Note that the purpose of this section is to mention the recommended prayers at all times. Since the topic is very broad, it will be specialized on the most important prayers only.

 

The first are the supplications mentioned in the Qur’ān that Allah has reported about the prophets and the righteous. These supplications are many and well known, among them from the Messenger of Allah dh when saying or teaching them to others.

 

It was narrated with a sahih isnad in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah, from Nu’man bin Basir ap that the Prophet said:

 

 

“Prayer is an act of worship.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

Abu Daud narrated with a jayyid (good) isnad, that ‘Aisha dp said: “The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) favored the comprehensive supplication and forsook all others.”

 

Abu Hurairah mentioned that the Prophet said:

 

“Nothing is more honorable in the sight of Allah than supplication.” (H.R. Tirmizi and Ibn Majah)

 

In another saying, Abu Hurairah mentioned that the Prophet also said:

 

“Whoever wants to feel happy that Allah will answer his prayers in times of hardship and distress, let him increase his prayers in times of prosperity.” (H.R. Tirmidhi)

 

Through Anas, Bukhari and Muslim mention the most recited supplication by the Prophet, namely:

 

“O Allah, grant us good in this world and the next, and protect us from the fire of hell.”

 

Muslim added in his narration: Anas, when he wanted to pray, he prayed with it. If he wanted to pray with something else, he would include it in his prayer.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Ibn Mas’ud that the Prophet prayed while saying:

 

“O Allah, I ask You for guidance, piety and virtue, and sufficiency.”

 

Tariq bin Usaim Al-Asja’i said: When anyone entered Islam, the Prophet taught him to pray, then taught him to pray, namely:

 

“O Allah, forgive me and have mercy on me and guide me and make me safe and provide for me.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

Tariq also stated that he heard the Prophet being asked by a man: “O Messenger of Allah, what should I say when I invoke my Lord?” He replied: “Say: ‘O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, make me well and provide for me. Verily, these words are for your benefit in this world and the Hereafter.” (H.R. Muslim)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abdullah bin Amr Ibn Al-‘Ash, that the Messenger said:

 

“O Allah who can move the day, move our hearts in obedience to You.”

 

In one of his sayings narrated by Abu Hurairah, the Prophet recommended:

 

“Seek refuge with Allah from the evil of calamity and the pain of misery, the ugliness of destiny and the incitement of the enemy.” (H.R. Bukhari and Muslim)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim, from Anas that the Prophet once prayed:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from weakness and laziness, cowardice, aging and stinginess, and I seek refuge with You from the torment of the grave: I also seek refuge with You from trials during life and after death. In a narration: And the hardship of debt and the oppression of people.”

 

Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Abdullah bin Amr Ibn AlAsh from Abubakar As-Siddiq that he said to the Messenger of Allah: Teach me a prayer to say in my prayer. He said: “Say it:

 

“O Allah, indeed I have wronged myself with many wrongs and none can forgive sins but You. So, forgive my sins with Your forgiveness and mercy. Indeed You are the Most Forgiving and Merciful.”

 

Still from Bukhari and Muslim, from Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari, from the Prophet that he prayed with:

 

“O Allah, forgive my sins and my foolishness, my outrageous deeds and all sins that You know better than I do. O Allah, forgive my real faults and my jokes, my clumsiness and my willfulness, all of which are mine. O Allah, forgive my past and future sins, those that I have kept secret and those that I have revealed and those that You know better than I do. You are the one who advances and retreats, and You are in control of everything.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Aisha that the Prophet said in his prayer:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the evil of all my deeds and the evil of all that I have not done.”

 

Muslim narrated from Ibn Umar that in another supplication, he said:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the loss of Your pleasure and the fading of the health You have given me and from Your sudden calamity and all Your wrath.”

 

Narrated in Saghih Muslim, from Zaid bin Arqam, he said: I do not tell you anything other than what the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from weakness and laziness, cowardice, stinginess and distress and the torment of the grave: O Allah, grant me piety and purify him. You are the best who purifies him. You are its leader and master. O Allah, I seek refuge with You from knowledge that does not benefit and a heart that does not submit, a soul that is not satisfied and a supplication that is not answered.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from ‘Ali , that the Messenger taught:

 

“Say: O Allah, guide me and make me straight. In a narration: O Allah, I ask You for guidance and truth.”

 

In Sahih Muslim, Saad bin Abi Waqqash narrates about a hillbilly who came to the Prophet saying: O Messenger of Allah, teach me something to say: He stated:

 

“Say: There is no God but Allah, with whom there is no partner. Allah is the Greatest, and all praise is due to Him. Glory be to Allah, Lord of all worlds. There is no power except with the help of Allah, the Mighty and Wise. The man said: All this is for my Lord, what is my share? He replied: Say: O Allah, forgive me and have mercy on me, guide me and provide for me and make me well.”

 

Narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abu Hurairah he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“O Allah, be good to my religion which is the guardian of my affairs. Be good to my world in which is my livelihood. Make good my hereafter to which I return. Make life an addition to me in all goodness. And make death my salvation from all evil.”

 

Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“O Allah, to You I surrender and to You I believe, to You I surrender and to You I repent and in Your name I complain. O Allah, I seek refuge in Your majesty, that I may not be scattered. There is no God other than You who lives and cannot die, while jim and man must die.”

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah, from Buraidah that the Messenger of Allah heard a man say: “O Allah, I ask You, I testify that You are Allah, there is no God but You, the only One to whom to go, who is neither begotten nor born and no one can compare with Him.” Hearing this, the Prophet said: “You have invoked Allah with a Name that when invoked with it, He gives. And when invoked by it, He will answer (grant).” In a narration: “You have invoked Allah with His Most Glorious Name.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Nasa’i, from Anas that he was sitting with the Messenger of Allah and a man was praying, then prayed: “O Allah, I ask You with all praise. There is no God but You who gave the bounty and created the heavens and the earth. O God who has glory and honor. O Lord who lives and stands alone.” Hearing that the Prophet said: “That man has prayed to Allah with His Most Glorious Name. Who when called by it, He grants and when asked by it, He gives.”

 

Narrated by Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah, with a sahih isnad from Aisha that the Prophet prayed:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the trials and torments of Hell and from the evils of wealth and poverty.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

Tirmidhi narrated from Ziyad bin Alagah, from his uncle named Outbah bin Malik, who said: The Prophet once said:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from despicable manners and deeds and passions.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’i, that Shyakal bin Humaid said: “O Messenger of Allah, teach me prayer.” He said:

 

“Say: O Allah, I seek refuge with You from the evil of my hearing and sight, the evil of my tongue and heart, and the evil of my semen.” Tirmidhi categorizes this Hadith as hasan.

 

With authentic isnad, Abu Daud and Nasa’i narrated from Anas that the Prophet said:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from stripes, madness and leprosy and other dangerous diseases.”

 

Abu Daud and Nasa’i narrated from Abi Al-Yasar a sdhabi, that the Prophet once prayed:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from slovenliness. I seek refuge with You from dullness. I seek refuge with You from drifting, fire and old age. And I seek refuge with You from the temptation of the devil at the time of death. I seek refuge with You from yesterday by turning away from Your path. And I seek refuge with You from death by animal sting.”

 

Still from Abu Daud and Nasa’i, with a valid isnad, that Abu Hurairah said: The Messenger of Allah once said:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from hunger, for indeed it is the worst of bedfellows and I seek refuge with You from betrayal, for it is the worst of satiety.”

 

Tirmidhi narrates from ‘Ali that a mutatab (slave who wanted to redeem himself) came to him and said: I am unable to redeem myself, so help me. He said: Will you teach me the words that the Messenger of Allah taught me, so that even if you owe a debt like the mountain of Uhud, surely Allah will pay it off for you? After that, he mentioned:

 

“O Allah, suffice me with what You have nullified without needing what You have forbidden and suffice me with Your virtues without needing anything other than You.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

Tirmidhi narrated from Imran bin Hushain, that the Prophet taught his father two words for prayer, namely:

 

“O Allah, show me the path of righteousness and protect me from the evil of myself.” Tirmidhi classifies it as a hasan tradition. With a weak isnad,

 

Tirmidhi narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah once said:

 

“O Allah, I seek refuge with You from hostility, hypocrisy and bad manners.”

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi that Shahrin bin Hausyab asked Umm Salamah: O Ummul Mukminin, what was the Prophet’s most frequent supplication when he was in your place? Umm Salamah mentioned:

 

“O Lord who can turn hearts, set my heart on your religion.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a hasan hadith.

 

Tirmidhi narrated from ‘Aisha that the Prophet once said:

 

“O Allah, grant me health in my body and in my vision. Make it remain strong in me. There is no God but You, the Most Merciful and Gracious. Glory be to Allah, the Lord of the great Throne. And all praise be to Allah, Lord of all worlds.”

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi, from Abi Darda’ that the Messenger said:

 

“Among the supplications of Prophet David was: O Allah, I ask You for love of You and love of those who love You and the deeds that lead me to Your love. O Allah, make the love of You more desirable to me than myself, my wife and than cold water.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

Tirmidhi narrated from Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqash that the Prophet said:

 

“It was Zinnun, praying to his Lord while he was in the belly of a giant fish (whale): There is no God but You, Glory be to You, surely I am among the wrongdoers. No Muslim prays to him for anything but Allah grants it.” Al-Hakim classified the isnad as sahih.

 

Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrated from Anas that a man came to the Prophet and asked: “O Messenger of Allah, which is the best supplication?” He replied: “Ask for health (safety) and deliverance from all shortcomings in this world and the Hereafter.” Then he came to him on the second day and asked: “O Messenger of Allah, which is the best supplication?” He replied in the same way. Then he came a third time and asked the same question. He replied: “If you are given health (safety) in this world and also given it in the hereafter, then you have been fortunate.” Tirmidhi categorized this Hadith as hasan.

 

Narrated by Tirmidhi, from Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib, he said: “O Messenger of Allah, teach me something to ask Allah for.” He said: “Ask Allah for health (safety).” After a few days I came again, then I said: “O Messenger of Allah, teach me something to ask Allah for.” So he said: “O Abbas, ask for health (safety) in this world and the Hereafter.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

Tirmidhi narrates that Abu Umamah said: “O Messenger of Allah, you have said many supplications that we cannot memorize.” So he said:

 

“Shall I show you the prayer that combines all of them? You said: O Allah, I ask You for all the good that Your Prophet Muhammad has asked for and we seek refuge with You from all the evil that Your Prophet Muhammad has sought refuge from. You are the one to ask for help – and You are the one who delivers and there is no power except with Your help.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

It was narrated by Tirmidhi, from Anas, that the Messenger of Allah said”:

 

“Do not be forsaken and say often: O Lord of glory and honor.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, from Ibn Abbas who said: The Prophet once prayed while saying:

 

“O my Lord, help me and do not harm me. Win me and do not defeat me. Deceive me and do not deceive me. Make guidance easy for me and help me against those who persecute me. O my Lord, make me thank You, mention You and fear You and obey You and by answering Your call or repenting to You. Accept my repentance and wash away my sins. Grant my prayer and establish my stand. Guide my day. Justify my speech and remove malice from my day.” Tirmidhi classifies the hadith as sahih.

 

In another hadith:

 

“Whoever excretes in the path of the Muslims, Allah curses him.”

 

It was narrated in the Musnad of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal and the Sunan of Ibn Majah, from ‘Aisha that the Prophet said:

 

“Say: O Allah, I ask You for all the good of the present and the future, whether I know it or not. I also seek refuge with You from all the evil that has happened and will happen, whether I know it or not. And I ask You for Paradise and the words or deeds that bring it closer. I also seek refuge with You from hellfire and the words or deeds that bring it near. I ask You for the good of all that is asked of You by Your servant and Messenger, Muhammad. I also seek refuge with You from the evil of all that Your servant and Messenger, Muhammad, seeks refuge from. I also ask You that whatever You ordain for me, You make the end of it to be the truth.”

 

Al-Hakim Abu Abdillah categorized it as a sahih isnad. In Al-Mustadrak, Al-Hakim narrated from Ibn Mas’ud who said: It is among the supplications of the Messenger of Allah:

 

“O Allah, we ask You for the outpouring of Your mercy and the assurance of Your forgiveness. Also salvation from all sins and the earning of good. And the good fortune of Paradise and salvation from Hellfire.” (Sahih Hadith)

 

It was narrated in Al-Mustadrak, that Jabir bin Abdillah said: A man came to the Messenger of Allah and said: O my sin, O my sin, two or three times. So the Messenger of Allah said to him:

 

“Say: O Allah, Your forgiveness is wider than my sins and Your mercy is more desirable than my deeds.” So the man said it. Then, the Messenger of Allah said: “Repeat it.” The man repeated it. The Messenger of Allah stated: “Repeat it.” The man also repeated it. Finally the Messenger of Allah said: “Stand up, your sins have been forgiven.”

 

Still in Al-Mustadrak, Abu Umamah said, that the Messenger said:

 

“Verily, Allah has an angel assigned to the one who says: “O Lord, the Most Merciful of the Merciful.” So, whoever says it three times, the angel says to him: “Indeed, the Lord, the Most Merciful of the Merciful, has come to you, so ask him.”

 

Prayer procedure

 

It should be noted that the view held by the fuqaha and hadith scholars, and by the majority of scholars of all classes, past and present, is that supplication is favored. Allah says:

 

“Your Lord has said: Pray to Me, surely I will answer your prayer…” (Q.S. Ghafir: 60)

 

And His Word:

 

“Pray to your Lord with humility and a soft voice.” (Q.S. Al-A’raf: 55)

 

The verses concerning it are many and well known. As for the authentic traditions about supplication, they have already been mentioned in the previous pages. In accordance with the purpose of writing in this section, which is about the procedure of supplication, we mention some of the proofs that provide guidance. Imam Abu Al-Oasim Al-Qusyairi said: People disagree about which is better, supplication, silence or contentment? Some say: Supplication is an act of worship according to the traditions that have been written, because supplication shows the need for Allah. A group said: Silence and resignation to the ruling is more perfect and contentment with what is predestined is better. One group said: One should supplicate with the tongue and be content with the heart so as to do the two things together. Al-Ousyairi said: It is better to say that the times vary.

 

In some occasions, prayer is better than silence and that is the courtesy. Also, in some circumstances, silence is better than prayer and that is the courtesy. That determination can only be known with time.

 

If a person has a sign in his heart to pray, prayer is better. If he is signaled to be silent, then silence is more perfect.

 

Al-Qusyairi also said: Among the conditions of prayer is that the food is halal. Yahya bin Mu’adz Ar-Razi, said: How can I pray to You when I am a disobedient person? And how can I not pray to You when You are the Most Gracious?

 

In Ihya’ Uluumuddin, Al-Ghazali mentions that there are ten procedures for prayer:

 

  1. Favoring the noble times, such as: the day of Arafat, the month of Ramadan, Friday, the last third of the night and the early hours of the morning.

 

  1. Giving priority to noble circumstances, such as: prostration, the meeting of armies (in battle), the rain, the Iqamah of prayer and afterwards.

 

Imam Nawawi adds: The state of gentleness of heart.

 

  1. Facing the qiblah, raising both hands and wiping the face with them at the end of the prayer.

 

  1. Keep the sound low.

 

  1. Does not include the element of rhyme. This model has been agreed upon as an offense in prayer.

 

A scholar said: Pray with humility and need, not with verbal eloquence and fluency. It is said: The scholars and saints do not exceed the supplication of seven words and it has been mentioned by Allah at the end of Surah Al-Baqarah: “… O our Lord, do not punish us…” until the end of the verse.

 

Allah has never made known in one place more prayers of His servants than that.

 

In Surah Ibrahim, verse 35, it states: “When Ibrahim said: O my Lord, make this land (Makkah) safe…” until the end of the verse.

 

The view of the majority of scholars is that there is no restriction on that, and there is nothing wrong with adding more than seven words. In fact, it is recommended (preferred) to increase the prayer.

 

  1. Solemnity and fear.

Allah said:

 

“…Indeed they hasten to do good and pray to him with hope and fear, while they submit to Us.” (Q.S. Al-Anbiya: 90)

 

In Surah Al-A’raf, verse 55, Allah instructs: “Pray to your Lord with humility and a soft voice…”

 

  1. Confirming the request and believing in its fulfillment.

The evidence for this is numerous and well known. Sufyan ibn Uyainah said: Do not let something that is lacking in any of you hinder the supplication of any of you, for indeed Allah granted the supplication of the most evil of creatures, Iblis, when he said:

 

“He (Iblis) said: Give me a chance until the day they are resurrected. Allah said: Surely you are one of those to whom it is permissible to wait. (QS. Al-Arraf: 14-15)

 

Be diligent when praying and repeating it three times, and do not consider it slow to be granted.

 

Start the supplication with the mention of Allah . And with salawat to the Messenger of Allah after praising Allah and ending it with that as well.

 

  1. The most important thing and the main point of answering prayers is repentance and returning to Allah.

 

Al-Ghazali said: When asked: What is the use of supplication, when fate cannot be denied? Then know, with prayer, a bad destiny can be rejected. So, supplication is the cause of the repelling of misfortune and the arising of mercy, just as a shield repels weapons and water causes plants to come out of the earth. So, just as a shield can repel arrows so that they collide with each other, so supplication and disaster, is not a condition of destiny not to carry weapons. In Surah An-Nisa’, verse 102, Allah says: “…and let them be vigilant and carry their weapons.”

 

So Allah ordains the matter and establishes the cause. Among its benefits are solemnity and necessity. Both are the pinnacle of worship and knowledge (of Allah). (pen.)

 

Tawassul with good deeds

 

Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Ibn Umar who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah narrate: Three men from the people who were before you went to a place, and they came to a cave, and they entered it. Then, a large stone fell down and covered the cave. One of them said: “Nothing can free you from this rock, unless you pray to Allah with good deeds.”‘

 

One of them said: O Allah, I have an old father and mother and I have never given drink to my family nor my property (cattle and so on) before my parents.

 

The hadith states that each of them said about his righteous deeds: O Allah, if I have done that for the sake of Your pleasure, then relieve us of this hardship. So, each time he prayed, the door of the cave was partially opened. When the prayer of the third man was finished, it was opened completely, and they came out.

 

Al-Qadhi Husein and others said about praying istisqa’, namely: “It is advisable for the one who is in difficulty to pray with his good deeds.” They rely on this hadith.

 

Among the best accounts of the salaf (early scholars) regarding supplication is that narrated by Al-Auza’i who said: People went out to ask for rain. Bilal ibn Sa’d stood among them and praised Allah and asked: O people present, do you not confess that you have done wrong? They replied: Yes. So, Bilal said: O Allah, surely we heard You say: “…there is no way to torture those who do good…” while we have confessed to doing wrong. Is not Your forgiveness only for people like us? O Allah, forgive us and have mercy on us and give us rain. So he raised his hands and the people did the same and it rained.

 

There is a poem that says: I am a sinner and a wrongdoer, and forgiveness is wide. If there were no sin, there would be no forgiveness.

 

Prayer attitude

 

Narrated by Tirmidhi, from Umar bin Khattab he said: When the Messenger of Allah raised his hands in prayer, he did not lower them, so he wiped his face with them. Through Ibn Abbas, Abu Daud also narrated such a tradition. In each narration, such a tradition is weak in shadia.

 

As for Hafidh Abdul Haq’s explanation that Tirmidhi speaks of the first tradition as sahih there is nothing in the text to rely on that it is sahih rather he says: Hadith gharib (odd).

 

Two important recommendations

 

  1. Repeating the prayer It is narrated in Sunan Abu Daud, from Ibn Masud that the Prophet liked to pray three times and make Istighfar three times.
  2. Concentration in prayer Narrated by Tirmidhi, from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Pray to Allah that you are sure will be answered. Know that Allah does not answer the prayer of a negligent and distracted heart.” The isnad of this hadith is flawed.

 

Praying for the dead Allah says:

 

“And those who came after them said: O our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who have gone before us in faith…” (Q.S. Al-Hasyr: 10)

 

In other words:

 

“..and seek forgiveness (from Him) for your sins and for (the sins of) the male believers and the female believers….” (Q.S. Muhammad: 19)

 

Allah tells us about Ibrahim’s words

 

“O our Lord, forgive me and my parents and the believers on the day of reckoning.” (Q.S. Ibrahim: 41)

 

God told us about Noah’s words:

 

“O my Lord, forgive me and my parents and whoever enters my house as a believer and the believers and the believers….” (QS. Nuh: 28)

 

It is narrated in Sahih Muslim, from Abi Darda , that he heard the Messenger of Allah & said:

 

“No Muslim servant prays for his brother who is absent (dead) until the angel says: And for you it is like that.”

 

Muslim also narrated from Abi Darda that the Messenger of Allah emphasized:

 

“The prayer of a Muslim for his absent brother is mustajab. There is an angel assigned to him near his head. Whenever he prays for good for his brother, the angel says to him: Amen, and you shall have it so.”

 

Abu Daud and Tirmidhi narrated from Ibn Umar that he stated:

 

“The quickest supplication to be answered is the supplication for someone who is absent.” Tirmidhi weakened this hadith.

 

Requesting prayers from others

 

It was narrated by Abu Daud and Tirmidhi that Umar ibn Khattab said: I asked the Prophet for permission to perform ‘Umrah. So he gave permission and said: Do not forget us in your prayers, O my brother. Then he uttered words by which I was not pleased to acquire the pleasures of this world.

 

In another narration: “O my brother, include us in your prayers.” Timidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan hadith.

 

Prohibition of cursing oneself, children, servants and property

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud with a valid isnad from Jabir, that the Messenger said:

 

“Do not curse yourselves. You shall not curse your children. Do not curse your servants. And do not curse your wealth. Lest you coincide with the time when you receive a gift so that Allah grants your request at that time (the time of ijabah).”

 

At the end of his Sahih, Muslim relates a hadith that reads:

 

“Do not curse yourselves. Do not curse your children. Do not curse your wealth. Do not let your time coincide with the time when you ask for something, then Allah grants your request at that time (the time of ijabah).”

 

Patience in prayer

 

Allah said:

 

“When My servant asks you about Me, then surely I am near. I fulfill the prayer of the one who asks, when ig asks Me. ….” (Q.S. Al-Baqarah: 186)

 

In Surah Ghafir verse 60, Allah emphasizes:

 

“.. Pray to Me and I will answer your prayers….” Tirmidhi narrated from Ubadah bin Shamit , that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“There is not on earth a Muslim who prays to Allah but Allah grants it to that person, or removes him from such calamity provided he does not pray with something that involves sin or the breaking of the womb (family relationship). A man said: ‘In that case, we increase (the supplication)! He stated: ‘Allah is more generous.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

In Al-Mustadrak, Al-Hakim Abu Abdillah narrated from Abi Said Al-Khudri who added: “Or save for him such a reward.”

 

Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

“A person’s request will be granted by Allah provided he is not in a hurry, thus saying: I prayed, but my request was not granted.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hasan tradition.

 

REQUEST FOR FORGIVENESS TO ALLAH

 

You should know that this is a very important part that needs to be taken care of and practiced. It has been deliberately left out in the hope that Allah, the Most Gracious, will end our lives with it.

 

Allah said:

 

“…Ask forgiveness for your sins and praise your Lord in the time of war and in the morning.” (Q.S. Ghafir: 55)

 

In other words:

 

“Seek forgiveness from Allah, surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.” (Q.S. An-Nisa’: 106)

 

Those who seek His forgiveness are mentioned by Allah:

 

“…For those who fear Allah, there will be Paradise with rivers flowing beneath them, and therein they will remain forever, and chaste wives, and the pleasure of Allah. Allah is All-Seeing of the servant who says: O our Lord, indeed we believe, so forgive us our sins and protect us from the Fire. Those who are patient and speak the truth and submit and give alms and seek forgiveness in the early hours of the morning.” (Q.S. Ali Imran: 15-17)

 

Allah also affirms:

 

“Allah will not torment them while you are in their midst, nor will Allah torment them while they seek forgiveness.” (Q.S. Al-Anfal: 33)

 

In another surah, Allah mentions:

 

“And those who, when they commit an evil deed or wrong themselves, mention Allah and ask forgiveness for their sins.

 

And there is none but Allah who can forgive sins. And they do not endure what they do, while they know.” (Q.S. Ali Imran: 135)

 

The assurance given by Allah is: .

 

“Whoever does evil or wrongs himself and then seeks forgiveness from Allah, he will find Allah Forgiving and Merciful.” (Q.S. An-Nisa’: 110)

 

God teaches:

 

“Seek forgiveness from your Lord, then repent to Him.” (Q.S. Hud:3)

 

God told us about Noah:

 

“So I said: Seek forgiveness from your Lord, surely He is Oft-Forgiving.” (Q.S. Nuh: 10)

 

Allah told us about Hud:

 

“O my people, seek forgiveness of your Lord, then repent to Him…” (OS. Hud: 52)

 

Several traditions mention this, among which it has been narrated in Sahih Muslim from Al-Aghar Al-Muzani, a sahabi, that the Prophet said:

 

“Verily, I ask Allah for forgiveness one hundred times every day.”

 

Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurairah who heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“By Allah, verily I ask forgiveness of Allah and repent to Him every day more than seventy times.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Shaddad bin Aus that the Prophet stated:

 

“The mother of istighfar is a person saying: O Allah, You are my Lord, there is no God but You. You have made me Your servant, and I am in covenant with You according to my ability. I seek refuge in You from the evil of my deeds. I acknowledge Your favor upon me and I confess my sin, so forgive me. Surely no one can forgive sins as long as You. Whoever recites it while he is certain of it during the day, and then dies on that day before the evening comes, will enter Paradise. And whoever utters it at night, while he is certain of it, and then dies before the morning comes, then he will enter Paradise.”

 

Abu Daud, Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrated from Ibn Umar who once counted in one gathering where the Messenger of Allah said a hundred times, namely:

 

“O my Lord, forgive me and grant me repentance, surely You are Oft-returning and Merciful.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hadith.

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and Ibn Majah, from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever always says istighfar, Allah makes for him a way out of every difficulty and freedom from every distress. Allah also gives him sustenance from a way he did not expect.”

 

Muslim narrated from Abu Hurairah that he said:

 

“By the Lord in whose hand my life is, had you not sinned, Allah would have wiped you out and brought forth a people who sinned, so they asked Allah for forgiveness, and Allah forgave their sins.”

 

Through Abubakar Siddiq, Abu Daud and Tirmizi narrate, that the Apostle mentioned:

 

“He who seeks forgiveness will not continue to sin, even if he sins seventy times in a day.” Tirmidhi classifies this tradition as having a weak isnad.

 

In a narration by Tirmidhi, Anas said: I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“Allah says: O son of Adam, so long as you call upon Me and hope in Me, I will surely forgive your past sins, and I am not unmindful. O son of Adam, if your sins reach the clouds and you ask Me for forgiveness, I will forgive your sins. O son of Adam, if you bring Me the sins of the whole earth, then you come to Me not associating Me with anything, I will forgive you the whole earth.” Tirmidhi classifies this Hadith as hasan.

 

With a jayyd (good) isnad, Ibn Majah narrated from Abdullah bin Busrin, that the Messenger said:

 

“Happy is he who finds in his sheet (of deeds) many istighfar.”

 

It was narrated in Sunan Abu Daud and T’irmizi from Ibn Mas’ud that he stated:

 

“Whoever says: I ask forgiveness of Allah, there is no god but He, who is alive and independent, and I repent to Him, his sins will be forgiven, even if he has fled from the battle.” Based on the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim, Al-Hakim classified this as a sahih hadith.

 

Ar-Rabi b. Khushayim said: Let not one of you say: I seek forgiveness from Allah and I repent to Him, so that it becomes a sin and a lie if it is not done. Rather, say: “O Allah, forgive me and accept my repentance.” This is good speech.

 

Imam Nawawi did not agree with the above argument. He stated: The meaning of astaghfirullah is that I ask Allah’s forgiveness and this is not a lie.”

 

Fudhail bin Iyadh said. “Istighfar without ceasing from sin is the repentance of liars.”

 

Rabi’ah Al-Adawiyah said: “Our isrighfar requires a lot of istighfar.”

 

It is narrated that a villager clung to the cloth covering the Ka’bah and said: “O Allah, surely my istihgfark along with my steadfastness in disobedience is humiliation and surely my absence of istighfark along with my knowledge of the extent of Your forgiveness is weakness.”

 

“How much You have shown love to me with various pleasures, even though You do not need me and I show displeasure to You with disobedience, even though I need You.”

 

“O God who when He makes a promise keeps it and when He threatens He forgives, include my many sins in Your great forgiveness. O God who is the most merciful of the merciful.”

 

Prohibition of silence from morning to night

 

With a hasan isnad, Abu Daud narrated from ‘Ali that the Messenger said:

 

“They are not called orphans after they have had a dream (reached the age of puberty), and they are not to be idle from morning till night.”

 

In his book Ma’alim As-Sunan, Abu Sulaiman Al-Khattabi explains the above hadith by saying: “Among the ways of worship of the Jahiliyyah was silence. Someone among them would pray day and night, being silent and not saying anything. In Islam such a practice is forbidden. They are told to do dhikr and speak well.”

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari, from Oais bin Abi Hazim who said: Abu Bakr Siddiq visited a woman from Ahmas named Zainab. He saw that she did not speak. He asked: “Why do you not speak?” The people replied: “She performs Hajj in silence.” Abubakar said to her: “Speak, surely this is not permissible, it is an act of Jahiliyyah.” Finally, the woman spoke.

 

CLOSING

 

Contains thirty traditions as the core of Islam

 

  1. Bukhari and Muslim narrated from Umar bin Khattab who heard the Messenger mention:

 

“Every deed must have an intention.”

 

  1. Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, from Aisha that the Prophet affirmed:

 

Whoever invents something new in our religion that we have not commanded, it is rejected.”

 

  1. Bukhari and Muslim narrate from Numan bin Bashir who heard the Messenger assert:

 

“Verily, the lawful is clear and the unlawful is clear, and between them are doubtful things that many people do not know. So, whoever keeps himself from doubts, he has also cleared his religion and honor, and whoever enters into doubtful things, he also enters into forbidden things, like a shepherd around the forbidden land (people’s yard), he will eventually enter into it, Remember, every king has a prohibition. Remember, a prohibition is anything that he forbids. Know that there is a lump of flesh in the body; if it is good, the whole body is good. If it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt. Remember, it is the heart.”

 

4 Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Mas’ud, that the Messenger explained:

 

“Verily, each one of you is formed in his mother’s womb in 40 days in the form of nutfah (mam). Then it becomes a clot of blood during that time (40 days). Then it becomes a lump of flesh during that time. After that, an angel is sent who instills the spirit in him, and is determined with four things: His destiny (age) is determined: his deeds (works), his misery or happiness. By Allah, there is no God but He, a man does the work of the dwellers of Paradise, so that there is no distance between him and Paradise but a cubit, so he precedes the decree of his Lord, then he does the work of the dwellers of Hell, so he enters it. And indeed one of you does the work of the people of Hell, so that there is no distance between him and Hell but a cubit, then God’s decree precedes him, then he does the work of the people of Paradise, so he enters Paradise.”

 

  1. Tirmizi and Nasai narrate from Hasan ibn Ali who heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“Leave what you doubt for what you do not doubt.” Tirmidhi classifies this as a sahih hadith.

 

  1. Through Abu Hurairah , Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah narrated that the Messenger said:

 

“One of the virtues of Islam is that a person abandons everything that does not concern him. Hadith hasan

 

7, Narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim from Anas that he said:

 

“The faith of any one of you is not complete until he loves his brother as he loves himself.”

 

  1. Muslim narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Prophet said:

 

Verily, Allah is good and accepts nothing but what is good. And indeed Allah enjoins the believers with what He enjoined the messengers. Allah says: “O messengers, eat of the good food and do good, surely I know what you do.” Allah says: “O you who believe, eat of the good food We have given you.” Then behau mentioned a man who traveled for a long time, his hair matted with dust, stretched out his hands to the sky and said: O my Lord, O my Lord, while his food and drink are haram, and his clothes are haram and he is fed with haram. How can his prayer be answered because of that?

 

  1. The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Do not cause harm to one another (harm, trouble, etc.).”

 

  1. Narrated by Muslim from Tamim ad-Dari, who said:

 

“Religion is advice (sincerity). We asked: For whom? He replied: For Allah, His Book, His Messenger, the Imams of the Muslims and for the Muslims in general.”

 

  1. Through Abu Hurairah, Bukhari and Muslim narrate that the Prophet explained:

 

“What I forbid you to do, avoid. And what I tell you to do, do according to your ability. Verily, those before you were accustomed to many questions and disputes with their prophets.”

 

  1. Ibn Majah narrated from Sahal bin Saad who said: A man came to the Prophet and said: “O Messenger of Allah, show me a deed that if I do it, Allah and the people will love me.” So, he said: “Avoid what is not good in this world, and Allah will love you. And avoid what people dislike, and people will love you.” (Hadith hasan)

 

  1. Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Mas’ud that the Messenger said:

 

“The blood of a Muslim who testifies that there is no God but Allah and that I (Muhammad) am the Messenger of Allah is not lawful except on account of one of three things: The adulterous widow, the murderer, the one who abandons his religion and separates himself from the congregation (of Muslims).”

 

  1. Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim, from Ibn Umar that the Apostle explained:

 

“I was sent to fight the people until they testify that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and that they should pray and excrete. If they do these things, their blood and property are protected from me, except according to Islamic law, and the account of their deeds is up to Allah.”

 

  1. Bukhari and Muslim also narrated from Ibn Umar that the Messenger said:

 

“Islam is founded on five things: Testifying that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establishing prayer, giving zakat, making the pilgrimage to Bartullah and fasting in Ramadan.”

 

  1. Still from Bukhari and Muslim, obtained from Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah mentioned:

 

“If people were given their demands by their accusations, they would claim to control the property of a people and their blood. However, evidence must be given by the accuser and an oath must be taken by the denier.”

 

  1. In Musnad Ahmad and Ad-Darimi, it is narrated that Wabisah bin Mabad, came to the Messenger of Allah. He asked him: “Have you come to ask about good and sin?” He replied: “Yes.” So, he said: “Ask your heart.” He added: “Good is that which calms the soul and reassures the heart, while sin is that which affects the soul and disturbs the heart. Even if people give you a fatwa. Even if people give you a fatwa.” (Hadith hasan)

 

In Sahih Muslim, from An-Nawwas bin Sam’an , that the Prophet said:

 

“Goodness is virtue and sin is something that affects your soul and you do not like others to know about it.”

 

  1. Muslim narrated from Shaddad bin Aus that the Messenger of Allah taught:

 

“Verily, Allah enjoins good deeds upon all things. So, when you kill (with Islamic right), kill well. And when you slaughter, slaughter well. And when you slaughter, slaughter well. Let man sharpen the edge of his knife and make the slaughter precise.”

 

  1. Through Abu Hurairah , Bukhari and Muslim narrate that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him speak well or keep quiet. And whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him honor his neighbor. And whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, let him honor his guest.”

 

  1. Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurairah who said: A man said to the Messenger of Allah: “Advise me.” He said: “Do not get angry.” He repeated this several times. He still said: “Do not get angry.”

 

  1. With a hasan isnad, Daruguthhi narrated from Abi Tsa’labah Al-Hasni, that the Messenger said:

 

“Verily, Allah has appointed some duties, so do not neglect them. He has set limits, so do not transgress them. He has forbidden many things, so do not violate them. Allah has also silenced many things as a mercy to you, not because of forgetfulness, so do not discuss them.”

 

  1. Hadith narrated from Muadz (Since this Hadith is very long and has already been included in the chapter on ‘Oral Preservation’, I have deliberately not mentioned it and it is sufficient to refer to that chapter.)

 

  1. Narrated by Tirmidhi, from Abu Dharr and Muadz:, that the Messenger said:

 

“Fear Allah wherever you are and cover any evil with good, (Allah) will surely remove it. And deal with people with good manners.”

 

  1. Abu Daud and Tirmidhi narrated from Irbad bin Sariyah. who said: The Messenger of Allah advised us with an advice that shook our hearts and brought tears to our eyes. We said: “O Messenger of Allah, it seems like the advice of one who is about to part, so give us a will.” He said: “I advise you to fear Allah, the Most High and Glorious, and to listen to orders and obey, even if you are commanded by a slave.”

 

“Verily, whoever lives (after my departure) among you will see much strife. Therefore, let you adhere to my sunnah and the sunnah of the Khulafa’ Ar-Rashidin who were guided (by God). And hold tightly to my sunnah.”

 

“Keep away from all innovations, for every innovation is a misguidance.” (Hadith hasan sahih)

 

  1. Narrated by Bukhari, from Abi Mas’ud Al-Badri , that the Prophet said:

 

“Indeed, among the things that people have understood from the first prophetic saying is: If you are not ashamed, then do whatever you wish.”

 

  1. Muslim narrated from Jabir that a man asked the Messenger of Allah: “What do you think if I perform the obligatory prayers and fast Ramadan, and make lawful what is lawful and forbid what is unlawful, and I do not go beyond that in the slightest, will I enter Paradise?” He replied: “Yes.”

 

  1. Sufyan b. Abdillah said: “O Messenger of Allah, show me in Islam a saying about which I have asked no one but you.” He replied: “Say: I believe in Allah. Then, follow the straight path (do what is right).” (H.R. Muslim)

 

The scholars said: This Hadīth is one of the most comprehensive statements of the Messenger of Allah and is in accordance with the words of Allah:

 

“Indeed, those who say: Our Lord is Allah, their ease is upright (in obedience), so they will neither fear nor grieve.” (Q.S. Al-Ahgaf: 13)

 

  1. Hadith of ‘Umar ibn Khattab, regarding Jibril’s question to the Prophet about Iman, Islam and Ihsan and the Day of Judgment. This hadith is well known in Sahih Muslim.

 

  1. Tirmidhi narrates from Ibn Abbas who said: I was behind the Prophet when he said: “Son, I teach you a few words: Guard (the religion) of Allah and Allah will guard you. Guard Allah’s religion and you will find Him in front of you. If you ask, ask Allah. And if you ask for help, ask Allah for help.”

 

“Know that if the people gather to benefit you with something, they cannot benefit you with it except with something that Allah has decreed for you. And if they gather to harm you with something, they cannot harm you except by something that Allah has decreed for you. The pens have been raised and the sheets of paper have dried (destiny has taken effect).” (Hadith hasan sahih)

 

In another narration:

 

“Guard Allah, and you will find Him before you. Recognize Allah in prosperity, and He will recognize you in times of trouble. And be forewarned, that which escapes you will not escape you and that which afflicts you will not escape you.”

 

In the end of the hadith: “And know that victory is with patience and freedom is with hardship and with hardship comes ease.”

 

  1. The last and concluding hadith of this book. So, we have mentioned its complete isnad and we ask Allah, the Most Gracious, to make it a good ending.

 

Narrated to us by our teacher Al-Hafidh Abi AlBaga’ Khalid bin Yusuf An-Nablusi/Ad-Damsyiki, he said: It was narrated to us by Abu Talib Abdullah, Abu Mansur Yunus, Abu Al-Oasim Hasan bin Hibatullah Ibn Misry, Abu Ya’la Hamzah and Abu Thahir Ismail, they said: Narrated to us by Al-Hafidh Abu Al-Oasim Ali bin Husein, that is Ibn Asakir, he said: Narrated to us by Abu Abdillah Muhammad bin Ali bin Yahya bin Sulwan, he said: Narrated to us by Abu Al-Oasim Al-Fadhlu bin Jakfar, he said: Narrated to us by Abu Bakr Abdurrahman Ibn Al-Oasim Ibn Al-Faraj Al-Hasymi, he said: Narrated to us by Abu Mashar, he said: It was narrated to us by Said ibn Abdul Aziz from Rabi’ah ibn Yazid from Abi Idris Al-Khaulani, from Abi Dzarr , from the Messenger of Allah , from Jibril , from Allah, the Most Holy and the Most High, He said:

 

“O My servants, verily I have forbidden injustice upon Myself and I have made cruelty between you a forbidden act, so do not wrong one another, O My servants, verily you are the ones who do wrong by night and by day, and I am the one who forgives all sins, I do not care, so ask Me for forgiveness, and I will forgive you. O My servants, each one of you is hungry, except for whom I give food, so ask Me for food, and I will feed you. O My servants, every one of you is naked except the one to whom I have given clothing; so ask Me for clothing, and I will clothe you. O My servants, if the first and the last of you, and mankind and the jinn, had all the evil qualities that you have, it would not diminish My power one iota. O My servants, if the first and the last of you and men and jinn all had the heart of the most pious among you, it would not increase My power one iota. O My servants, if the first and the last of you, and men and jinns, were all to gather together and ask Me, and I were to give each of them what he asks for, it would not diminish My power one iota, except as the water of the sea diminishes when a needle is dipped in it with one dip. O My servants, indeed it is your deeds that I keep watch over you. So, whoever finds good, let him praise Allah. And whoever finds other than that (evil), then let him blame none but himself.”

 

Abu Mashar said that Said bin Abdul Aziz said: When Abu Idris narrated this Hadith, he sat down on his knees. This is a sahih hadith narrated in Sahih Muslim, its Isnad from me (Imam Nawawi) to Abu Dharr.

 

All of them were from Damascus. As for Abu Dharr, he had entered Damascus. This Hadīth contains a number of benefits, including an explanation of some of the principles of religion and its branches, manners, the intricacies of the heart, and so on.

 

These include the validity of the isnad and the matan, its elevation and its association with the people of Damascus. It was narrated from Imam Abi Abdillah Ahmad ibn Hanbal who said: The people of Sham do not have a more honorable tradition than this one.