Al-Balagah al-Wadhihah





Fasahah means clear and bright. You say, “Afshahash Shubhu”, i.e. “The morning is clear”. An eloquent sentence is one that is clear in meaning, easy in language, and well-constructed. Therefore, every word in a fluent sentence must be in accordance with the sharaf guidelines, clear in meaning, communicative, and easy and pleasant.


A word will achieve these criteria if it is often used by sensitive writers and poets because no word is revealed through their speech and writing unless it meets these criteria of fluency and beauty.


A healthy taste is the main asset in recognizing the beauty and ease of words and distinguishing them from bad and difficult words. Since a sentence is a sound, a person who loves to hear the sound of a mockingbird and hates the sound of owls and crows, his hearing will immediately deny any sentence that is unfamiliar and difficult to syllable. Aren’t the words ‘al-muznah’ and ‘ad-diimah’, the names of the clouds that contain rainwater, smoother and more pleasant to hear than the word ‘al-bu’aag’, which is similar to them? The latter word is harsh and deafening. There are many words that are comparable to it, and you can taste them for yourself.


  1. In order to achieve the title of Fasahah, a sentence, in addition to being composed of words that are in accordance with the correct sharaf rules and are easy to understand, must be free of weak sequences, that is, out of the prevailing rules of the language, such as the return of the dhamir (pronoun) to the lafaz that is in front of it, both in expression and in position, as in the following saying of Sayyidina Hasan:


If the honor of a person can make him live a long life, then the honor of Muth’im will prolong his life.


The dhamir in the word “majduhu” is a return to the word “Muth’im”. The latter word is clearly expressed after the dhamir, and in terms of its position in the sentence it also falls after it because it is maf’ul bih. Therefore, the above verse is not fluent.


  1. It is also required that the sentence is not composed of tanafur words so that the relationship between one word and another does not make the sentence difficult to hear and pronounce. An example of a sentence consisting of tanafur words is the following poem:


The grave of the enemy is in a quiet place. And there is no other grave near the grave of the enemy).


One opinion states that this verse is not easy for a person to recite three times continuously without difficulty because it contains several words whose letters are close in machraj. Thus, it causes great difficulty, whereas when the words are recited separately, it does not cause difficulty and does not trouble.


  1. A fluent sentence is one that is not ambiguous. An ambiguous sentence is one in which the meaning is not clear because some of the words have been placed earlier or later than they should have been, or words that should be close together have been separated, such as the sentence:


No one reads except one Muhammad with his brother’s book. This sentence is not fluent because the wording is ambiguous. The original is:


Muhammad did not read with his brother except a book. The adjective takes precedence over the adjective. In addition, there are some words that should be together that are separated, namely adatul-istitsna’ (a conjunction to exclude) separated from its mustatsna (the word that is excluded), and mudhaf (the word that leans) with mudhaf ilaih (the word that is leaned on). Another sentence similar to Wi’s example above is the following poem by Abu Thayyib Al, Mutanabbi:


How can Adam be the father of all mankind, while your father is Muhammad. And you are one of the humans and jinn.


The correct arrangement is: –


In him are accumulated the advantages and perfections of being a creature. In this sentence, the mubtada’ is separated from the khabar (i.e. abuuka and Muhammadun). In addition, the khabar takes precedence over the mubtada’, which sometimes leads to confusion of understanding, for example in the words watstsagalaani anta, i.e. without realizing it, the clause turns out to be ambiguous and undirected.


  1. A fluent sentence must be free from ambiguity of meaning, such as when the speaker intends to say something, but the words used do not indicate the essence of the intended meaning so that the expression is confusing and can invite misunderstanding for the listener. For example, the word al-lisaan is sometimes used with the meaning of language, as in the word of Allah SWT. (QS Ibrahim: 4). This usage is correct and eloquent. However, when this word is said to mean spies, for example, it is said:


The judge set some spies in the city.


This is not correct, and the sentence is ambiguous.


Another example is the verse in which Imri’ul Qais describes a horse:


With surprise I rode a horse as thin as a date palm frond, whose face was covered by the hair of its crown which was like the unraveling branches of a date palm.


The original meaning of the word is date palm frond. In this poem it refers to a thin horse. This is not a problem, although likening a horse to a date palm frond is flawed. What is unacceptable is describing the horse as having a head of hair as long as a date palm branch and covering its face, because it is well known among the Arabs that a horse whose head of hair covers its face is not a noble and fat horse. Among the sentences that are ambiguous in meaning is Abu Tammam’s statement.


I lured his generosity earnestly on Sabty morning. So he fainted when he heard some gasidah. In the above statement, the poet recites the verse incessantly until the mercy of the person he praises faints. This is the worst kind of statement.




Balaghah brings out great and clear meanings, with correct and eloquent expressions, making an impression on the heart, and in accordance with the situation, conditions, and people spoken to.


Balaghah is a scientific discipline based on the clarity of the soul and the accuracy of capturing the beauty and clarity of the subtle differences between the various uslub (expressions). The habit of studying balaghah is an essential asset in shaping the literary character and reactivating some of the latent talents. To reach this level, a student must read selected literary works, fill himself with the radiance of literary character, analyze and compare literary works, and must have confidence in himself so that he can judge the good and bad of a literary work according to his ability.


The difference between a balaghah scholar and a painter lies in their fields of work. A balaghah scholar works on sentences and speech to be heard, while a painter works on colors and shapes to be shown. In other respects they are the same. A painter, when he wants to paint something, thinks about the right colors and combines them so that they are pleasing to the eye and attract attention. A balaghah scholar, when he wants to compose a poem, a paper, or a speech, thinks about the scope of his speech, and then he composes words and uslub that are easy to digest, most related to the theme, most powerful in the soul, and most appealing in beauty.


The elements of balaghah are sentences, meanings, and sentence structure that give power, impact on the soul, and beauty. It is also the careful choice of words and uslub in accordance with the place, time, theme, condition of the audience, and the emotions that can affect and control them. Many words are good in one place, but inappropriate and disliked in another. In the past, writers did not like the use of the word “aidhan”. They considered it the monopoly of scientists. Therefore, they did not want to write it in their poems or prose writings, so one of them said:


Often birds chirp loudly to express their sadness at dawn while perched on a branch.


Because it remembers a past lover, it weeps. My distress also rises.


Often my crying keeps her awake, and often her crying keeps me awake.


Indeed, sometimes she complains, yet I cannot understand her complaint, and sometimes I complain, yet she cannot understand my complaint.


But in longing I know her, and in longing she knows me.


In the above poem, the poet puts the word “aidhan” in a place that no other word can occupy and use, and the attractiveness and beauty of the word cannot be explained.


Often a sentence is essentially good and beautiful, but when it is uttered not at the right place and in the right circumstances, it goes beyond the limits of balaghah and becomes the target of criticism.


An example is Al-Mutanabbi’s words to Kaafuur Al-Ikhshidi’ at the beginning of his laudatory gasidah:


For you the pain of seeing death is an antidote. And it is enough for you that death be your hope. Among the praises are:


My joy when I saw you was not an innovation. I had hoped to see you and I was excited about it.


Al-Wahidi said, “This stanza resembles a mockery because the poet says, ‘I trembled with joy when I saw you, just as one trembles with joy at a joke’.” Ibn Jinni said, “When I recited this stanza to Abuth-Thayyib, I said to him, ‘You are no more a monkey than a man is a monkey’.” So he smiled.” We know that Al-Mutanabbi was churning in his chest because he held a grudge against Kaafuur and against the days when he was forced to praise him. Hence, words escaped his control. So, the mistake of poets is to utter their verses to the extent that they irritate their listeners and turn away from them. This makes his words go beyond the limits of balaghah. It is narrated that Abun-Najm went to Hisham bin Abdul Malik and recited verses for him:


The yellow sun is about to appear, and when it does it is like a squint on the horizon.


While Hisham’s eye was squinted, so he ordered that Abun-Najm be arrested.


Jarir praised Abdul Malik bin Marwan with his kasidah which reads among other things:


Is the Lord bright or is the Lord’s heart not bright? Abdul Malik was not pleased to hear this sentence, and so he said back to Jarir, “Even your heart is not bright!”


Literary scholars deplore Al-Buhturi’s mistake of starting his praise with the following sentence:


Great is the misfortune of the Lord that the night, whose final part seems to pass very quickly. They reproach Al-Mutanabbi for condoling the death of Saifud-Daulah’s mother.”


May the mercy of Allah, the Almighty, smear the face of the embellished. mutkan beauty. Ibn Waki’ said, “He (Mutanabbi) characterized the king’s mother as having a beautiful face.” This expression is not considered praiseworthy.


Indeed, Al-Mutanabbi was too bold in calling out to the kings. Perhaps it was his majesty and might that motivated his odd behavior.


One thing that a balaghah scholar needs to take seriously is to consider some ideas that are stirring in his soul. The idea must be correct, weighty, and interesting so that it gives the impression of being the creation of someone who is insightful and gentle in arranging and composing ideas. Once he has done that, he chooses words that are clear, convincing and appropriate. Then he arranges them in a beautiful and interesting manner. So, balaghah does not lie in the words alone, nor in the meaning alone; rather, balaghah is the impression that arises from the wholeness of their combination and the harmony of their arrangement.




Uslub is the meaning contained in words that are arranged in such a way that they reach the intended target more quickly and touch the souls of the listeners. There are three kinds of uslub:


(1) Scientific Uslub.


This is the most basic of the uslub and requires the most sound logic and straight thinking, and is far from the imagination of poets. It deals with the intellect and dialogues with the mind and expounds on the nature of knowledge that is full of concealment and obscurity. The most prominent advantage of this uslub is its clarity. In this uslub, the strength and beauty factors must be clear. Its strength lies in its clarity and the accuracy of its arguments. Meanwhile, its beauty lies in its ease of expression, clarity of character in choosing its words, and good determination of meaning from various aspects of sentences that are quickly understood.


So, in this uslub, care must be taken to choose words that are clear and clear in meaning and do not contain many meanings. These words should be easily and clearly arranged so that the meaning of the sentence is easy to grasp and does not become a battleground for some presumptions and does not provide an opportunity for interpretation and manipulation of meaning.


For this uslub, the use of majas and badi’ words or sentences should be avoided unless it is not prioritized and does not touch one of the principles or characteristics of this uslub. As for the use of tasybih, which is intended to facilitate the understanding of the explanation of its essence, it is very good and justifiable.


(2) Adabi (literary) uslub.


In this type of uslub, beauty is one of its most prominent characteristics and features. The source of its beauty is beautiful imagery, sharp imagination, contact of some distant points of similarity between things, and the use of concrete nouns or verbs instead of abstract nouns or verbs.


Al-Mutanabbi does not view the recurrence of heatstroke in the way that doctors view it as a result of germs entering the body that cause the body’s temperature to rise and shiver, and after the germs have acted, the body will sweat, but he describes it as presented in the following stanzas:


Often the heat sickness that comes to me is like a shy virgin. She would not come to me except in the dark of night. I sought for her a silk shawl and a soft bed. But she refused, preferring to stay in my bones.


My skin felt cramped to accommodate my breath, and he apparently made my whole body feel various kinds of pain.


When dawn came, it was as if he was expelled. So she shed tears from the four corners of her eyes.


I observed the time of his presence without longing as befits an intoxicated longing person.


His promises were always kept, but his discipline was poor, for it was only to inflict some unbearable hardship.


Do you want to inflict a hardship, when all the hardships are already on me? Then how do you penetrate the multitude of hardships to inflict another hardship on me?


Likewise Ibnul Khayyath, he does not view clouds as thick smoke that carries water to a cold celestial height, rather he describes it as follows:


The cloud is like an army capable of creating prosperity across the surface of the earth with justice.


When it invades the dryness of the earth with a shower of drizzle, it does so with excellent offense.


He aims the arrow with the drizzle and aims the spear with the downpour at the surface of the earth.


He draws his gleaming sword, then cuts deeply into the surface of the earth.


There were mouths of flowers praising him. His joy and admiration came out in apparent silence.


A writer sometimes goes overboard in denying the nature of science. For this reason, he uses imaginary expressions to reassure his assumptions and strengthen his optimism. The black spots on the moon’s surface are no longer caused by the mountains and craters on it, as the scholars say, because Al-Ma’arri uses a different expression. In one of his laments he says:


The boils on the surface of the full moon have not been there since the beginning, other than the marks of the hand.


This second type of uslub must be clear and emphatic.


Al-Mutanabbi’s expression in the following verse is therefore not baligh.


Stop (O woman), then the first glance can restore my heart that is languishing with the second glance, because the one who damages something is obliged to pay compensation for it. This sentence is not sound, because Al-Mutanabbi meant that he had looked at the woman and was distressed, so he said to her: Stop, so that I may look at you again, so that my heart may come back to life as before. If you will stop, then this second appearance of yours will be a consolation for what you lost in your first appearance.”


Notice the rather lengthy explanation of the shortcomings of the above sentence, which is incomplete in wording, poorly organized, unclear in meaning, and difficult to understand, even though its meaning is very beautiful and its rationale is supported by evidence.


If you want to know the forcefulness of this uslub, then read Al-Mutanabbi’s expression in his lament as follows:


I never thought before I carried your cart to see Mount Radhwa walking in the hands of some people. Then read the following poem of Ibn al-Mu’tazz:


The perfect man has passed away and the whole Ummah is crying, “Where is that personage? Here is Abul Abbas in his luggage. Stand up (O people), Remember how the mountains Walked.”


In the above verse we can find that the usl of the first verse is calm and does not give assertiveness, while the usl of the second verse is very strong and assertive, even reaching the peak of its assertiveness in the phrase wa shaaha sharfud-dahri ainar-rijaal (and the whole Ummah screamed, “Where is that character?”), then in the phrase guumuu unzhuruu kaifa tasiirul-jibaal (Stand up, see how the mountains walk).


In general, this uslub should be beautiful, inspiring, and clear and emphatic. Many people who are new to the world of literature think that the uslub will be better if it uses a lot of fancy words, tasybih (likeness), and is far from imaginary. This assumption is very wrong, because the loss of beauty of these uslub is mostly due to being made up and made up, and nothing spoils its beauty worse than deliberately composing it. We are sure that the following poem does not catch our attention:


Her narjis pearl-like tears fell down her rosy cheeks like roses, and the delicate fingers of her hand were drawn to her snow-white teeth.


Thus, it is actually very easy for us to know that poetry or prose that has literary value to it, the use of this uslub develops and reaches the peak of its literary beauty.


(3) Khithabi Uslub. This uslub is very prominent in the firmness of meaning and wording, the firmness of argumentation and data, and the breadth of insight. In this uslub a speaker is required to be able to arouse enthusiasm and knock on the hearts of his listeners. The beauty and clarity of this uslub has a great role in influencing and touching the heart. Among the things that increase the role of this uslub is the status of the speaker in the view of his listeners, his appearance, the brilliance of his argument, the volume and sonority of his voice, the beauty of his delivery, and the accuracy of his target.


Among the things that determine the prominence of this uslub are the repetition of certain words or sentences, the use of synonyms, the giving of examples of problems, the choice of emphatic words. It is a good idea to end this uslub with a change of style, from a news sentence to an interrogative sentence, a news sentence expressing admiration, or a news sentence expressing denial. And the concluding sentence should be firm and convincing. Among the best examples of this uslub is the sermon of Imam ‘Ali b. Abi Talib r.a. “when Sufyan b. Auf Al-Asadi attacked Anbar and killed its governor:


This is a brother of Banu Ghamid who with his cavalry has reached the territory of Anbar, has killed Hassan Al-Bakri, has fled your horses from their stables, and killed many of your pious people.


It has reached me that one of their men entered a Muslim woman and a dhimmi woman and stripped them of their kerchiefs, bracelets, and necklaces. Then they all left intact without a single one of them being hurt and not a drop of their blood being shed. Indeed, if a Muslim were to die a miserable death after this, then he would not be blameworthy, but I think it is very appropriate.


So it is astonishing about their persistence in falsehood and your weakness in truth. So how ugly it is when you are subjected to the enemy’s greed, you are invaded and you dare not invade, you are fought and you dare not fight, and Allah is disobeyed before your eyes, while you are chin up.


Notice how Imam ‘Ali b. Abi Talib influenced his listeners to the extent that he initially informed them about the attack on the region of Anbar and the killing of one of its governors. However that was not enough for Sufyan b. Auf. So he swung his sword to cut many necks of the leaders and their families.


In the second paragraph he alluded to the fate of their strongholds and the factor of generating the spirit and pride of every individual Arab, namely women, because Arabs dare to risk their lives in defending and defending women. In this regard he said, “They have desecrated the forbidden area of Anbar, and returned safely.”


In the third paragraph he shows his confusion and amazement at the enemy’s persistence in defending falsehood and the weakness of his people in defending the truth. Then he shows the peak of his anger by mocking them as timid and cowardly.


This is one example of the khithabi uslub. May we be given the opportunity to explain the secrets of balaghah and its various uslub so that those who are interested will be aware of the various kinds of expressions, the times when they are used, and the conditions of their application.










  1. Elements of Tashbih


  1. Examples
  2. Al-Ma’arri says about someone he adores:


You are like the sun that shines even though you are above the planet Pluto in the highest place.


  1. Another poet states:


You are like a wolf that appears with all its courage, and like a sword ready to cut down all obstacles.


c, Another poet states:


Indeed, the gentleness and softness of your temperament are like the cool air of the morning.


  1. Another poet states:


Indeed the clear, flowing water is like liquid silver.


  1. Discussion

In the first stanza, the poet knows that the person he praises has a radiant face and dazzles the eyes, so he wants to make a simile that has the strongest properties in terms of illumination and it turns out that he did not find anything stronger than sunlight. So he likened it to the sun, and to this end he added the letter kaf (simile/Sepreti).


In the second stanza, the poet sees the person he praises as having two qualities, namely courage and fortitude to overcome all difficulties. He looks for two similes that each have the strongest traits of their kind. So he likens him to a wolf for the former and to a sharp sword for the latter. He expresses this likeness with the letter kaf.


In the third stanza, the poet reveals the gentleness of his friend’s character which is very soothing to the heart. So he tries to make a simile that emphasizes this trait with the strongest description. To that end, he sees that the cool morning air can describe it, so he draws a simile between the two. He expresses this simile with the letters ka-anna (as if / really like).


In the fourth stanza, the poet seeks a simile for clear water to emphasize its purity. He believes that melted silver can describe this state. So he likens the clear water to liquid silver, and he expresses this likeness with the letters ka-anna.


We can see in the stanza above that there is a likening of something to something else that has similar characteristics. The statement that shows this likening is the letter kaf or ka-anna. This likening is called tasybih. Thus, it can be concluded that tasybih must contain four elements, namely:


  1. Something to be likened. This is called musyabbah.
  2. Something that is likened. This is referred to as musyabbah hih.


These two elements are referred to as tharafait-tasybih (the two parties being likened).

  1. A trait that is found in both parties. This is referred to as wajhusy-syabah/shibeh face. It is required that the trait should be stronger and more recognized in the musyabbah bih than in the musyabbah, as can be seen in the examples above.
  2. Letters/words that express likeness. These letters are called adatut-tasybih, namely kaf, ka-anna, and so on.


In every tasybih there must be two parties being likened. Sometimes the musyabbah is omitted, but in i’rab it is considered to be present, so the related words must be adjusted. As when asked:  “What about Ali?” Then the answer is:   “Like a withered flower.” The lafaz is the khabar of the omitted mubtada’ and its i’rab is rafa’, i.e. sometimes the shibeh face is omitted, and sometimes the tashbih custom is omitted, as will be explained later.


  1. Rules

(1) Tashbih is an explanation that one thing or several things have similar characteristics to another thing. The description uses the letter kaf or its equivalent, either explicitly or implicitly.

(2) There are four elements of tashbih: musyabbah, musyabbah bih (these two elements are referred to as tharafait-tashbih/two parties being likened), tashbih custom, and shibeh face. The face of syibeh in musyabbah bih must be stronger and clearer than musyabbah.


  1. Exercises

Problem Example: Al-Ma’arri states:


Often the night is as beautiful as the morning even though it is as black as a toga.


The Morning Star is as red as the color of a lover’s cheeks and its flickering is like the pounding of a lover’s heart.


  1. Explain the elements of tasybih in the following sentences!


  1. Your spaciousness is like the sea, your height is like the sun, and the light of your face is like the moon.


  1. Age is like a guest or a dream, it has no certainty.


3 Pulan’s words are sweet as honey.


  1. Humans are the same, like the teeth of a comb.


  1. A Bedouin Arab said about someone:


Never have I seen a look of ntenyala more akin to the turmoil of fire than his.


  1. A Bedouin said of a person:


His knowledge is not mingled with ignorance, his honesty does not reek of falsehood, and his generosity is like the pouring of rain in the dry season.


  1. Another Bedouin said:


They come riding on horses whose necks are known as flags, and whose ears are soft as the tip of a pen, and whose riders are bold as tigers, the king of the jungle.


  1. The speech of kings is like sharp swords in deciding and conducting affairs.


  1. His heart is hard and firm as a rock.


  1. Pulan’s forehead is clear and shiny like the surface of a mirror.


  1. Form the following tashbih words by choosing the correct pair!


  1. True determination.
  2. A fruitless tree.
  3. The plucking of strings.
  4. Rain for the earth.


  1. An interesting conversation.
  2. A sharp sword.
  3. A miser.
  4. Life creeps all over the body.


III. Make a tasybih with the following words as its Musyabbah!


Train, the biggest pyramid: book, horse, lamp, friend, teacher, tears.


  1. Make a tasybih with the following words as its Musyabbah bih!


Sea: lion: loving mother: polluted air, labored mirror, sweet dreams.


  1. Make a tasybih with the following words as its shibeh face!


White, black, bitter: sweet, slow: fast, hard.


  1. Describe briefly the boat’s situation on the rough sea and the description should consist of three tashbih sentences!


VII. Briefly describe Al-Mutanabbi’s statement about the person he adores and explain the beauty of the tashbih


Whenever you look at him, you will see him like the full moon shining through the darkness.


His mercy is like the ocean that gives diamonds to those who are near and sends clouds containing rain to those who are far away.


He is like the sun that dwells in the heart of the sky, yet its rays illuminate all corners of the world, both the eastern and western hemispheres.


  1. Divisions of Tashbih
  2. Examples


  1. When I am willing, I am as calm as clear water: and when I am angry, I am as hot as a burning fire.


  1. I walk on a dark and fearful night, like walking in the middle of the sea.


  1. Ibnur-Ruumi?) states in absorbing the song of a singer:


The melodiousness of her voice is like the drowsiness that creeps into all the joints of a sleepy person.


  1. Ibnul Mu’tazz said:


The shining sun is indeed like a dinar (cast metal) that appears brilliant yellow thanks to the iron work of its mold.


  1. The speed of a racing horse is like lightning that strikes.


  1. Your high position and fame are like a high and luminous star. All eyes, both in the east and the west, are looking at you.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi states about Saif ad-Daulah who is about to embark on a journey:


Where are you going, O gracious king? We are the vegetation of the mountains and you are the clouds.


  1. Al-Muraggisy states:


His fragrance was like musk, his faces glittered like dinars (coins), and the edges of his palms were red like henna.


  1. Discussion

In the first stanza, the poet likens himself to clear, calm water when he is willing, and to a raging fire when he is angry, i.e. as something favorable yet influential. In the second example, the dark and frightening night is likened to the sea. If we look at the two tashbih above, in both of them the custom of tashbih is mentioned. Any tashbih in which the custom of tashbih is mentioned is called mursal tashbih. And if we look again at them, the face of the shibeh is explained and detailed. Every such tashbih is called mufassal tashbih.


In the third example of tasybih, Ibn Ruumi describes the beauty of a singer’s voice and appearance, as if her beauty infiltrates the whole body like sleepiness infiltrates all parts of the body. However, he does not mention her shibeh face and only relies on that we can grasp it ourselves, i.e. it gives cradle and entertainment at the same time.


Ibn al-Mu’taz likens the sun when it rises to a newly minted dinar. He does not mention its shibeh face, which is its shiny yellowish color. These last two types of tashbih, which do not mention the shibeh, are called mujmal tashbih.


In the fifth example, a racing horse is compared to lightning that strikes in its speed. In the sixth example, a person who is revered is compared to a star in terms of his high position and the extent of his fame. In neither of these examples is the custom of tashbih mentioned. This is to reinforce the notion that the musyabbah is the musyabbah bih itself. This kind of tashbih is called mu’akkad tashbih.


In the seventh example, Al-Mutanabbi asks the person he adores to express his authority. He states: Where are you going? Why did you leave us? We cannot live without you because you are like the clouds that bring life to the dead earth, while we are like plants that cannot live without the rain. In the last stanza, Al-Muraggisy likens the fragrance of a person to musk, likens their faces to the face of a dinar, and likens the fingertips to henna used to color nails.


If we look at these last two examples of tashbih, they are of the mu’akkad type of tashbih. However, the custom of tashbih and its shibeh face are removed. This is because the poet intends to go overboard in assuming that the musyabbah is the musyabbah bih itself. Therefore, he does not use the custom of tasybih which gives the impression that the musyabbah is weaker than the musyabbah bih in the face of syibeh, nor does he use waJah syibeh which imposes similarity between the two parties in one or more characteristics and not in others. This kind of tasybih is called baligh tasybih, which is one of the means of expressing balaghah and a free arena for poets and writers.


  1. Rules

(3) Mursal tashbih is tashbih in which the custom of tashbih is mentioned.

(4) Tashbih mu’akkad is tashbih in which the custom of tashbih is discarded.

(5) Mujmal tashbih is tashbih in which the face of the shibeh is removed.

(6) Mufassal tashbih is a tashbih in which the face of the tashbih is mentioned.

(7) Tashbih baligh is a tashbih in which the custom of tashbih and the face of shibeh are removed.


  1. Exercises

Problem Examples:

  1. Al-Mutanabbi in praising Kafur states:


If I can attain your love, then treasures are worthless, and everything above dust is dust.


  1. A Bedouin described a person as follows:


Indeed he is like a bright daylight, and the luminous moon is not obscure to anyone who looks at it.


  1. We looked at the garden, and it was beautiful and majestic, like paradise.


  1. The knowledgeable person is a lamp for his people in giving guidance and dispelling darkness (ignorance).


Weasel roll). Also included in this category is idhafah kan musyabbah bih to musyabbah, such as:

(the Pulan wears health clothes).


l Explain the types of tasybih from the following tasybih!

  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


The real sword is that which is in the hands of those who are as steel-hearted as the sword itself when the two sides – meet on the battlefield.


And you find a sharp sword decides like a coward when it is in the hands of cowards.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said of the man he praised:


The greatness of the amir (ruler) adorns me as the heavens adorn the earth, and this flattery of mine still does not reveal all his goodness.


  1. He said:


No letter is sent unless it is escorted by a sword, and no messenger except a large fighting force.


  1. Ta said:


When the government makes sufficient use of a person in overcoming a calamity, it is the sword, the palm, and the heart.


  1. The compiler of Kalilah wa dimnah states:


One who has muru’ah (self-respect) is honored even if he has no wealth, like a lion, feared even if he is silent and settled.


  1. You have a life’s journey like the pages of good, pure, and clean people.


  1. Treasure is a sword in its usefulness and danger.


  1. Allah swt. says:


And to Him belong the arks, whose sails in the sea are like mountains. (QS Ar-Rahman: 24)


  1. Allah says:


… then you will see the people (of Ad) as dead, as if they were the stumps of empty date palms. (QS Al-Haqqah: 7)


  1. Al-Buhturi said of the man he adored:


The gripping winter has passed, and there has come to us a season similar to yours, a new spring. And the feast is near. It belongs to all human beings until it passes. And your existence is a repeat of the feast.


  1. Allah Almighty says:


Have you not seen how Allah has made an example of a good sentence like a good tree, its roots firm, and its branches (reaching) to the sky?


The tree gives its fruit in every season with the permission of its Lord. Allah has made these similitudes for the people so that they may remember. And the example of a bad sentence is like a bad tree that has been uprooted by its roots from the surface of the earth, unable to stand up at all. (QS Ibrahim: 24-26)


  1. Allah says:


Allah (the giver) of light (to) the heavens and the earth. The example of Allah’s light is like an impenetrable hole, in which is a great lamp. The lamp was in a glass, (and) the glass was like a star (that shone) like a pearl, which was lit with oil from a blessed tree, (namely) an olive tree that grows neither on the east nor on the west, whose oil (alone) is almost as bright as if it had not been touched by fire. Light upon light (in layers), Allah guides to His light whom He wills, and Allah has made parables for mankind, and Allah knows everything. (QS An-Nuur: 35)


  1. The heart is like a bird in its friendliness when tamed.


  1. A Bedouin Arab praised a man:


He can sway like a sword when he is happy, and he – can be as fierce as a lion when he is angry.


  1. A Bedouin characterizes his brother saying:


My brother is a tree whose fruit does not rot and a sea that is not feared to become murky.


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


They are luminous buildings, like stars that almost give light to the travelers in the darkness.


  1. The opinion of one who is firm in his knowledge and meticulous, is like a balance sheet in its accuracy.


  1. Ibnut-Ta’awidzi said:


When lightning strikes, I imagine it as an angry male lion roaring at the mega.


  1. As-Siriyyur-Rafa said in characterizing the candle:


It is sturdy and reminds us of the figure of a spear. It is like the age of youth, while its flame is like death.


  1. A Bedouin Arab said in reproach:


I think the Pulan is made small by his glorification of the world, as if a coming beggar were the grim reaper.


  1. A Bedouin said to a ruler:


Make me one of the straps with which you lead the enemy.


  1. A poet said:


Many faces are like daylight, illuminating souls that are like night. Dark souls


  1. Another poet said:


You resemble my enemies, so I love them because my position towards you is my position towards them.


  1. Al-Buhturi said about the person he praised:


He is like a sword in his firmness, and rain in his mercy, and a lion in his courage.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said in characterizing his poetry:


Verily, this poet of mine in the world of poetry is a walking angel. Thus, he is the sun, while the world is the place of its circulation.


  1. He says of the person he praises:


If men were created for all eternity, they would be darkness, and you would be daylight.


  1. He said in praise of Kafuur:


The most powerful weapon that one bears for oneself is to seek help from the noble Abil-Mishki.


  1. The outward straightness and inward crookedness of the Pulan is like a minaret.


  1. As-Sariyyur-Rafa’ said:


The pools that are adorned with the shadows of the stars until they are turned upside down, as if the surface of the earth became the sky.


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


You appear with your excellence and nobility, so you become the sky and people become the earth.


  1. He said of a garden:


And if the clouds had not appeared with their rainwater, you would have become its clouds.


  1. The world is like a sickle; its straightness is in its crookedness.


33, To abstain from people is like abstaining from food.


  1. Al-Ma’arri said:


So it is as if I do not feel that the night is approaching, like a child (newborn) its darkness, like puberty.


This night of mine is like a new bride from Sudan adorned with kg. lung with pearl eyes. On this night sleepiness runs from my eyelids, and on this night security vanishes from the hearts of the fearful.


  1. Ibnut-Ta’awidzi said:


They ride black horses and their lamps are like crescent moons, they are full moons, and the tips of their spears are the stars.


  1. Ibn Waki’ said:


The light of dawn emerges from the darkness of the night, like a sword drawn from its sheath, and the night begins to lose its darkness, like a man undressing himself.


  1. Turn each of the following tashbih sentences into tashbih mufassal, mu’akkad. and baligh!


And it is as if the glitter of their swords were lightning, and the dust of their horses were a dark mega.


III. Turn each of the following two tashbih into mufassal mursal tashbih and mujmal mursal tashbih


I am the fire in the sight of the spiteful and the water that flows in the midst of friends.


  1. Turn the following tashbih into mu’akkad mufassal tashbih and baligh tashbih! The following tashbih is describing two men who agreed to slander the people:


Like two pairs of scissors, the two of you join forces, but the end is only division.


  1. Make a mursal mujmal tasybih with the following phrases as its musyabbah!


Water: fortresses: flowers: crescent moon: cars, noble people: lightning, rain.


  1. Make a mu’akkad tasybih with the following phrases as its musyabbah bih!


Soft wind: clear water, eternal paradise, tower of Babylon: pearls: fresh flowers, burning fire, glittering full moon.


VII. Make tashbih baligh with the following phrases as its musyabbah!


Lisan: treasure: glory, children, places of entertainment, despise: malice, teaching.


VIII. Analyze the following statement of Ibnut-Ta’awidzi about the characteristics of watermelon and explain the types of tashbihnua!


Sweet is its saliva, halal is its blood according to all religions, half of it is the full moon, and if you divide it, it will become a crescent moon.


  1. Compare the following two poems by Abdul-Fath Kusyajin describing two gardens and explain the types of tasybih!


And the garden is satisfied with the rain, as a friend is satisfied with his friend. The garden lends its fragrance through the wind, as if its wealth consisted of distilled musk. It is as if the drizzle is the remnants of tears on the cheeks of one who is missed.


The rain that falls upon us signifies the coming of a life that is su bur and cheerful. So we reveal green and fresh vegetation, adorned with the colors of red and white flowers. The ughuwan flower looks like pure silver, and the narjis flower that spreads a fragrance full of freshness is like an eye that is downcast with drowsiness, then closed tightly.


  1. Construct a sentence containing two mujmal and two baligh tashbih describing the heavy rain at night.


  1. Tasybih Tamtsil
  2. Examples
  3. Al-Buhturi said:


He is the sea of mercy. Increase your approach to him, then you will increase your distance from poverty. .


  1. Umru’ul-Oais said:


Some nights are like the waves of the ocean, closing their dense veils over me in succession with various kinds of distress to test me.


  1. Abu Firas A-Hamdani said:


The river separates the flower garden on both sides, like an embroidered dress spread out, while on it lies a sword drawn from its sheath.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said of Saifud-Daulah:


The troops around you move in unison on your right and left, just as an eagle moves its wings.


  1. As-Sariyyur-Rafa’ said:


And it is as if the crescent moon is a nuun letter of silver sunk in a large blue plate.


  1. Discussion

Al-Buhturi likens the mercy of his adored one to the ocean. In addition, he urges people to increase their approach to him in order to be kept away from poverty. Umru’ul-Oais likens the darkness and horror of the night to the waves of the sea, and that the nights close over him with various hardships and sufferings to test his patience and mental strength.


If we look at the syibeh face of each of the above tashbih, then the syibeh face is a trait or some trait that is shared by only two things, namely in this case the person worshiped by Al-Buhturi and the sea, both have the trait of mercy, the night and the sea both have the trait of darkness and fear. Such a shibeh face is called a mufrad shibeh face. Its mufrad-ness does not preclude the possibility of multiple attributes being shared. A tasybih with such a syibeh face is called tasybih ghairu tamtsil.


After that, look at the following tashbih!


Abu Firas likened the water of the river, which divides the garden into two parts on both banks, adorned with beautiful colorful flowers, scattered among the fresh green vegetation, to a shiny sword drawn by the weaponsmiths, then placed on a silk cloth embroidered with various colors. So where is the face of shibeh? Do you think that the poet wanted to associate two tashbih, first, the tashbih of the river to the sword: second, the tashbih of the garden to the colorful silk cloth? Not so. He wanted nothing more than to liken a situation that he saw to another situation that he imagined. He wanted to liken the river lying between two flowering gardens to a drawn sword placed on a bed of embroidered cloth. So his shibeh face is an overall description, pukan mufrad. This image is drawn from several things. The image found on both sides of the tashbih is the elongated white color, on either side of which there is a green expanse colored with a variety of flowers.


The image of the two wings of the army, and Saif ad-Daulah being between the two wings of his army moving in harmony, is described by Al-Mutanabbi as an eagle moving its wings. The face of the shibeh is not mufrad, but is taken from several things, namely the two items that are on the left and right of something that is moving and undulating. ‘


In the last stanza, As-Sari likens the white, lustrous state of the crescent moon – which is curved and located in a blue sky – to the state of the letter nuun, which is made of silver and kept in a large, blue dish. These last three tashbih and the tashbih whose shibeh is a picture drawn from several things are called tashbih tamtsil.


  1. Rules

(8) A tashbih is called a tashbih tamthil when the face of the syllable is a description of some situation, and is called a tashbih ghair tamthil when the face of the syllable is not.


  1. Exercises

Example Problems:

  1. Tbnul Mu’taz said:


The reign of fasting has ended, and the pain of the crescent moon has conveyed the glad tidings of the coming of the feast. The crescent approaches the star of Suraya like a glutton who opens his mouth to eat a bunch of grapes.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi lamented:


Death is nothing but a thief who does not look like his kind, plucking without palms and walking without feet.


  1. A poet said:


And you see it in the darkness of war, then you will expect it to be like the moon attacking its enemies with stars.


  1. Explain the musyabbah, musyabbah bih, and the shibeh face!


1.Ibn al-Mu’taz said about the sky when it has lost its clouds:


It is as if the sky when it is clear appears between its stars in the morning as a garden of purplish amethyst trees moistened with dew, blossoming in the midst of them agahi (yellowish-colored) flowers.


  1. I cannot forget and will not forget the baker whom I once saw with a single glance kneading dough, At first the dough he kneaded was only a small sphere, but later it became a large sphere like the moon. This is nothing like the ripples on the surface of water that you throw stones at.


  1. He said about gray hair:


The first gray hair to grow is a single sheet, then it spreads to the hairs adjacent to it, just as a large fire starts with small sparks.


  1. Another poet said:


All night long have I passed, carrying me away (without sleep), as if I were a sharp sword in the hand of one fleeing from an enemy.


  1. Allah swt. says:


Verily, the example of earthly life is like water (rain) which We send down from the sky, and with it the plants of the earth grow luxuriantly, some of which are eaten by man and cattle. And when the earth had completed its beauty and worn its adornment, and its owners thought that they were sure to possess it, suddenly there came upon it Our punishment by night or by day, and We made it like a crop that had been sown, as if it had never grown before. (QS Yunus: 24)


A righteous man will always be righteous until he befriends a person of corrupt character. When he has befriended him, he becomes corrupt, like the water of a river, originally fresh until it mixes with the sea. He also said, “He who does good deeds for the reward of this world is like a man who throws seed to a bird, not so that he may eat it, but so that the bird may catch it.”


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


I find you serve for me as a purifier between water and wine.


  1. Abu Tammam said about a songstress who sang in Parsi:


I did not understand what she meant. However, my heart was so stirred up that I was not ignorant of the distress she was singing about. So all night I was as if blind with fatigue, loving a songstress, even though I did not see her.


  1. Another poet says of an unfaithful friend:


Verily, you and I are like thirsty men who see a fountain of water, but are prevented by a gulf that they fear will lead to destruction. He saw with his eyes the source of water, but he could not reach it because there was no road leading to it.


  1. Allah says:


The example of those who spend their wealth in the cause of Allah is like that of a grain of seed that grows seven ears, in each ear a hundred seeds. Allah multiplies (the reward) for whom He wills. And Allah is vast (in His bounty) and All-Knowing. (QS AlBaqarah: 261)


  1. Allah swt. says:


Behold, the life of this world is but play and diversion, and adornment, and boasting among yourselves of much wealth and children, like the rain whose crops amaze the farmers, then the crops dry up and you see that they are yellow, then they are destroyed. And in the Hereafter there is a severe punishment and forgiveness from Allah and His pleasure. And the life of this world is nothing but deceptive pleasures. (QS Al-Hadiic: 20)


  1. Allah says:


And as for those who disbelieve, their deeds are like a mirage on a flat land which a thirsty person mistakes for water, but when he seeks it, he finds none. And he finds Allah on his side, and Allah gives him a sufficient reckoning of his deeds, and Allah is swift in His reckoning. Or like the pitch darkness of the deep sea, which is covered with waves, and over which are waves, and over which are clouds, and the pitch darkness is overlapping, and when one puts out his hand, he cannot see; and whoever Allah does not guide has no light. (QS An-Nuur: 39-40)


  1. Distinguish tasybih tamtsil from other tasybih in the following sentences!
  2. Al-Bushairi said:


Lust is like a child: if you give it a chance, it will love to suckle until it grows up, and if you stop it, it will stop.


  1. He said about the nature of the Companions


It is as if their sturdiness on horseback is that of sturdy vegetation, because of the firmness of their souls and their sense of duty, not because of the strength of the bonds of their saddles.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said about the nature of a lion:


He treads the earth carefully because of his pride, as if he were a doctor palpating a sick person.


  1. He described the state of a lake (large pond) in the middle of a garden:


It is as if the pond in the daytime is like the moon surrounded by the darkness of its gardens.


  1. A poet said:


Many a night have I passed, like a dark and lonely cloud of troubling separation, like heavy objects unsightly and unheard of.


  1. Allah swt. says:


The example of those who take protectors besides Allah is like a spider making a house. And indeed the weakest of houses is that of a spider, had they known. (QS Al-Ankabut 41)


  1. Ibn Khafajah? said:


By Allah, how beautiful is the river that flows in the Valley of Bath-ha, its water is sweeter than a mole on the lips of a beautiful beauty.


The river bends like a bracelet, and the flowers that adorn it are like a cluster of magic clusters.


  1. A Bedouin Arab said about the nature of a woman:


She is like the sun on earth by which the earth boasts to the sun in the sky.


  1. Allah Almighty says:


So why do they (the disbelievers) turn away from the warning as if they were wild donkeys running away in surprise?


  1. A poet said:


Among them (people) is like the sarwu tree, which has beauty but no fruit.


  1. At-Tihami said:


Life is sleep, and death is always awake. While a person is between the two, like a shadow that walks.


  1. Another poet said about the nature of a woman who cries:


As if the tears that wet her cheeks were drops of drizzle on a pomegranate flower.


  1. Allah says:


And recite to them the news of the man to whom We gave Our verses (knowledge of the contents of the Book), then he disengaged himself from them and was followed by the devil (until he was tempted), so he became one of those who go astray. And if We had willed, We would have exalted him with them, but he inclined to the world and indulged in his lower lusts, so he is like a dog: if you restrain him, he sticks out his tongue: and if you leave him alone, he sticks out his tongue (also). Such is the example of those who deny Our verses. So tell them these stories that they may think (Al-A’raf: 175-176).


  1. Allah says:


Their example is that of a man who lit a fire, and when it had illuminated his surroundings, Allah took away their light and left them in darkness, unable to see. They are deaf, dumb and blind, so they will not return (to the right path). Or like (those who are afflicted with) heavy rain from the sky with pitch darkness, thunder, and lightning: they plug their ears with their fingers at the sound of thunder, for fear of death. And Allah covers the disbelievers. Almost the lightning struck their sight. Whenever the lightning shines upon them, they walk under the light, and when darkness falls upon them, they stop. If Allah had willed, He would have deprived them of hearing and sight. Indeed, Allah has power over all things. (QS Al-Baqarah: 1720)


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


I am jealous of the glass that flows into the lips of Amir Abul Husayn, as if the whiteness of the glass and the blackness of the wine were the whiteness that encircles the blackness of the eyes.


  1. Ash-Sariyyur Rafa’ said:


Iron is fiery red, the sight of it is marvelous, it fascinates you. It is when it emits sparks (because of the hammer of the smith), while the fire licks on its surface, like strands of silk scarves, then you see the yagut stone that is being molded and from it scattered (sparks of the hammer) like pieces of gold.


  1. He said of the nature of the water wheel:


Behold the mill, as if it and its water tubes, the water that is poured out of it, were a boat surrounded by stars prepared as a necklace for it, the east star and the west star.


III. Make tashbih-tamtsil with the following words as the musyab bah!


  1. The defeated soldiers were followed by the victorious soldiers.


  1. A pious man was in the midst of people who did not understand his status.


  1. A broad-minded person works in his youth To meet his old age.


  1. A sailing boat leaves a long mark behind it.


  1. The sinner is not deterred by advice, but only becomes more and more sinful.


  1. The sun has been covered by clouds except for a few.


  1. The water that reflects the sunlight at sunset.


  1. A person who is indecisive in many matters sways his stance this way and that.


  1. Good words will not produce good results against an evil soul.


  1. The sick person is feeling his health recovering little by little, whereas before he was in despair.


  1. Make tasybih tamtsil with the following as musyabbah bih!


  1. The embers of a fire when turned over will burn more.


  1. The sun is covered by mega, then appears again.
  2. The water flows quickly to low places and will not reach high places.


  1. The butcher feeds the goat before slaughtering it.


  1. The white flowers in the pasture are verdant.


  1. The rivulet is not heard rippling, but its effect is seen in the tamarr.


  1. Fresh water in the mouth of the sick.


  1. The moon looked small at first, then it became full.


  1. A big wind shakes the small soft trees and breaks the tall trees.


  1. The goat was in the middle of a pack of wolves.


  1. Turn each of the following two tashbih into a tashbih tamtsil!


  1. Humans are like passengers on a ship.

Some disasters are like turbulent seas.


  1. The gray hair is like the morning.

The pitch-black hair is like the night.


  1. The tips of spears are like the stars. (in the sky).

The dust on the battlefield is like the night


  1. The moon is like a beautiful face.

The lake is like a mirror.


  1. Describe the poem of Muslim bin Al-Walid and explain its beauty!


Verily I and Ismail on the day of his death were like the scabbard of a sword separated from its weapon on the day of battle. When I come on a day afterward or visit them, they are like wild animals that become very hungry when approached by tame animals.


VII. Describe briefly the situation of a people whose village was flooded, and for this purpose make two tashbih tamtsil!


  1. Tashbih Dhimni.
  2. Examples
  3. Abu Tammam said:


Do not deny that a generous person has no wealth, for the flood is an enemy to the high places.


  1. Ibnur-Rumi said:


Sometimes a young man grows gray hair, and this is not surprising. Flowers (too) can come out on young and tender branches.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


Whoever is humble, it will be easy for him to bear hardship. A wound for a corpse does not give him pain.


  1. Discussion A writer or poet in literary parables sometimes uses the expression tashbih not in its recognized form. This is done to stimulate the mind, to establish the proof of the desired ruling on the musyabbah, and because he likes to disguise tashbih, because unique and vague tashbih is more likely to hit the soul.


Consider the verse of Abu Tammam, who said to a woman: “Do not deny the inability of a generous person to acquire wealth, for this is not surprising, for the tops of the mountains, which are the highest places, cannot be inundated by flood waters.” Did you notice any tashbih in the above statement? Don’t you see that the poet implicitly compares a philanthropist who has no wealth to a mountain peak that is never flooded? However, he does not explicitly state this, rather he expresses it in a separate sentence that includes this meaning in the form of evidence.


In the next example Ibn Rumi states that sometimes a young man turns gray before his age. This is not surprising because new and tender branches sometimes flower. In this sentence Ibn Rumi does not express clear tashbih because he does not say that a young man who has gray hair is like a young branch that blossoms, but he states this implicitly.


Abu Thayyib states that a person who is accustomed to being humble will easily endure humiliation and not feel pain from it. Such a conjecture is not false because if a corpse is harmed, it will not feel pain. This sentence contains tashbih, but it is not explicit.


Thus, the three stanzas above include some elements of tashbih and allude to it, but they are not expressed in their familiar form. This kind of tashbih is called dhimni tashbih (implicit allusion).


  1. Rules

(9) Tashbih dhimni is a tashbih in which the two tharafs are not put together in the form of tashbih that we are familiar with, but they are just side by side in the sentence. This type of tashbih is brought in to show that the ruling (meaning) attributed to the musyabbah is possible.


  1. Exercise

Example Problems:

  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


My poem about the two of them (Amir and his father) is as appropriate as a necklace around the neck of a beautiful woman would be beautiful.


b He said:


There is an air of nobility in your speech because the specialness of the horse can be recognized by its whinnying.


  1. Explain the musyabbah, musyabbah bih, and types of tasybih in the following sentences!
  2. Al-Buhturi said:


He laughed at the warriors, while they feared him, for the sword was sharp and shining when it was cut.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


It would be good for you to slow down in giving to me. The clouds that move the fastest are those that do not contain water.


  1. He said:


Let not the oppressed person be pleased with the goodness of his garment, nor the buried corpse be pleased with his good shroud.


  1. Ta said:


I am not one of them even though I live among them; the gold mine is dust.


  1. Abu Firas said:


My people will remember me when they experience hardship and distress, on a dark night a new full moon is missed.


  1. The people who wanted to see him crowded at his door, the source of fresh drinking water was always crowded with people.


  1. Explain which is the sharih tashbih and which is the dhimni tashbih in the following sentences!
  2. Abul Atahiyah said:


You wished for salvation, but you did not take the path. Indeed, the boat cannot sail on dry land.


  1. Ibnur-Rumi said, describing ink:


Abu Hafsh’s ink is ‘the saliva of the night, as if it were the color of a dark black horse. It flowed to his brother like a flood, without scale and without measure.


  1. A poet said:


Woe to her when she turns away, and when she turns away, it is as if she is struck by arrows, and it hurts to pull them out.


  1. The believer is a mirror for other believers.


  1. Al-Buhturi said in characterizing the character of the person he praised:


The excellence of his character is enhanced when his environment is composed of people who are disappointed and devoid of honor. And the beauty of the great stars will be very prominent when they appear in the middle of a dark night.


III. Turn the following dhimni tashbihs into sharih tashbihs.

  1. Abu Tamam said:


Be patient with a spiteful person, for it is your patience that extinguishes him. The fire will consume itself if there is nothing to consume it.


  1. He said:


Taking refuge by distancing myself from you is not my wish. Indeed, the rain is longed for when it is hidden.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


When you are above all people, and you are one of them, then surely the musk is part of the blood of the gazelle.


  1. He said:


It is hard for you to move from the position you have taken. Even the moon does not move out of its circle.


  1. He said:


May Allah protect you from their arrows; they are the ones who aim their arrows at the moon.


  1. He said:


There is no doubt that you can surpass others. Even Arabian horses cannot be prevented from galloping.


  1. Turn the following sharih tashbih into dhimni tashbih!
  2. Muslim bin Al-Walid said describing the wine poured from his urn:


It is as if the wine with its effervescent liquid were diamonds strung on a gold necklace.


  1. Ibn Nabih said:


The night goes on, while the stars are in their respective positions, like a garden whose flowers float on the surface of the river.


  1. Basysyar bin Burd said:


It is as if the scattering of dust on our heads and the light of our swords is the night whose stars are falling.


  1. Form a dhimni tashbih with each of the following two tharafs!
  2. The appearance of the truth after it has been hidden, and the appearance of the sun from behind the clouds.


  1. The calamities reveal the excellence of the noble, and the fire makes the gold clean.


  1. The threat of a benefactor followed by a gift, and the lightning followed by rain.


  1. A word that cannot be taken back, and an arrow that has fallen from its bow is difficult to return.


  1. Make two dhimni tashbih!

The first describes a garden, and the second a flying boat.


VII. Describe the following words of Abu Tamam and explain the type of tashbih!


Abu Tamam lamented over Abdullah bin Thahir’s two little children.


My regret is for the signs of their ingenuity and genius had they been given a chance to mature. Verily, when you see the progress of the new moon, then you are sure that it will become a perfect full moon.


  1. Purpose and Objectives of Tashbih


  1. Examples
  2. Al-Buhturi said:


He is near to those who need him, but he is far from those who are equal to him in virtue and honor. It is like the moon which is very high, but its light is very near to those who travel by night.


  1. An-Nabighah Adz-Dzubyani said:


It is as if you are the sun, while other kings are its stars. When the sun has risen, then not a single star is visible.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said in characterizing a lion:


The two eyes of a lion, when in darkness, cannot be caught by our eyes unless they are mistaken for the fire of a group of people living in that area.


  1. Allah says:


And the idols which they worship besides Allah can do nothing for them, except as one who opens his two palms to water that it may reach his mouth, but it cannot reach his mouth. (QS Ar-Ra’d: 14)


  1. Abul Hasan Al-Anbari” said in characterizing the crucified:


Your helping hand to them with respect is like helping them with some gifts.


  1. A Bedouin Arab said in criticizing his wife:


She opens her mouth as if she had never been born, and when you see her mouth, you will think of it as an open door of hell.


  1. Discussion

In the first two stanzas Al-Buhturi characterizes the person he is praising, that he is very close to those who need him, yet he is very high in position, far away from those who are equal to him. However, when Al-Buhturi felt that he had to characterize the person he praised with two opposite descriptions, namely near and far, he wanted to show that this could happen and that there was no difficulty in this matter. For this reason, he likens the person he praises to a moon that is far away in the sky, but its light is very close to those who travel by night. This is one of the purposes of tashbih, which is to show the possibility of something happening to the musyabbah.


An-Nabighah likens his praised one to the sun and likens other kings to the stars because the influence of his praised king overpowers all other kings, just as the sun hides the stars. So, he wanted to explain the condition of the praised king and the condition of the other kings. Thus, explaining a situation is also one of the purposes of tashbih.


Al-Mutanabbi’s poem explains the nature of the lion’s eye in the darkness; it appears bright red so that people who see it from a distance will mistake it for a fire lit by a group of people. Had Al-Mutanabbi not wanted to make tashbih, he would have simply said, “The eyes of the lion are red.” However, because he felt the need to present his heart in the form of tashbih, he explained the greatness of the red color of the lion’s eyes. Thus, describing something is one of the purposes of tashbih.


As for the words of Allah, they are describing the situation of those who worship idols, who worship their gods, who cannot fulfill their requests, and their prayers do not benefit them. Allah wanted to emphasize this for everyone to understand, so He likened them to a person who opens his palms to water to drink, and in this way the water will not reach his mouth, but will fall back through his fingers as long as his palms and fingers are open. Thus, the purpose of tasybih in the above verse is to emphasize the situation of the musyabbah. Such a purpose is pursued when the musyabbah is an abstract thing, considering that abstract things are difficult to understand, unlike concrete things. So to facilitate understanding, it is likened to a concrete thing.


Abul Hasan Al-Anbari’s poem is a very famous kasidah in the world of Arabic literature. This is because it expresses the greatness of something that all people agree is ugly and horrible, namely crucifixion. He likens the hand of the crucified man on the cross surrounded by a group of people to the hand he gave to the beggars when he was alive. The purpose of tasybih in this poem is to beautify something. The purpose of such tasybih is often manifested in the form of praise, lamentation, majesty, and to invite pity.


In the last stanza, the poet characterizes his wife as angry and hurtful, so that he regrets her existence, and for that he says laa kaanat (she should never have been born). He likens his wife’s mouth when it opens in anger to one of the gates of hell. The purpose of tashbih in this poem is to demonize something. It is mostly used to mock and describe things that are disliked.


  1. Rules

(10) The meanings and purposes of tashbih are many:


  1. Explaining the possibility of something happening to the musyabbah, i.e. when something very strange is attributed to the musyabbah, and the strangeness does not disappear until a similar strangeness is explained in another case.


  1. Explaining the condition of the musyabbah, which is when the musyabbah is not known by its nature before it is explained through tashbih that explains it. Thus, the tasybih gives the same meaning as the adjective.


  1. Explaining the extent of the situation of the musyabbah, which is when the musyabbah is known globally, then tasybih is brought in to explain the details of that situation.


  1. Affirming the state of the musyabbah, which is when something that is attributed to the musyabbah requires affirmation and explanation by example.


  1. Beautifying or worsening the musyabbah.


  1. Practice Problem Examples:
  2. Ibnur-Rumi said in praise of Ismail bin Bulbul:


There are many times when the glory of a father is due to the glory of his son, just as Adnan reached the peak of glory due to the glory of the Messenger of Allah.


  1. Abu Thayyib said about the person he praised:


I see all the generous people heading towards you, as if you were the sea and the other kings were small rivers.


  1. Explain the meaning and purpose of each of the following tashbih!
  2. Al-Buhturi said:


You are low by tawadhu’ and high by glory. So that is how you are, lowly and elevated. So is the sun, distant and high, yet its rays and light are near.


  1. Ash-Sharif Ar-Ridha said:


I love you, O youth, because I see you with both heart and eyes as twins. You remain in my heart because you resemble it, until I do not know because it is difficult to determine which of the two of you is the real heart.


  1. In the book Kalilah wa Daminah it is stated:


The excellence of a knowledgeable person, even if he keeps his knowledge secret, is like musk that is neatly covered, but still smells good.


  1. A poet said:


My self towards Laila this morning is like one who grasps water betrayed by stretching fingers.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said in a satirical poem:


When she gestures while speaking, it is as if she were an ape laughing out loud or an angry old woman.


  1. As-Sirri Ar-Raffa’ said:


My house that I live in is as narrow as a lizard’s burrow, with the two sides close together so that it is really narrow. I have to twist and turn when entering it so that I can no longer straighten my legs and calves.


  1. Ibn al-Mu’taz said:


The waves of the creek undulate when there is a strong wind and a gentle breeze. And when the sun rises on them, then you will think of them as gold-plated armor.


  1. Sa’id bin Hashim Al-Khalidi made a kasidah to characterize his servant:


He is not a slave, but the son of the Almighty, on whom all things depend. With his good service, he helps me greatly. So she is my hand, my castle, and my shoulder.


  1. Al-Ma’arri said about gray hair and youth:


Tell me why you hate gray hair, what is the sin of the one who has gray hair: is it because of the light of day, or because of the light of the mufiara, and or because he understands the front teeth of your lover? And tell me about the advantages of youth, including an attractive appearance that is good, namely his betrayal of his lover or his love for perversion or his preference for the literary life.


  1. Some poems attributed to ‘Antarah.


I am the son of a woman as black as her temples, as black as the wolves that thrive around the house. Her calves were long like ostrich calves and her hair was curly like peppercorns.


  1. Ibn Shuhaid Al-Andalusi said in characterizing bedbugs:


Dark black, tame but wild, not slow, and not weak, as if it were an inseparable part of the night, or a drop of ink, or a black seed of the heart, drinking without gulping, walking by leaping, hiding during the day. It comes out at night, pursues with painful stabs, avenges the blood of the good and the wicked, attacks all the brave, draws its weapons against the strong, does not care for the ruler, does not care about the attitude of the jealous, it is the lowest of creatures, its evil is spread everywhere and its covenants are always betrayed. How weak is man, and how clear is the power of Allah, the Merciful.


Il. Make a tasybih to:


  1. describe the state of the tiger.
  2. describe the state of the sphere.
  3. describe the bitter medicine.
  4. describe the state of the fire in the house.
  5. emphasizes the situation of a person who blindly plunges himself into the abyss of destruction without realizing it.
  6. emphasizing the state of a person who is in darkness, falsehood, and tormented when exposed to the light of truth.
  7. explaining the possibility of great harm from something that is insignificant.
  8. explaining the possibility that hardship “will result in tranquillity and enjoyment”.
  9. the goodness of dogs.
  10. the goodness of old age.
  11. the badness of the dry season
  12. the badness of the rainy season.


III. Briefly analyze the following stanzas and state the purpose of each tasybih!


We are preserved from the scorching heat of the earth by a valley watered by even and heavy rains.


We took shelter under a great tree in the valley, and it nurtured us like a mother caresses her weaned child. .


And the valley gave us drink with fresh water that was more delicious than wine to the drinker.


  1. Tashbih Maglub (reverse likeness)
  2. Examples
  3. Muhammad bin Wuhaib Al-Hinmyari said:


The morning has arisen, as if its splendor is the face of the caliph when praised.


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


It is as if the light of the clouds in the evening until the morning is the smile of Jesus when he makes a promise.


  1. Another poet said:


I long for them, but to get to them I must pass through a wide field like the wide chest of a benefactor.


  1. Discussion Al-Himyari states that the brilliance of the morning rush resembles the face of the caliph when he hears praise and flattery for him. From this statement we can see that the tashbih made by Al-Himyari comes out of the image that we have in our hearts, which is that forever something is likened to another that is stronger in the point of likeness. What is often heard is that the face of the caliph resembles the morning rush, while Al-Himyari states the opposite with the intention of exaggerating and all-out claiming that the face of the shibeh is stronger in the musyabbah. Such tashbih is one of the hallmarks of the art and beauty of language.


Al-Buhturi likens the light of the clouds that constantly reflects throughout the night to the smile of the person he praises when promising a gift. Yet it is certain that the reflection of the clouds is stronger than the reflection of a smile. And what we usually hear is that smiles are likened to the reflection of clouds, as is the custom of poets. Al-Buhturi, however, states the opposite tashbih.


In the last example of tashbih, the field is compared to the chest of a generous person in terms of its expansiveness. This last statement is also a tashbih maqlub.


  1. Rule

(11) Tasybih maqlub is making musyabbah as musyabbah bih by claiming that the point of likeness is stronger in musyabbah.


  1. Exercise

Example Problems: 


  1. As if the gentle wind is his character.
  2. It is as if the clarity of the water is his temperament.
  3. As if the light of day were his temples.
  4. As if the green expanse of the earth were the greatness of his journey.


  1. Why are the following tashbih said to be tashbih maglub?
  2. Ibnul-Mutaz said:


The morning is at the end of the fading night, as if it were a white feather on a red-haired horse.


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


In the redness of a rose there is something of the redness of its cheeks, and in the movement of a branch there is something “of its swaying.


  1. Al-Buhturi also said in characterizing Al-Mutawakkil’s latrine:


It was as if the latrine when it was constantly pouring water was the caliph’s hand when his gift was flowing.


  1. The walking boat carries us on the sea as if it were your gift, and it radiates the light of the full moon as if it were the beauty of your face.


  1. Distinguish between maglub and other tashbih in the following sentences and state the purpose of each tashbih!


As if the darkness of the night were dark black hair.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


The tips of his spear glittered, cutting down the enemies in the darkness of the dust of the battlefield, while on his right and left were many stars.


  1. As if the arrow is his speech, and the rain is his gift.


  1. Al-Abyuwardi said:


My words are a string of necklaces adorning the neck, the times are passing, but my words will be eternal.


  1. One of Al-Ma’mun’s scribes sent a horse to him saying:


I have sent you a good that cannot be found like it, namely a horse that can be proud of its saddle and reins. Its face is (like) dawn (white), but its whole body is pitch black (black). Everything that is fit for the Master is unfit for the slave. .


III. Turn the following tashbih into maglub tashbih and explain which type of tashbih is better!


1 Al-Buhturi said in describing a building on a slope:

“It is situated on a prominent place, its pebbles are pearls and its dust is musk mixed with amber oil.


  1. He said:


The gift of Fat-h bin Khagan to you is the gift of rain to the earth burnt by the dry season.


  1. He said in a jest:


I did not forget him when he appeared from a distance. His gait was like the swaying of a young branch.


  1. He says of the person he praises:


He is bright with happiness, he is the flower of the morning, and the cleanliness of his character is the drizzle of the morning.


  1. Change the following maglub tashbih into tashbih ghai, maglub:


  1. We rode in a chariot of fire that ran as fast as a racing horse.


  1. The flower is fragrant, as if it were your beautiful story.


  1. The morning has come, as if it were your brilliant argument,


  1. The horseman bears his sword, as if it were the firmness of his soul in battle.


  1. Make tashbih maglub with the following tharafs and first match them into pairs!


  1. The roar of thunder. g. The lightning.
  2. The light of her lover. h. Her hair.
  3. The rays of the sun. i. The darkness of the night.
  4. Her anger. J. His morals.
  5. The lightning strike. k. His smile.
  6. Her voice. l. The flowers of the season, spring.


  1. Complete the following tashbih-tashbih maglub!


  1. As if ………. was you coming to see me.
  2. As if ……….. is your courage.
  3. As if …….. was his unpleasant voice.
  4. As if ……. was the heat of his vengeance.
  5. As if ……. Is the limit of the firmness of your soul.
  6. As if ……. were his trickery.


VII. Complete the following tashbih-tashbih maqlub!


  1. As if a gust of wind is ………
  2. As if the humiliation of orphans is ………..
  3. As if the freshness of the rose is……
  4. As if the diamond is ……,
  5. As if the clarity of water is………
  6. As if magic were ……..


VIII. It is described in literary books that Abu Tamam when praising Ahmad bin Al-Mu’tashim with the following verse:


(He) possessed the traits of Amr’s courage Hatim’s generosity Ahnaf’s generosity and Ilyas’ ingenuity.


So a spiteful person said to him in the presence of the one he was praising, “You (O Abu Tamam) are nothing more than likening a ruler to those who are beneath his dignity.”


So Abu Tamam said:


Do not deny the simile I have made for him with those below him, a simile befitting his glory and valor.


Allah makes a small similitude for His light, like the likeness of an impenetrable hole and a lantern.


Question: What is the point of the refutation given by Abu Tamam in the above two stanzas? Can you defend Abu Tamam with any other arguments after looking at the whole poem? What type of tashbih do the critics agree with?


  1. Make maglub tashbihs about:
  2. The nature of a person’s courage.
  3. The nature of a boat.
  4. The nature of a sentence.


  1. Consider the following poem by Al-Mutanabbi:


Were it not for the insult to lions, I would have likened them to them. However, lions are rarely found among livestock. Explain the beauty of the description in the above verse. Do you see a more eloquent praise if Al-Mutanabbi had said, “Syabbahtuhaa bihim (then I likened them to them)?” If so, what would the tashbih be?


  1. The Balaghah of Tashbih and Some of Its Effects on the Arabs and Subsequent Linguists?”


The grammar of tashbih arises when the tashbih takes us from a situation to a new situation that resembles it, or to a similar image that has more value. If the image is distant and rarely thought of, or if it is accompanied by a little or a lot of imagination, the tashbih will be more beautiful and impressive.


If you say that Polan resembles Zayd in height, or that the earth resembles a sphere in shape, or that the British islands resemble Japan, then this tashbih has no balaghah value because the resemblance is obvious and does not require seriousness, ingenuity, and literary skill to understand it, nor does it contain imagination.


Such similes are spoken as a method of explanation and to facilitate understanding of something. And it is widely used in various disciplines and arts.


However, if we pay attention to the following verse of Al-Ma’arri in describing a star, we will find the beauty of tashbih:


The star in its redness quickens the flickering of its light, just as a man in the height of his anger quickens the blinking and glancing of his eyes. Because the likening of the blinking of the star with the redness of its light to the speed of the blinking and glancing of the eyes of an angry person is a very rare likening and would not be made except by a literary person.


Another example is the following poem:


As if the stars among the darkness of the night are some sunnahs that shine brightly to illuminate the deeds of bid’ah. The beauty of this tashbih lies in our perception of the poet’s knowledge and ingenuity in composing a tashbih between two situations that never occurred to him to be similar, namely the similarity of the situation of the stars in the darkness of the night with the situation of the valid sunnahs of religion, which spread separately among false innovations. The tasybih above has another appeal, which is that the poet imagines that the Sunnahs are brightly lit, while the innovations are pitch-black.


Among the most beautiful tashbih is the following statement by Al-Mutanabbi:


I will perish if I do not stop at the places of my former lovers, just as a poor man stands regretting the loss of his ring on the ground.


Al-Mutanabbi prayed that he would perish if he did not stop to reminisce about his nostalgia with the inhabitants of those ruins in the past. Then describing his state when he stopped to reminisce, he said, “As a poor man stands lamenting the loss of his ring on the ground.” No one can describe to you the state of a person who is confused, distressed, saddened, and has to move from one place to another with his head bowed like the state of a philanderer who lost his expensive ring. This is the value of tashbih in terms of its rarity and remoteness, and its imaginary content. There are also different forms of tashbih. The lowest level of tashbih is tashbih in which all the elements are mentioned, because the point of tashbih is that it claims that the musyabbah is the musyabbah bih itself, whereas the presence of tashbih customs and shibeh faces would prevent this claim. So, if the custom or the shibeh face is removed, the level of the tasybih will increase, because the removal of one of these elements will slightly strengthen the claim of the unity of the musyabbah with the musyabbah bih. The highest level of tasybih in terms of grammatical level is baligh tasybih. (See again the division of tashbih) because it is based on the claim that the miusyabbah and musyabbah bih are one thing.


It has been the tradition of the Arabs and the linguists after them to liken a generous person to the sea and rain, a brave person to a lion, a good face to the sun and moon, an intelligent person in handling affairs to a sword, a high position is likened to a star, a steadfast person is likened to a mountain, false hopes are likened to dreams, a radiant face is likened to a denarius, jet-black hair is likened to night, clear water is likened to silver, ma. lam is likened to the waves of the sea, an army is likened to the tide, horses are likened to wind and lightning, stars are likened to pearls and flowers, teeth are likened to snow and pearls, boats are likened to mountains, tributaries are likened to coiled snakes, gray hair is likened to daylight and the glitter of swords, the white hair on my forehead is likened to the crescent moon. The coward is likened to a camel’s horn and flies, the despicable person is likened to a weasel, the blind person is likened to a larva swarming in the light of a lamp, the despicable person is likened to a peg, the hard-hearted person is likened to iron and stone, the foolish person is likened to a himar, and the greedy person is likened to a barren earth.


Many Arab figures are famous for their praiseworthy personalities, so they are used as benchmarks in likening traits. Therefore, the one who keeps his promise is likened to Samuel, the generous one is likened to Hatim, the just one is likened to Umar, the merciful one is likened to Al-Ahnaf, the eloquent one is likened to Sahban, the one who is good at speech is likened to Quss, the brave one is likened to ‘Amr ibnu Ma’dikariba, the wise one is likened to Lugman, and the intelligent one is likened to Iyas.


On the other hand, there are also many Arabs who are known to have very despicable behavior, which is also used as a measure of tashbih. So the exhausted person is likened to Bagil, the ignorant person is likened to Habanaggah! , the moody person is likened to Kusa’i, the philanderer is likened to Marid the mocker is likened to Hutha”ah and the stubborn person is likened to Hajjaj.







  1. Lughawi Majas
  2. Examples
  3. IbnulAmid said:


There stands shading me from the heat of the sun, someone whom I love more than myself. He has shaded me, it is a wonder that the sun has shaded me from the sun.


  1. Al-Buhturi said in characterizing the duel between Fat-h bin Khagan and a lion:


I have never seen a fight between two lions more earnest than between you two (Fat-h and the lion) when those timid and weak people did not dare to face it. Lion against lion, i.e. the (brave) lion of the people fought against a real lion, and he was able to defeat it.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said about the rain that falls on Saif ad-Daulah:


My eyes every day have the opportunity to look at you. In that there is an astonishing sight, which is the carrying of this sword on the sword, and the falling of this rain on the rain.


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


When the eyes are quiet and become the spies of the heart, then it is not a secret what is covered by the ribs.


  1. Discussion Look at the last line of the first two stanzas and you will find the word ash-shamsu used with two meanings, the first being the essential meaning as we know it, and the second meaning being the one whose face is radiant, resembling the brightness of the sun. This second meaning is not the true meaning. If we look closely, we will find a connection between the first meaning, which is the true meaning, and the second meaning, which is not the true meaning. The connection and relationship between the two meanings is called musyabahah (resemblance) because a person whose face is radiant resembles the sun in emitting light, and this cannot possibly lead to an ambiguity that leads to the understanding that the word shamsun tuzhalliluni is indicative of the true meaning because the true sun will not shade. Thus, the word tuzhalliluni precludes the possibility of the true meaning being intended, and hence it is called a karinah which indicates that the intended meaning is something else.


If we look at the second stanza of Al-Buhturi’s first verse, we will find that the second word hizabrun is meant to indicate the ultimate meaning, which is lion, while the first word hizabrun means a brave person who is praised, so it is not the ultimate meaning. The connection between the two meanings is the similarity in courage, while the karinah that prevents the original meaning from being given is that the sentence structure requires a new meaning that is not the original one. The same applies to the words aghlabun minal-qaum and basil al-wajhi aghlaba. The latter words indicate the original meaning, which is lion. While the first words indicate another meaning, namely brave men. The relationship between the two meanings is the likeness of courage. The Karinah that prevents the true meaning from being given to the first words is the lafaz minal gaum.


After the above explanation, we can see that the second word husaam in the second stanza of Al-Mutanabbi’s poem is used in a non-trivial meaning because of the relationship of similarity in enduring danger. Its karinah can be understood from the position of the related elements in the sentence. Similarly, the second word sahaab is used with the meaning of Saif ad-Daulah because of the relationship between him and the rain in mercy. Its meaning is haliyah (empirical reality).


As for the meaning of Al-Buhturi’s last verse, it is that when the eyes of a human being, because of crying, become the eyes of the anger and distress that are stirring in the heart, then everything in the heart is no longer a secret. Thus, we know that the first word al-‘ain is used in its essential meaning, while the second word ‘ain is used in another meaning, namely spies. However, since the eye is part of the spy and it is the main tool, the word al-‘ain is used to mean the whole. And it is an Arab tradition to say partly to mean wholly. We also know that the relationship between the eye and the spy is not one of likeness, but one is part of the other. And the karinah is the word ‘alal-jawa (for the heart), so karinah lafzhiyah. Thus, it is clear to us that the words shams, hizabr, aghlab, husaam, sahaab, and ‘ain are used in non-essential meanings because of the connection between the essential meaning and the non-essential meaning, and they are called lughawi majas words.


  1. Rule

(12) A lughawi majas is a word that is used in a meaning that it is not supposed to have because of a relationship with a karinah that prevents it from having its true meaning. The connection between the essential meaning and the meaning of the compound is sometimes due to similarity and sometimes other than that. And the karinah is sometimes lafzhiyah and sometimes haliyah.


  1. Practice Problem Examples:


  1. Abuth-Thayyib said when he was suffering from heatstroke in Egypt: –


When I am sick, my patience will not be sick. And if I am afflicted with heatstroke, my steadfastness will not be afflicted with heatstroke.


  1. He said when warning against a cloud, while he was with the person he was praising:


When we were on our way home, a cloud appeared before me. So I said (to it), “Get out of the way, for I am with the cloud.”


  1. Another poet said:


My country is dear to me even though it has done me evil, and my people are noble even though they have been ungrateful to me.


  1. The following underlined words are partly used in their essential meaning, while others are used in their majestic meaning. Explain the majasi words by mentioning the relationship between the two meanings and their meanings, both lafzhiyah and haliyah.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said of the man he praised:


One day – with horsemen you drove the Roman army away from them, and one day – with mercy you drove away poverty and famine.


  1. He said:


Always the sun that is in the sky rises with the sun that is veiled.


  1. He said:


It is a reproach to you when in a battle you bear a sword. What will the sword do with the sword it bears?


  1. He said:


When the Saif ad-Daulah gets sick, the earth will get sick.


  1. Abu Tamam said in his lament:


He will not die until his sword blade is dead, unable to strike, and his spear no longer able to defend.


  1. When Khalid bin Walid walks, then walk help under his flag.


You have built some high houses, and before you have built a pride whose height is unconquerable.


  1. Explain whether the following words are essence or majas:
  2. Lafaz shamsain (two suns) in Al-Mutanabbi’s lament against the death of Saifud-Daulah’s sister:


If only the two rising suns would sink and if only the two sinking suns would not sink.


  1. The word badr (full moon) in the poem:


He looked at the full moon illuminating the darkness of the night, and I looked at him (who was looking at the moon). So we each looked at the full moon.


  1. Layaaliya arba’an (four nights) in verse:


One night three locks of his hair were loose, so he showed me four nights.


  1. The word al-gamarain (two months) in Al-Mutanabbi’s poem:


He turned his face to the moon in the sky, so he showed me two moons simultaneously at one time.


III. Use the following nouns and verbs respectively: each in its essential meaning and in its figurative meaning with a musyabhah meaning relationship!


lightning – wind – rain – diamond – civet – garuda bird – stars – hanzhal (a type of bitter herb).


drown – kill – tear – drink – bury – spill – throw – fall.


  1. Fill in the dots below with the maf’ul bih with the miajazi meaning, then explain its relationship with its essential and karinah meanings!


  1. Thal’at Harb turn on ……
  2. Khatib exposes ….
  3. A good man exalts ………..
  4. The teacher straightens ……
  5. The slacker finishes …….
  6. Europe is fighting ……..


  1. Make sentences with the following conditions:
  2. Use the word udzun (ear) in its majestic meaning, i.e. a man who loves to listen to people’s noise, and explain its relationship to its essential meaning!


  1. Use the word yamiin (right hand) in the sense of force in a metaphorical way and explain its relationship with the real meaning!


  1. Make four sentences that include lughawi majas in which the relationship between the majasi meaning and the real meaning is musyabahah (similarity)!


VII. Explain the following two stanzas of Al-Buhturi’s poem with an explanation of the meaning of majasy and the meaning of the word shamsain (two suns)!


You appeared to them at sunrise, so they looked at the light of the sun from one direction and saw your face from another. Before that event they had never seen two suns whose rays clashed from the west and the east.


A.1 Isti’aarah Tashriihiyyah wal-Makniyyah

  1. Examples
  2. Allah says:


(This is) the Book which We have revealed to you, that you may bring mankind out of darkness into bright light. ….


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said when he was greeted and embraced by the person he praised:


I have never seen before me a man who was visited by the sea on foot, nor one who was embraced by a lion.


  1. He said in praise of Saifud-Daulah:


Do you know a more beautiful victory than one in which the sword and the head meet?


  1. Al-Hajjaj stated in one of his speeches:


Verily I see some heads that are ripe and have reached their harvest time, and I am their owner.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


When the camels have Qur’ang, then we will ride heavy affairs to Ibn Abi Sulaiman.


  1. Taberkata said:


Majesty and glory can be healed when you are given healing, and the pain is gone from you, turning to your enemy.


  1. Discussion

In the examples above, there is lughawi majas, which is a word that is used in a meaning that is not essential. The first of the three examples contains two words, the word azlizhulumaat, which is used with the meaning of misguidance, and the word annuur, which is used with the meaning of guidance and faith. The relationship between the ultimate meaning and the majasi meaning is similarity, and the karinah is haliyah. Al-Mutanabbi’s stanza includes two majas, namely the word al-bahr (sea) with the meaning of a generous man because of the similitude and karinah of the word masyaa, and the word al-usdu (lion) with the meaning of a brave man because of the similitude and karinah of the word tu’aaniguhu. The third stanza includes one majas, namely the word tashaafahat (shaking hands) with the meaning of meeting because there is a similarity and karinah lafaz biidhul-hindi wallamam (sword and head).


If we look at each of these figures of speech, we find that each of them involves a tashbih from which the musyabbah is removed, and in its place is brought the musyabbah bih with the claim that the musyabbah bih is the musyabbah itself. This is very far-reaching and very deep in its meaning. This is called isti’aarah, and since the musyabbah bih is explicitly mentioned, the isti’aarah is called issj. aarah tashrihiyyah.


Furthermore, the second three examples are sufficiently clear. one of them is the statement of Al-Hajjaj in his threat. Innii la-araa ru-uusan gad aina’at (verily I see a head. a ripe head). A quick understanding is that he is likening the head to fruit. The original sentence is innii In. araa ru-uusan kats-tsamaraat gad aina’at, then the musyabbah bih. is removed with an illusion that the shape of the head is incarnated in the shape of a fruit. As a cue for the discarded musyabbah bih, a word that shows its unique nature is used, namely the word aina’at. When the musyabbah bih is hidden, the isti’aarah is called makniyyah isti’aarah. The same applies to the phrase im. tathainaa and the phrase al-majdu in the last stanza.


  1. Rule

(13) Isti’aarah is a part of linguistic majas. Isti’aarah is tashbih with one of its tharafs removed. Therefore, the relationship between the essential meaning and the majasi meaning is forever musyabahah. Isti’aarah is of two kinds, namely:


  1. Tashrihiyyah, namely isti’aarah whose nusyabbah bih is emphasized.


  1. Makniyyah, namely isti’aarah which is removed musyabbah bih, and as a sign set one of its distinctive characteristics.


  1. Exercise

Example Problems:

  1. Al-Mutanabbi said in describing the Roman envoy to Saifud-Daulah:


He goes forward walking on a rug, he does not know whether he is moving towards the sea or up to the moon.


  1. A Bedouin Arab characterizes his friend:


My brother entertains the eye with beauty, and the ear with clarity.


  1. Allah says about Zakariya’s prayer:


O my Rab, surely my bones have grown weak and my head is covered with gray hair. (QS Maryam: 4)


  1. A Bedouin Arab said in his praise:


Polan throws his eyes in the direction of his gesture of generosity.


Examples of Completion:

  1. 1) Saif ad-Daulah is likened to the sea because they both love to give. Then the lafaz which is the musyabbah bih is lent to replace the musyabbah, Saif ad-Daulah, to create isti’aarah tashrihiyyah. The Karinah is the words fa agbala yamsyii fil bisaath.

2) Saif ad-Daulah is likened to the moon because both have a high position. Then the lafaz which is the musyabbah bih, namely the lafaz al-badr (moon) is lent to replace the musyabbah, namely Saifud-Daulah, to make isti’aarah tashrihiyyah. The karinah is the same as mentioned above.


  1. Pleasing the eyes with beauty, and pleasing the ears with clarity is likened to entertaining guests. So, to treat the eyes and ears is to give them pleasure, as isti’aarah tashrihiyyah. The carina is the word jamalan and the word bayanan.


  1. The head is likened to fuel, then the musyabbah bih is removed and hinted at by one of its characteristics, the word isyta’ala mcnyala) as isti’aarah makniyah. Karinah-ny, is to attribute the flame to the head.


  1. The attribute of charity is likened to a human being, then the musyap bah bih (human being) is removed and signified by one of its attributes, the word asyaara (signify) as isti’aarah makniyyah. Its meaning is to attribute the sign to honor.


  1. Explain the underlined isti’aarah tashrihiyyah in the following sentences!
  2. As-Sariyyur-Rafa’ sings about boats:


Every boat is like the darkness of the night, giving it a tanned skin.


  1. He says of a man who is grooming:


When the lightning shines on the palm of his hand, it sheds the water of pleasure on the face. He has a palm that is softly rubbed, caressing the face like the caress of the wind.


  1. Ibnul Mu’taz said:


Our rights are gathered to the Imam who kills miserliness and revives generosity.


  1. Explain the underlined isti’aarah makniyyah in the following sentences!


  1. A Bedouin praised a man:


All the eyes of virtue are upon you, and the ears of greatness hear you attentively.


2, Another Bedouin praised the courage of a people:


Their swords swear not to waste their right.


  1. As-Sariyyur-Rafa’ said:


In these places misconduct never drags its tail, and often spears are drawn.


III. Explain which of the underlined isti’aarah in the following sentences are tasyrihiyyah and which are makniyyah and explain why!


  1. Di’bil Al-Khaza’i said:


Do not be surprised, O Salma, at the man who is laughed at by the gray hairs on his head, and then he weeps.


  1. A Bedouin Arab reproached a people:


They are a people who fast from good and break their fast with evil.


  1. Another Bedouin reproached a man:


He is fat in wealth, thin in goodness.


  1. Al-Buhturi said in mourning Al-Mutawakkil who was killed by deceit:


So all his troops could not defend him against mau fajal, and all his possessions and stores could not sustain his life.


When help has cast its eyes upon you, then sleep, and all fears will be safe.


  1. AbulAtahiyah congratulated Al-Mahdi on being appointed caliph:


The office of the caliph came to him in submission while pulling his tail.


  1. Make sentences with the words below and refer to each as isti’aarah tashrihiyah and isti’aarah makniyyah!


Sun – nightingale – sea – flower – lightning.


  1. Turn the following isti’aarah into tashbih!
  2. Abu Tamam said in characterizing the clouds:


The submissive cloud that pours out much rain is a refuge for the suffering dust.


  1. As-Sariyyur-Rafa’ said in characterizing the snow that falls on the hills:


The snow falls in the morning in a region, so it causes gray hair to grow on the hilltops.


  1. He said in characterizing the pen:


It is very flat. When it is shaken by the tips of the fingers, it rains dark night on the paper.


  1. Turn the following tashbih into isti’aarah!


  1. Verily, the messenger is a light that becomes a torch.


  1. I am a branch from your great tree and a branch from your shady tree.


  1. I am a sword, only it does not cut you, whereas the stroke of a sword like mine could cut you.


  1. Then after that your heart becomes hard as stone, even harder. (QS Al Baqarah: 74)


Indeed, Sakhr (the poet’s brother) became a model for the guides, as if he were a mountain on whose summit there is a fire.


  1. I am the plant of your two hands.


  1. He is like a lion to me, but on the battlefield he is timid, like an ostrich that flees at the sound of a whistle.


VII. Describe Ibn Sinan Al-Khafaji’s poem in characterizing the dove and explain its imagery!


The long chirping of a tree shows its longing for us and it recites its longing in a melodious voice. If the distress he speaks of were true, he would not wear a necklace and would not color his palms.


A.2 Division of Isti’aarah Ashliyyah and Taba’iyyah

  1. Examples
  2. Al-Mutanabbi said in describing kalam:


The tongue of the pen spits out darkness during the day and it understands what a person says without hearing.


  1. He said when speaking to Saifud-Daulah:


I love you, O sun and moon of this age, though the faint and distant stars revile me for liking you.


  1. Al-Ma’arri quoted in his lament:


“A young man who loves the wine of Babylon, in a time of longing, will not be healed by pecking and kissing.


  1. Allah swt. says:


And when Moses’ anger was pacified, he took the tablets (of the Torah): and in them is guidance and mercy for those who fear their Lord. (QS Al-A’raf: 154)


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said in characterizing the lion:


When the red one comes to the Lake (Thabriyah) to drink, its roar reaches the Furat and Nile Rivers.


  1. Discussion In the first three stanzas there is isti’aarah tashriyyah and makniyyah. In the first stanza, the pen (the pronoun in lafaz lisaanuhu) is likened to a human being, then the musyabbah bih is removed and hinted at with one of its characteristics, the tongue. Thus, the isti’aarah is a makniyyah isti’aarah. Ink is likened to darkness because they are both black and the lafaz which is the musyabbah bih is lent as musyabbah to become isti’aarah tashrihiyyah. Paper is likened to daylight because they are both white, then the lafaz which is musyabbah bih is lent as musyahbah to become isti’aarah tashrihiyyah.


In the second stanza, Saif ad-Daulah is likened to the sun and the moon because they are both high and clear. Then the lafaz that are musyabbah bih, namely ash-shams and al-badr, are borrowed as musyabbah to make isti’aarah tashriyyah on both words. The people under them are likened to the hidden stars and the distant stars because they are both small and obscure. Then the lafaz that becomes musyabbah bih is borrowed as musyabbah to make isti’aarah tashrihiyyah in both words.


In the third stanza, women are likened to the wine of Babylon. Then the musyabbah bih is discarded and hinted at with one of its characteristics, namely the word ‘ashigat-hu (longing for her) to make isti’aarah makniyyah.


If we look again at the creation of all the above isti’aarah, we will find that in creating the isti’aarah tashrihiyyah we only borrowed the lafaz that became musyabbah bih to replace musyabbah, and with this step the isti’aarah is complete. In making isti’aarah makniyyah we simply remove the musyabbah bih: as a hint we assign one of its characteristics, and with this step the isti’aarah is also perfect. If we look again, the isti’aarah lafaz are not musytag lafaz (formed from a root word), but are jamid words (nouns that do not have a root word). Such isti’aarah is called isti’aarah ashliyah.


Next we look at the next two examples. We will find that they both contain isti’aarah tashrihiyyah. In its construction, the cessation of anger is compared to silence because they are both calm, then the lafaz which is the musyabbah bih, namely as-sukut (silence) is borrowed instead of the musyabbah, which is the completion of anger, then from the base word as-sukut a verb is formed, namely sekata with the meaning of intaha (completion).


The arrival of the lion’s roar at the Furat River is likened to the arrival of water because they both reach their destination. Then the lafaz which is the musyabbah bih, the word warada, is borrowed instead of the musyabbah, which is the arrival of the sound. So, the word warada means washala.


If we compare the creation of this last two isti’aarah with the creation of the previous isti’aarah, we find that the creation of this second isti’aarah is not only by borrowing the musyabbah bih in place of the musyabbah, as was the method of creating the previous isti’aarah, but more than that, namely forming another word from the base word which is the musyabbah bih, and the lafazes of this second type of isti’aarah are all ntustag. not jamid. This kind of isti’aarah is called isti’aarah taba’iyah because its function in the musytag form is the same as its function in the mashdar (root word) form.


If we revisit the last two examples, we will gain new knowledge. In the first example there are the words walaniniaq sakata ‘an Musaa al-ghadhabu. In these words al-ghadhab (anger) can be likened to humans, then the musyabbah bih is removed and hinted at with one of its characteristics, namely sakata (silence) so that the word al-ghadhab is in isti’aarah makniyyah. In the second example there are the words waradal-furaata za’itruhuu (then its roar reached the region of the Furat River). In this case, the word az-z’iir (roar) can be likened to an animal, then it is removed and implied by one of its characteristics, namely the word warada. Thus, the word za’iiruhuu is an isti’aarah makniyyah. This is the case with every isti’aarah taba’iyyah, its karinah can be isti’aarah makniyyah. It is just that we cannot make isti’aarah except in one of the two isti’aarah (tashrihiyyah and makniyyah), not in both.


  1. Rules


(14) Isti’aarah is called isti’aarah ashliyyah if the isim (noun) that is being used as isti’aarah is an isim jamid.


(15) Isti’aarah is called isti’aarah taba’iyyah if the lafaz used as isti’aarah isim musytag or fi’il (verb).


(16) The karinah of isti’aarah taba’iyyah is makniyyah, but if this isti’aarah taba’iyyah is applied to one of the two, it cannot be made to the other.


  1. Exercises


  1. Masa bites me with his fangs, if only his canines were diseased.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


I conveyed to him a garden of my tongue watered with reason as the rain waters the garden.


  1. Another poet said in addressing a bird:



You are in a green garden that laughs at the cries of thick clouds.


Examples of Completion:

  1. Masa is likened to a wild animal because they are both painful, then the musyabbah bih is removed and hinted at by one of its characteristics, namely adhdha (biting). So, the isti’aarah is an isti’aarah makniyyah ashliyyah.


  1. Poetry is likened to a garden because both have beauty, then the word that is musyabbah bih is borrowed to replace musyabbah. So, the isti’aarah isti’aarah tashrihiyyah ashliyyah. The intellect is likened to rain because they are both beneficial, then the musyabbah bih is removed and hinted at by one of its attributes, namely sagaa. So, the isti’aarah is the isti’aarah makniyyah ashliyyah.


  1. Flowering is equated with laughing because they both turn white. Then the lafaz that becomes musyabbah bih is borrowed instead of musyabbah. Then from the word adh-dhahk is taken the word musytag, namely dhaahikah with the meaning of muzhirah (flowering). So, the isti’aarah is a tashrihiyyah taba’iyyah isti’aarah. We can also look at the other side of this isti’aarah, and stick to its karinah, which is that the green earth is likened to humans, then the musyabbah bih is removed and hinted at with one of its characteristics, namely dhaahikah. This isti’aarah makniyyah.


The falling of rain is likened to crying because they both shed water, then the word which is the musyabbah bih is borrowed to replace the musyabbah. So the istiaarah is. istiaarah tashrihiyyah ashliyyah. It can also be made isti’aarah makniyyah on the word al-‘aaridh.


  1. Distinguish between isti’aarah ashliyyah and isti’aarah taba’iyyah in the following sentences!
  2. As-Sariyyur-Rafa’ said in describing his poem:


When one day my verse shakes hands with some hearing, then some hearts smile.


  1. Ibnur-Rumi said:


In a new country, I mingle with young women and children, while I wear a new garment of entertainment.


  1. He said:


Through me you have the honor of the north wind that swirls in a garden, spreading a pleasant odor.


It blows in the morning, so a branch whispers to it, while the birds openly call out.


4, Al-Buhturi said in characterizing the army:


When the weapons have fought the battlefield, the enemy will see the land on which the iron sea glitters.


  1. Ibn Nubatah As-Sa’di said in describing a horse with a white patch on its forehead:


And suddenly the night will always cover him, and between his eyes will rise the star of Suraya.


  1. At-Tihami said in mourning his son: O star, what is it that makes his life short, and such is the life of the morning stars.


  1. Ash-Sharif said about gray hair:


The light has spread over the blackness of the hair of my head, I will not use it as a torch and lamp. I sold Youth to him as a token of love to him A trade of one who knows that he will not be fortunate.


  1. Al-Buhturi said in characterizing a palace:


Its walls fill the area, and its height rises through the clouds that contain rain.


  1. He said in characterizing a garden:


The time of dawn makes it laugh at times and the rain pours down on it at other times.


  1. He said of gray hair:


Many hairs I long for their blackness, but gray hair does not give me forgiveness and pardon to get it.


  1. Ibnut-Ta’awidzi said in characterizing a garden:


The branches appear vigorous, and the wind deceives him gently.


  1. Mihyar said:


No one who revels in an intimate night gets lost at dawn, everything is clear in my head.


  1. Turn the following taba’iyyah isti’aarah into ashliyyah isti’aarah!


1.When it rains heavily in my eyes, it is because some lightning shines at the tip of my head.


  1. Indeed, distance is not harmful if the heart remains close.


  1. Ibn al-Mu’taz said in characterizing the clouds:


It weeps and meets the earth by stretching out its rope, while the lightning laughs.


III. Change the following isti’aarah ashliyyah into isti’aarah taba’iyyah!


  1. The ugliest of people is the one who is willing to tear down his religion to build his world.


  1. Buying a soul by doing good is better than selling it with enmity.


  1. Indeed, a person’s involvement in things that do not concern him and his running away from the truth is one of the causes of his frustration (failure).


The best adornment of youth is curbing lust when it is stubborn.


  1. Make six isti’aarah, three isti’aarah ashliyyah, and three isti’aarah taba’iyyah!


  1. Describe the following verse of As-Sariyyur-Rafa’ in characterizing the bucket, and explain the type of isti’aarah! –


So from the garden you see the smiling flower and the water that is poured out untimely. It is as if his watering can when it groans is a distant traveler who has missed his homeland. He cried when the flowers in the garden were hurt by the clouds that became his parents, so he became his father. Ig was good at his job. It did not make him move away from the place nor did it make him seem weary. He always earnestly sought the sea’s gift to the land until the land was refreshed and adorned with flowers and grass.


A.3 Division of Isti’aarah into Murasysyahah, Mujarradah, and Muthlagah

  1. Examples


  1. 1) Allah swt.says:


They are those who buy misguidance for guidance, so their trade is not fortunate. (QS Al-Baqarah: 16)


2) Al-Buhturi said:


They salute the moon from a distance from a high place in the interior.


3) Allah Almighty says:


Verily, when the waters rose (to the mountain), We brought (your ancestors) into the ark. (QS Al-Haggah: 11)


1) Al-Buhturi said:


I see death when it sees that you have gray hair, so it makes you the target of its arrows that have been stretched out.


2)  Polan is the one who writes best when his pen drinks ink and dances on his paper.


3) Ouraizh bin Unaif said:


When evil reveals its two fangs to a people then they will attack it in groups and alone. alone. 2. Discussion. In the examples of part a there are several isti’aarah tashrihiyyah, namely lafaz isytarau meaning ikhtaaruu (choosing), lafaz gamar with the meaning of the person being praised, and lafaz thaghaa meaning increase or rise. And each of these isti’aarah has a karinah: the karinah of isytarau is lafaz adh-dhalaalata, the karinah of lafaz gamar is yu’adduuna at-tahiyyata, and the karinah of thaghaa is lafaz al-maa’.


If we look at the first isti’aarah, we will find words that are relevant to the musyabbah bih -which isti’aarah-, and these words are famaa rabihat tijaaratuhum. De. similarly, if we look at the second isti’aarah, we will find the words minal-iiwaani baad. And if we look at the third isti’aarah, we do not find similar words.


Three examples in part b there are several isti’aarah makniy. yah, namely dhamir in the phrase ra’at which returns to the phrase al-ma. naayaa which is likened to humans, the phrase al-galam which is likened to humans as well, and the phrase ash-syarr which is likened to wild animals. And each has a karinah, in the first isti’aarah death is said to see, in the second isti’aarah galam is said to drink and sing, and in the third isti’aarah evil is said to reveal its two fangs.


If we pay attention, we will see that in the first isti’aarah there are words that are relevant to musyabbah bih, namely the words ja’alatka marma nabliha. In the second isti’aarah there are words relevant to the musyabbah, namely the words dawaatihii and girthaasihii, while in the third isti’aarah there are no such words. The first kind of isti’aarah is called isti’aarah murasysyahah, the second kind is called isti’aarah mujarradah, and the third kind is called isti’aarah muthlagah.


  1. Rules

(17) Isti’aarah Murasysyahah is isti’aarah that is accompanied by the mention of words relevant to the musyabbah bih.


(18) Isti’aarah Mujarradah isti’aarah which is accompanied by the mention of words relevant to musyabbah.


(19) Isti’aarah Muthlagah isti’aarah that is not accompanied by the mention of words relevant to musyabbah bih or musyabbah.


(20) An isti’aarah cannot be classified as an isti’aarah murasysyahah or isti’aarah mujarradah until it has been fully mentioned, either lafzhiyyah or haliyyah. Therefore, the karinah tashrihiyyah cannot be characterized as isti’aarah mujarradah, and the karinah isti’aarah makniyyah cannot be characterized as isti’aarah murasysyahah.


  1. Exercise

Example Problems:


  1. Polan’s morals are softer than the breath of the east wind when joking with the flowers of the highlands.


  1. If he perishes, then every leader of the people will pass from the world to perdition.


  1. I am actually very thirsty to see you.


  1. Many are the nights that are sick from every direction, with no stars and no moon to illuminate them.


  1. May Allah shower us with water and give us life through you. Verily, there are flowers on the camel’s back, and the one who rides it is a virgin.


Completion Examples:

  1. In the word ash-shabaa (the wind blowing from the east) there is a makniyyah isti’aarah because the wind is likened to a human being with its musyabbah bih removed and hinted at with a word that indicates its unique nature, namely the word anfaas which becomes a makniyyah karinah. And the word ghaazalat has the characteristics of isti’aarah murasysyahah.


  1. In the word ‘amuud there is isti’aarah tashrihiyyah ashliyyah. The leader of the people is likened to a pillar because they both bear the burden, and its karinah is the word yahlik (perish). And in the words ilaa hulkin yashiiru there is the characteristic of isti’aarah mujarradah.


  1. Longing is similar to thirst because they both look at something that they are aiming for. So its isti’aarah is the isti’aarah of tashrihiyyah ashliyyah. Its karinah are the words ilaa ligaa-ika. Thus, the isti’aarah is a muthlagah isti’aarah.


  1. In the word maridhat there is isti’aarah taba’iyyah, which is the likening of darkness to sickness because both are unclear about the activity taking place. Then the word maridhat was formed from the root word al-maradh. So the isti’aarah is the isti’aarah of tashrihiyyah taba’iyyah. And in the words maa yadhii-u lahaa najmun walaa gamarun there is the characteristic of isti’aarah mujarradah.


  1. An-naur is a flower or white flower, and what is meant by it is a woman because they are both beautiful. So its isti’aarah is the isti’aarah of tashrihiyyah ashliyyah. With the mention of the word al-khuduur, there is the characteristic of isti’aarah mujarradah, and with the mention of the word al-kamaa-im there is the characteristic of isti’aarah murasysyahah. So, the isti’aarah isti’aarah muthlagah.


  1. As-Sariyyur Rafa’ said:


The hands of spring have written several sheets, as if the beauty of the tall tree is the writing (of the woman/lover).


  1. When time has puffed out its chest to some people, then it will inflict trials on others.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said in criticizing Kafuur:


The keepers of the Egyptian crops slept regardless of their bloated weasels even though the bunches (of dates, grapes, etc.) were not exhausted.


  1. A poet characterizes a war:


Death invades a class of people escorted by soldiers with sharp swords and pointed spears.


  1. I see sunlight like a hunter’s trap that encloses us from all directions.


Wherever we go, it is always with us, but death is thirsty and hungry, and watches our comings and goings.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


The ancients had the age when they were young so they had the pleasure of it, whereas we have the age of old age and senility.


  1. Abu Tamam said:


My anxiety slept away from me after I said to him, “This is Abu Dullaf (a brave man) who fulfills all my needs.”


  1. Beware of killing your youth, for every killing has its gishash (recompense).


  1. Some poets said in characterizing the book:


We have friends whom we never tire of telling stories about. They are very smart and trustworthy, both when we are away and when we are at home.


  1. Abu Tamam said:


When I put you forward to face the danger, it was I who could vanquish it. The sword cannot defend you before it is drawn.


  1. Pulan has been covered with shame and reproach that cannot be washed away forever.


  1. Describe the following types of isti’aarah and also explain the characteristics of the mujarradah isti’aarah! …


  1. May Allah love the one who restrains his lusts by avoiding all his desires.


  1. Exchange your honor with virtuous deeds to be safe from harm.


  1. His opinion illuminates difficult matters.


  1. His tongue is untied, so his speech is concise and difficult to imitate.


5, His eyes never flicker with sleep because of restlessness and staying up late.


  1. AI-Mutanabbi said:



A great distance has separated me from women (whose eyes are as keen as) gazelles. However, (my heart is comforted) by (their) mosquito nets and veils.


  1. Do not dive into a conversation to which you have no right to listen.


  1. Do not gossip about the honor of others, for indeed the worst of manners is swearing.


  1. Between the two lower jaws is a sharp sword and have the right words.


  1. The earth is clothed with vegetation and flowers.


  1. The lightning smiles, so it illuminates its surroundings.


III. Explain why the following isti’aarahs are called muthlagah isti’aarahs and explain their types!


  1. A Bedouin said about wine:


I will not drink anything that takes away my mind.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said in praise of the person he was praising:


O moon, O sea, O cloud, O lion of Shara, O protector, O man.


  1. A Bedouin Arab characterized the season of famine:


The dust is dry and the treasures are gloomy.


  1. “Allah Almighty says:


They are those who exchange misguidance for guidance and punishment for forgiveness. So how dare they oppose the fire of hell. (QS Al-Baqarah: 175)


  1. I saw (boats like) mountains dividing the sea.


  1. The news spread throughout the city.


  1. Birds sang their songs on the branches.


  1. The sun emerged from the valley.


  1. Time strikes us with its army of day and night.


  1. Explain the following isti’aarahs by describing their murasysyahah, mujarradah, and muthlagah characteristics!


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


On his cheeks, when his close friend intended to travel, there was rain that increased the weariness of those cheeks.


  1. At-Tihami said in refutation of those who spite him:


There is no sin on me, I have intended to conceal my advantages, as if I were blocking the light of the sun.


  1. Abu Tamam said of the man he praised:


Famine had struck the island, so I said to its inhabitants: Wait for the dew when lightning cannot wait for rain.


4 Badruddin Yusuf Adz-Dzahabi said:


Come, my friend, to the garden that comforts one who is troubled and weary. The garden’s breeze beats his tail and its flowers laugh in his sleeve.


  1. Ibnul Mu’tazz said:


Do you not know the blessing of the sky for the earth and the gratitude of the gardens to the rain.


  1. Sa’id bin Humaid ( ) said:


The full moon has promised to come at night. So when it fulfills its promise, I will fulfill my vows.


  1. The mountain comes to visit me until I am annoyed by its nagging.


  1. A Bedouin Arab said:


How difficult it is to change one’s opinion when one is emotional, and how hard it is to curb one’s passions when one is pubescent.


  1. A Bedouin said in characterizing the Banu Barmak:


I see them clothed in pleasure, as if pleasure were one of their garments.


  1. Make the following isti’aarahs into murasysyahah isti’aarahs and mujarradah isti’aarahs respectively!


Do not bear riya’: Do not blindly pursue people: Do not underestimate the affection of friends: Do not befriend evil: Do not be deceived when looking at all affairs by mirages, but follow the light while in this world: Avoid darkness: When you fall, get up, do not despair: When the times lighten upon you, then beautify yourself, and be not gloomy.


  1. a. Make six isti’aarah tashrihiyyah consisting of isti’aarah murasysyahah, mujarradah, and muthlagah!


  1. Make six isti’aarah makniyyah consisting of isti’aarah murasysyahah, mujarradah, and muthlagah!


VII. Describe the following stanzas of poetry and explain the type of beauty of their imagery! Ash-Sharif said in characterizing the night:


Many a night I visit in haste, while the morning takes refuge in darkness. Dawn springs up around it, and darkness slips from its reins. It is as if the jostling clouds are the horses and the lightning the reins.


A.4 Isti’aarah Tamtsiliyyah

  1. Examples
  2. The sword has returned to its sheath and the lion has made its lair in the forest. (For a mujahid who returns to his country after traveling).


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


Whoever feels bitterness in his mouth because of pain, surely fresh water is bitter to him. (For one who is not endowed with the talent to understand the beauty of poetry).


  1. Jahizah breaks the speech of every speaker. (For one who speaks words of judgment).


  1. Discussion When a man who has been out of work returns to his country, he is neither the true sword returning to its sheath nor the true Lion reoccupying its den. Thus, the two phrases are not used in the strict sense, so they are majas. The karinah is ha. liyah. The relationship between the two meanings, hakiki and majasi, is musyabahah (an element of similarity) because the situation of a person who goes away from his country to work hard and returns to his country after a long period of hardship is likened to a sword that is drawn from its scabbard to fight and after gaining victory, it will return to its scabbard. The same is true of the lion who retreats to his den.


Al-Mutanabbi’s verse indicates the essential meaning, i.e. that a person who is sick and his mouth tastes bitter when he drinks clear, fresh water, then it tastes bitter to him. However, he did not use it for this meaning, but rather directed it at those who criticized his poetry because they did not have a talent for poetry. So, the sentence structure is majasi de. ngan linking the meaning of likeness. The musyabbah is the state of people who criticize poetry, and the musyabbah bih is the state of sick people who get a bitter taste of clear and fresh water.


The third example is the proverb of the Bedouin Arabs. Its origin is that a people gathered to deliberate and make speeches in order to reconcile two tribes that were arguing because one of the tribes killed someone from the other tribe. In this situation, a young woman named Jahizah came and explained to them that the family of the murdered man had found his murderer and had avenged him. So one of them said:


Jahizah breaks the argument of every speaker. ‘ Subsequently this phrase became a proverb in every forum where words of judgment (argumentative explanations) were uttered.


Thus, we find in the above examples a sentence that is used not in its essential meaning, and that the relationship between the majasi meaning and the essential meaning is one of likeness. Any such sentence structure is called isti’aarah tamtsiliyyah.


3, Rule

(21) Isti’aarah tamtsiliyyah is a sentence structure that is not used in its original meaning because there is a relationship of similarity (between the original meaning and the meaning of the majasi) accompanied by a karinah that prevents understanding the sentence with its original meaning.


  1. Exercises
  2. Among the proverbs of the Arabs:


 Before archery, the quiver must be full. (This sentence is conveyed to a person who wants to build a house, but does not have enough money)


  1. You paint on the surface of the water. (This sentence is addressed to a person who is pursuing an endeavor that he cannot possibly accomplish completely).


Completion Examples:

  1. A person who wants to build a house before the costs have been collected is similar to a person who wants to go to war while his quiver is still empty. The point of similarity is that both are in a hurry to do something before the supplies are balanced. Then the sentence structure that shows the state of the musyabbah bih is conveyed to the musyabbah as isti’aarah tamtsiliyyah. Its karinah is haliyah.


  1. A person who insists on achieving something impossible is likened to a person who paints on the surface of water. The point of perfection is that both are doing something that does not bring results. Then the sentence that shows the state of the musyabbah bih is addressed to Mun syabbah as isti’aarah tamtsiliyyah. Its karinah is haliyah.


  1. Describe a situation, then make it the musyabbah for the following sentences, and make five isti’aarah tamtsiliyyah!


  1. Indeed, you will not be able to pluck grapes from a thorn tree.


  1. You blow on ashes.


3 Do not sow diamonds in the presence of pigs.


  1. Hunt in the lion’s den.


  1. The bow is in the hands of the expert.


  1. You consider a swollen person fat.


  1. You strike iron that has cooled.


  1. He builds a building without a foundation.


  1. Every sword has a part that is not sharp.


  1. A believer will not be pecked twice from one hole.


  1. Fresh water sources are hotly contested.


  1. Tie up your camel, then trust in Him.


  1. You reap what you sow.


  1. Thou shalt cast thy heap with other heaps.


  1. They destroy their houses with their own hands.


  1. Indeed, iron can be cut with other iron.


  1. He who has a pain in his chest will surely expel his phlegm.


  1. Every racing horse must have broken down.


  1. Whoever hopes for the sea thinks little of Su. ngai little.


  1. Is it the bad dates or the wrong measure?


  1. Explain the following types of isti’aarah and make a tamtsiliyyah isti’aarah!


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


Fulfillment of promises has disappeared, and you will not find it in covenants. And honesty in news and oaths is even more rare.


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


When a wound is treated after it is severe, then the negligence of the doctor appears.


  1. A poet said:


When will a building reach its perfection if you build it while others tear it down?


  1. Allah Almighty says:


Show us the straight path. (QS Al-Fatihah: 6)


  1. Allah says:


We will leave them on that Day mixed up with one another, then We will blow the trumpet again and gather them together. (QS Al-Kahf: 99)


  1. Al-Barudi said:


In the vastness of the sea, a little water (fresh water) is needed.


  1. Another poet said:


Whoever can control countries without war, it is easy for him to give them away.


  1. A poet said:


Their positions and faces illuminate the darkness of the night, so that one who strings the grains of a necklace can assemble them.


  1. A poet said:


 Whoever proposes to a beautiful woman, the dowry is not burdensome for him.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


Take care of yourself, for I am not one who, if I feared the bite of a poisonous snake, would sleep on a scorpion.


  1. You are like one who sells dates to Hajar (a town in Yemen known for producing dates).


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


Swords and spears bring wealth to life, while smiles and charity kill it.


  1. He said to Saif ad-Daulah:


Remember O unsheathed sword, no one doubts it and no one can hinder it.


  1. The barking of the dogs does not harm the clouds. The barking of the dogs does not harm the clouds. The sword does not praise anyone who carries it.


  1. I cut off the nails of my relative’s malice by my patience with him, while he has no patience.


  1. The beautiful woman is not free from reproach.


  1. Our Lord, grant us patience, and die Muslims.


III. Turn the following dhimniyyah tashbih into isti”aarah tamtsiliyyah by removing the musyabbah and estimating another suitable situation to be used as musyabbah!


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


I do not expect (from you) except what is appropriate for me to expect from you. Whoever wishes for rain from other than the clouds is wrong.


  1. If the kings think that you are one of them because they boast about you, then indeed the sun is one of the planets.


  1. He said:


Take what you see, and leave the news that you hear about it. In the appearance of the moon, there is no need for the star Zuhal ( ).


4 He said:


May your reproach have a praiseworthy effect, for sometimes the body becomes healthy through the attack of disease.


  1. One of the poets said about a noble person, who was almost helpless.


Did the most despicable of the people complain of gluttony, while a young man complained of hunger.


For some reason, the region around Mecca is barren, while the rest of the world is not.


  1. Turn the following tamtsiliyyah isti’aarah into dhimni tashbih by mentioning an appropriate situation to serve as musyabbah placed before each isti’aarah!


  1. He walked slowly, but reached his destination early.


You are willing to forgo the spoils by returning (to victory and sclamat).


  1. You enlighten people, yet you are burnt.


  1. The thing that hurts you the most is that in your health you see death.


  1. The injury to both eyes will not be like the natural blackness of the eyelids.


  1. It is certain to get to the honey in the wax to experience bee stings.


  1. He blew on other than coals.


  1. You sing the song of the camel driver, but there is no camel.


  1. State the situation that can be taken from each stanza of the following poems, then make an isti’aarah tamtsiliyyah!


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


Whoever makes the lion the catcher of game will not escape; he himself will be hunted by the lion.


  1. I saw in the ashes a light that was almost burning.


  1. Estimate your footing before you step, for he who treads on slippery ground negligently will slip and fall.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


 Only hardship will be encountered by the one who envies the sun’s rays and endeavors to bring something similar to it.


  1. Al-Bushairi said:


Sometimes a sick eye is reluctant to look at the sunlight, and sometimes a sick mouth is reluctant to taste water.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


When a young man is accustomed to the challenges of death, it is very easy for him to pass through the muddy path.


7, He said:


A person who is constantly stalked by death is not like a person who is constantly deceived by intoxicants.


  1. Kutsayyir izzah said:


It is good for “Izzat without feeling unhappy if he invalidates our honor while it is not painful.


  1. Farazdag thought of killing Mirba’. Be happy, O Mirba’, with a long salvation.


  1. It is a certainty that water in a pot heated over a fire will come to a boil.


  1. If Hadzami predicts, then correct him, for the correct predictions are those of Hadzami.


  1. The goat is so thin that its loins are visible and can be bought by anyone with a little money.


  1. 1. Make an isti’aarah tamtsiliyyah to describe a person who is lazy, but hopes to succeed!


  1. Make an isti’aarah tamtsiliyyah to describe a person who spends his wealth on unproductive things!


  1. Make an isti’aarah tamtsiliyyah to describe a person who writes, then erases, then writes, then erases again!


  1. Make two Arabic proverbs in the form of isti’aarah tamtsiliyyah!


VII. Briefly explain the following poem of Al-Mutanabbi and mention the bayan expression that caught your attention!


Time throws various calamities at me, until my heart is covered with arrows. Then when the arrows hit me, the eyes of the arrows break the eyes of the other arrows.


A.5 The value of isti’aarah in Balaghah It has been explained earlier that the value of tashbih in balaghah is found in two aspects, namely in the arrangement of words and in the creation of musyabbah bih which is far from the reach of the heart except the heart of the artistic soul, who is endowed by Allah with a normal literary talent to recognize the aspects of similarity of some things in detail, and endowed by Him with the ability to assemble some meanings and branch them out to almost infinity.


The secret of isti’aarah in balaghah is no more than these two aspects. The value of isti’aarah in terms of its wording is that the sentence seems to ignore tashbih, but requires us to imagine a new image whose beauty distracts us from the content of the sentence in the form of hidden tashbih.


Consider Al-Buhturi’s words about Al-Fat-h bin Khaqan:


He rose high with a gentle palm, and flowed to those who wished for good, and with diligent eyes eyeing greatness. Do you not know the palm of his hand that is fantasized in the form of a thick cloud that pours out its heavy rainwater on those who wish for it. Such an image has taken hold of your senses that it forgets you from the tashbih contained in the sentence.


And if we look at his words when mourning the death of Al-Mutawakkil who died because he was lied to:


The one who lies down spends his nights (with his last breaths), while death has its nails red with blood.


So can we remove from our imagination the frightening image of death, that of a beast whose hooves are red with blood because of another animal it killed.


Therefore, the value of isti’aarah in balaghah is greater than that of tashbih baligh because even though tashbih baligh is composed on the assumption that the miusyabbah and musyabbah bih are the same, the tashbih is still intentional and visible. In contrast to Isti’aarah, in which the tashbih is ignored and hidden. Among the examples we can see that the value of isti’aarah murasysyahah is greater than isti’aarah muthlagah, and the value of isti’aarah muthlagah is greater than isti’aarah mujarradah.


As for the value of isti’aarah in terms of engineering and beauty of illusion and its influence on the souls of the listeners, it is a free opportunity for creativity and a competition for literary experts.


Consider the words of Allah Swt. in characterizing hell:


It is almost divided because of anger. Every time a group (of disbelievers) is thrown into it, the guardians (of hell) ask them, “Has there not come to you (in the world) a warner?” (Al-Mulk: 8).


The image of Hell will then come to mind in the form of a large, cruel creature, haunted in appearance, grim, and churning in its chest due to vengeance and anger.


Then consider the words of Abul ‘Atahiyah in congratulating Al-Mahdi upon becoming caliph:


The office of caliphate came to him dragging its tail.


So we find that the office of the caliphate as a soft and delicate woman, and an intoxicating seductress, and a fitnah for all people. He rejected it and always turned away from them. However, she comes to the Mahdi submissively, submissively and intimately while pulling her shawl out of respect and humility.


This description is undoubtedly very beautiful and will always be sweet to hear and pleasant for all time. Then consider the words of Al-Barudi: –


When one of our luminaries has drawn his sword blade, the whole world will be terrified and time will turn away. What can you catch and what impresses you from the atmosphere expressed in the above poem? Also, what do you make of the physical image of the great heavenly realm as something visibly alive and shivering with fear, and the image of time turning away in confusion? Then consider Al-Barudi’s words in his exile in a state of despair:


I hear the movement of hope in my soul, and I glance at uncertainty in my heart.


This poem describes hope as something that moves forward with tangible steps that the ear can hear, and doubt is described as something with a body that the eye can see. Do you see any more beauty than this description in describing doubt and hope as attracting each other and do you also feel the influence of the beauty of this fantastic description?


Then consider the words of Ash-Sharif Ar-Ridha about separation:


I hid my tears in my shirt pocket out of shame, and also the longing in my heart.


The poet hid his tears so that he would not be reproached as weak in the face of separation, when he could have declared, “Nasturu ad-dam’a fil-juyuubi hayaa’an.” However, he wanted to reach the pinnacle of heights in presenting information because the word nasrigu (I conceal) depicts in your imagination his great fear of his weakness being recognized, and depicts his skill and speed in concealing his tears from the eyes of others.


Had it not been for the limited space of this book, we would have presented more beautiful descriptions of isti’aarah. However, we believe that the examples we have given are sufficient and meet our expectations.


A.6 Mursal Majas


  1. Examples
  2. Al-Mutanabbi said:


He has hands that are abundant to me, and I am a part of them, and I cannot count them.


  1. Allah swt. says:


… and sends down for you sustenance from the heavens. (QS Al-Mu’min: 13)


Many times we sent large armies and we released many spies.


  1. Allah swt. says, narrating the complaint of Prophet Nuh a.s.:


And indeed whenever I called them (to faith) that You might forgive them, they put their fingers in their ears. (QS Nuh: 7)


  1. Allah says:


And give to the orphans (who have reached puberty) their property. (QS An-Nisa’: 2)


  1. Allah swt. Says narrating the complaint of Prophet Noah a.s.:


“If You had left them, they would have led Your servants astray, and they would have given birth to none but children who are transgressors and disbelievers. (QS Nuh: 27)


  1. Allah swt. says:


So let him call upon his people (to help him) and then We will call upon the Angel of Zabaniyah. (QS AlAlag: 17183)


  1. Allah swt. says: –


Verily, those who are devoted are indeed in great enjoyment (of Paradise). (QS Al-Muthaffifin: 22)


  1. Discussion


We have seen that isti’aarah is a lughawi majas and bah, wa isti’aarah is a word that is used not for its original meaning because of the similarity between the two meanings, namely the original meaning and the majasi meaning. Next, we look at the examples above and discuss the majas contained in them.


Look at the word ayaad in Al-Mutanabbi’s poem. Do you think that he intends its real meaning, which is the real hands? What he is referring to is a lot of pleasures. So, the word ayaad in this expression is a figure of speech. However, do you see any similarity between hands and pleasures? Of course not. If so, what is the connection between the two meanings, when the Arabs will not use a word for another meaning unless there is an obvious connection and relationship between its original meaning and its compound meaning? Know that the hand is essentially a tool for conveying some pleasure. So, the hand is the cause of that pleasure. Therefore, the connection is as-sababiyyah, and this is widely used in Arabic.


Then look at the words of Allah Swt. in the second example! Sustenance is not sent down by Allah from the sky, but rather it is sent down as rainwater by which vegetation comes to life and becomes a source of sustenance for us. So sustenance is the musabbab or effect of the rain. So, the relationship is musabbabiyyah.


As for the word al-“uyuun in the third example, it means spies. So, it is very easy to understand that the use of the word is majas. The connection is that the eyes are a part, even a very dominant part of the mirrors, and hence what is said is only a part, but what is meant is the whole. Therefore, it can be said that the connection is juz’iyyah.


Furthermore, if we look at the words of Allah Swt. in the fourth example. We are sure that it is not possible for a person to put his whole finger in his ear. So, even though the verse mentions the whole finger, what is meant is the tip of one of the fingers (usually the left and right index fingers). The use of these words is a figure of speech, and the relationship is kulliyyah.


Then look at the words of Allah in the fifth example. We know that an orphan is a child whose father died. Are you suggesting that Allah is commanding to give the father’s estate to young orphans? This is not correct. Rather, what is correct is that Allah commands to give the property to orphans who have reached the age of majority. So, the use of the word yataamaa in the verse above is a figure of speech because what is meant by it is people who have actually left their orphans. The connection between these two meanings is i’tibaar maa kaana (considering what has passed).


Next, look at Allah’s word in the sixth example. The word faajiran kaffaaran is both meanings because the newborn child cannot commit sins and cannot commit kufr, but may do so after childhood. So, what is said is that the child is sinning, but what is meant is that the adult is sinning. The connection is i’tibaar maa yakuunu (considering something that will happen).


In the seventh example, Allah says: “Fal-yad’u naadiyah.” The command in this verse is to mock and belittle, because we know that the meaning of the word an-naadii is a gathering place. However, what is meant by it is the people who are in the same place, both the family and the servants. So, the word an-naadii in this verse is a figure of speech, which mentions a place, but what is meant is the people who occupy it. The relationship is al-mahalliyyah.


The opposite is what Allah says in the eighth example. The pleasure cannot be occupied by humans because the pleasure is something abstract. What can be occupied is the place of pleasure. So, the use of the word pleasure for the place is a figure of speech, which is mentioning something that occupies a place, but what is meant is the place, so the relationship is al-haaliyyah.


If this is the case, i.e. any figure of speech in which the relationship between the original meaning and the meaning of the figure of speech is not similar and there is a karinah that prevents the understanding of the original meaning, then know that this type of linguistic expression is called a mursal figure of speech. .


  1. Rule

(22) A mursal is a word that is not used for its original meaning because of a relationship other than likeness and a karinah that prevents understanding the original meaning.


(23) The relationship between the original meaning and the compound meaning in mursaj is: as-Sababiyyah, al-Musabbabiyyah, al-Juz-iyyah, al-Kul. liyyah, Ytibaaru maa kaana, I’tibaaru maa yakuunu. al-Mahalliy. yah, al-Haalliyyah.


  1. Practice


Sample Problems:


  1. I drink the water of the Nile.


b The preacher said a word of great impact.


  1. Ask the city we were originally in.


  1. The Egyptians wear cotton produced by their country.


  1. The gallant horses are behind them all the way, and their swords above them all the day.


  1. I will light a fire.


Examples of Completion:

  1. What is meant by the water of the Nile is part of it. Majas mursal, the relationship is al-kulliyyah.
  2. What is meant by a sentence is speech. Majas mursal, the relationship is al-juz’iyyah.
  3. What is meant by the city is its people. Majas mursal, the relationship is al-mahalliyyah.
  4. What is meant by cotton is cotton cloth. Majas mursal, the relationship is i’tibaaru maa kaana.
  5. What is meant by the whole day is the whole of the day. Majas mursal, the relationship is al-haalliyyah.
  6. What is meant by fire is the fuel that will become fire. Majas mursal, the relationship is i’tibaaru maa yakuunu.


Il. Explain the relationship of each of the underlined mursal majas!


  1. Ibnuz-Zayyat said in mourning his wife:


Remember the one who sees a child separated from his mother, he is far from sleeping and his eyes are filled with tears.


  1. A poem attributed to As-Samu-al:


Our souls flow over the edge of the sword, and do not flow on any other sword.


  1. Stop both of you at Ma’n, and say to his grave, “May you be watered by a cloud four days, then four days (again).”


  1. I will not go to the sea; I am afraid of perishing there. I am mud, while the sea is water. And mud is destroyed in water.


  1. . There is no hand but that of Allah is upon it. And there is no wrongdoer but will be tried by a more wrongdoer.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said in criticizing Kafuur:


Verily, I am a guest of liars who will not take care of me and I should not leave.


  1. The opinions of the people vary.


  1. The fulfillment of promises has dwindled and deceit has abounded.


5, And make me a good tongue for those who come after me. (QS Ash-Shu’ara’: 84)


  1. The rainwater brings life to the earth after it dies. .


  1. O you who have believed, a gishash is obligatory upon you with regard to those who are killed (i.e. those whom you are about to kill). (QS Al-Baqarah: 178)


  1. The council of ministers decreed this.


  1. You sent me a garden that is great in meaning and firm in its concluding words.


  1. I drink coffee.


  1. Don’t be an ear to receive all the gossip.


  1. m, The thief stole the house.


  1. Allah says:


“(Said one of the two): I dreamed that I was extorting Khamr.” (Yusuf: 36)


  1. Use the following words as majas mursal with the meaning relationships specified!

Word Meaning relationship

  1. Mata | Juz’iyyah
  2. Land of Sham Kulliyyah
  3. Mahalliyyah Madrasah
  4. City of Medina Mahalliyyah
  5. Katun I’tibaaru maa kaana
  6. Men / I’tibaaru maa yakuunu Leader


  1. Make two sentences with each of the following words, noting that one sentence uses the following words as mursal and the other as isti’aarah!


Pen – sword – head – friend


  1. Describe the following two stanzas of poetry and explain their meanings!


Do not be deceived by what you see in most people, for underneath the ribs lies a very painful disease. So lay down your whips and raise your swords so that you will not see any of the Umayyads again.


  1. Aali Majas


  1. Examples
  2. Al-Mutanabbi said in characterizing the Roman King after being repulsed by Saifud-Daulah:


The javelin-edged stick strolled into the priest’s house with him to repent, whereas at first he was unwilling to see the running of the short-haired blonde horse.


  1. Amr bin Ash built the city of Fusthath (ancient Egypt).


  1. Zahid fasted during the day and stood (prayed) at night.


  1. The streets of Cairo were crowded.


  1. Your earnestness is earnest and your fatigue is weary.


  1. Al-Khuthai’ah said:


Leave those favors alone, do not set out to seek them. Sit down, for surely you are the giver of food and clothing.


  1. Allah says:


And when you recite the Qur’an, We will surely put between you and those who do not believe in the Hereafter a wall. (QS Al-Isra’: 45)


  1. Allah says:


Verily, the promise of Allah is sure to be kept. (QS Maryam: 61)


  1. Discussion

Look at the first two examples! In each of them there is a fi’il (verb) that is not attributed to the fa’il (doer), namely yamsyii (to walk) attributed to al-ukkaazu (the javelin-edged staff) because the staff cannot walk, and yabnii (to build) attributed to ‘Amr bin Ash because ‘Amr bin Ash as the governor could not have participated in building directly, the builders were his workers. However, since the stick is the cause of walking and ‘Amr b. Ash is the cause of building, the fi’il is attributed to both of them.


Then in the second two examples, fasting is attributed to the day (not to Zahid as the doer), standing prayer is attributed to the night, and jostling (crowding) is attributed to the highway, even though the day is not fasting, the fasting person is the one who lives during the day, the night is also not standing, the standing person is the one who prays at night, the highway in Cairo is also not jostling, the jostling is the people or vehicles passing on the road. So, in these two examples the fi’il or something similar is attributed to a word that is not the actual attribution. The reason for this is that the musnad ilaih in both examples is the time or place where the work takes place.


In the fifth example, the two fi’ils, jadda and kadda, are attributed to their respective mashdars and not to their respective fa’ils. In the sixth example, Huthai’ah said to the person he mocked, “Sit down, for you are the one who gives food and clothing.” Do you think that after saying, “Do not set out to seek favor,” then saying, “Verily, you are the one who feeds and clothes others?” Certainly not. What he meant was none other than: “Sit with the total (men. become a burden to) others by getting food and clothing”,


So, adjectives that are mabnii faa’il are put on dhamiir mafuul. In the last two examples, the word mastuuran replaces the word saatirun, and the word ma-tiyyan replaces the word aatin. So, the maful isim is used in place of the fa’il isim. Or in other words, the adjective mabni maf’ul is attributed to the fa’il. From the examples above, we see that some fi’ils or their equivalents are not attributed to their true fa’il, but to the cause of the fi’il, to its time, place, or to its mashdar, and some adjectives that should be attributed to the maf’ul (object of the sufferer) are attributed to the fa’il (subject), and other adjectives that should be attributed to the fa’il are attributed to the maf’ul. It is easy to see that such attribution is not the true attribution, because the true attribution is the attribution of the fi’il to its true fa’il. If this is the case, then the attribution here is an idiom and is called an agli idiom, because the idiom is not found in the words, as is the case with mursal and isti’aarah idioms, but rather in the attribution, and this can be recognized through careful thought or reasoning.


  1. Rules


(24) Majas agli is the attribution of a fi’il or a similar word to a place of attribution that is not the true attribution because of a relationship and a karinah that prevents it from being understood as the true attribution.


(25) Majasi attribution is attribution to the cause of the fi’il, the time of the fi’il, the place of the fi’il or its mashdar, or attribution of the isim mabnii fa’il to its maf’ul, or the isim mabni maf’ul to its fa’il.


  1. Exercises
  2. Abu Thayyib said:


O Abal-Misk (the nickname of Kafur Al-Ikhisyidi), I expect help from you against my enemies, and I expect a victory that stains the sword with blood. And (I look forward to) a day that angers those who envy (me), and a state that puts misery in the place of pleasure.


b Allah swt. says:


(Noah said), “No one protects this day from the punishment of Allah except Allah (alone) the Merciful.” (QS Huud: 43)


  1. We went to a garden that sang a lot.


  1. Ismail built many madrasas in Egypt.


  1. Abu Tammam said:


His giving is almost insane if not treated by the rug. yah his requesters.


Example of Completion:


The attribution of smearing the sword in blood to victory is an inaccurate attribution because victory is not smearing blood on the sword, but only because of the gathering of strength and armies that smear their swords in blood. So, the above expression contains the majas agli whose meaning relationship is sababiyyah.


The attribution of making the spiteful people angry is an attribution that is not essential because the day is the time when the anger takes place. So, the above sentence contains agli majas whose meaning relationship is zamaniyyah.


  1. The meaning of the verse is (either as translated above, or): No one is protected today from Allah’s punishment except those who are dear to Allahu So, the fa’il isim is attached to the maf’ul. This is a kind of majas agli whose relation is maf uliyyah.


  1. The garden does not sing. What sings is none other than the birds or the flies and bees. So, the sentence contains majas agli whose meaning relationship is makdaniyyah.


Ismail did not build the madrasa in Egypt himself, but he only ordered its construction. So, the attribution is majas agli whose meaning relationship is sababiyyah.


  1. The attribution of a fi’il to its mashdar is an agli majas whose meaning relationship is mashdariyyah.


  1. Explain the majas agli of the underlined words in the following sentences and explain their meaning relationship and karinah.
  2. Allah swt. says:


And did We not establish their position in a safe haram area? (QS Al-Oashash: 57)


  1. The house was crowded and the rooms were bright.


  1. Greatness becomes greatness of fame (someone is very great and famous).


  1. O Umm Ghailan, you have reproached me for walking at night while you sleep, whereas a vehicle that walks at night does not sleep.


  1. When we were in power, forgiveness was our nature, and when you were in power, the whole valley flowed with blood.


  1. The times pitted them against each other and scattered their unity.


  1. O Haman, make for me a high building that I may reach the doors of the heavens. (QS Al al-Mu’min: 36-37)


  1. We sat facing the place where the fresh water was gushing.


  1. Tharafah bin AlAbd said:


The days will place before you that which you do not know, and there will come to you one whom you have not provisioned with some news.


  1. He sings like the sound of the trees and the morning stirs the birds.


  1. Verily we are friends of a people whose predecessors perished in battle, who are full of courage and help those who ask for help.


  1. Explain the majas agli in the following sentences!


  1. The road comes and goes (people come and go).


  1. It has an ascending glory and a favorable position.


  1. Times trouble them, and days crush them.


  1. Treasure does what human power is unable to do.


III. Distinguish between majas aqli, majas mursal, and isti’aarah in the following sentences!


  1. A person is blameworthy enough when you see that he has a face but no tongue.


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


Distress treats people, who are fat to become thin and makes the head of a child turn like an elderly person.


  1. Ash-Sharif Ar-Ridha said to gray hair:


O morning, perish! Then how dark my days will be after that darkness.


  1. An-Nabighah Adz-Dzibyani said:


So all night it was as if I had been bitten by a skinny little striped snake, in whose fangs was a very dangerous venom.


  1. Many times I taught him to compose rhymes, but when he could compose them, he mocked me.


  1. And We poured down upon them a heavy rain. (QS Al-An’am: 6)


  1. The night drew its curtains.


8 Then both of them (Prophet Khidhr and Prophet Moses) found in the land a wall that was about to fall down, so Khidhr raised the wall. (QS Al-Kahf: 77)


  1. There is no virtue unless you wear it, and there is no people unless you lead it.


  1. And your Lord came, while the angels were marching. (QS AlFajr: 22)


  1. (Pharaoh) slaughtered their children. (QS Al-Oashash: 4)


  1. Describe the following stanzas and explain the agli majas found in them!


The people before us have been friendly with this age, and what troubles us troubles them. All of them left this age with sorrow, though at times it was happy for some of them. His nights are often friendly to him, but they are hard on the good. It is as if the people who helped those days are unwilling to what happens among us because of calamity. When the age has grown a spear shaft, then one puts a spearhead on the shaft.


  1. The Value of Mursal Majas and Aqli Majas in Balaghah If we look at the various kinds of mursal majas and agli majas, we will find that most of them express the intended meaning briefly. When we say: (The commander drove away the enemy troops) or (The assembly decided so), it would be more concise than saying: (The commander’s army drove away the enemy troops) or (The experts of the assembly decided so). There is no doubt that this brevity of expression is a type of balaghah.


In addition, there is another type of balaghah in these two majays, which is the skill of choosing the point of intersection between the meaning of the asi) and the meaning of the majasy by trying to make the majasy describe the intended meaning with a better description,” such as mentioning intelligence with the eyes, mentioning ears to a person who is easily offended, and mentioning khufoof and soles of the feet with the intention of beauty and horses. All of these examples are in mursal similes. Or it is like attributing something to its chapter, place, and time in majas agli because balaghah requires the selection of a strong cause and a specific place and time.


And if we look carefully, we will find that most of the mursal majas and agli majas are inseparable from the beautiful and influential mubalaghah (exaggeration) that makes them so attractive and strong in the heart. Calling a whole by meaning a part is a mubalaghah, and so is calling a part by meaning the whole, as it is said: Fulaanun famun (The moon is the mouth) to mean that the moon is a glutton who devours everything, or Fulaanun anfun (The moon is the nose) to mean that the nose is large, so it is exaggerated to mean that the whole is the nose. Among the statements in characterizing a person with a large nose are the words of some writers:


(I do not know whether he is the nose, or the nose is the nose).








  1. Division of Kinayah


  1. Examples
  2. An Arab said:


Si Pulanah is a woman who is far away where her earring drops.


  1. Al-Khansa said of her brother Shakhr:


He is a man with a long scabbard, a high pole, and a lot of kitchen ashes when he lives.


  1. Another poet said about the virtues of Darul Ulum in reviving the Arabic language:


Binti Adnan finds in you a dwelling that reminds her of the hinterland of the Bedouins.


  1. Another poet said:


(Praiseworthy are) those who strike with all their white sharp swords and pierce the gathering place of malice.


  1. Glory is in your two garments, and it fills your two burdahs.


  1. Discussion

What is meant by the place where the earring drops is the distance between the tip of the earlobe and the shoulder. So, it is as if the Arahant had changed his words to read:


(Verily, the woman has a long neck), but he tells us with a new expression that indicates that the woman has a long neck.


In the second example, Khansa’ characterizes her brother as having a long scabbard, a tall pole, and a lot of ashes. She uses these words to show that her brother is brave, honorable in his community, and generous. The length of the scabbard indicates that the owner is tall, and tall people are generally brave. In addition, the length of the pole indicates his high position among his people and family, just as a person with a lot of ashes burns a lot of firewood, then cooks a lot, then has many guests, then he is a generous person. Since the words described above are kinayahs of the attributes that correspond to their meanings, these words and others like them are called kinayahs of the attributes.


In the third example, the poet intends to state that the Arabic language found in you, O madrasa, a place to remind him of his time of isolation. However, he replaces that sharih expression by mentioning the Arabic language with a string of words that hints at it and is considered a kinayah of it, namely lafaz bintu Adnan (daughter of Adnan).


In the fourth example, the poet intends to characterize the people he praises as piercing the heart with a sword. However, he turns it away from the sharih expression to a more soulful one, namely the word majaami’al-adhghaani (the gathering place of malice) because from this word it can be understood the existence of the heart, namely as a gathering place for malice, anger, pride, and so on.


So, if we look at these two words, bintu Adnan and majaami’al-adhghaani, we find that each of them is a kinayah of the substance that corresponds to its meaning. Hence, each of these words is a kinayah of the maushuf (the thing being described), and so is each of the similar words.


As for the last example, the speaker intended to attribute honor and glory to the person he was speaking to. However, he did not attribute these two attributes directly to him, but to something related to him, namely two garments and two blankets. This kind of attribution is called kinayah ‘an nisbah. The most prominent address of this kinayah is that the words describe an attribute or something that indicates an attribute, such as the words fii tsaubaihi asadun (Inside his two garments is a lion). This example is a kinayah of attributing courage to the person concerned.


If we look again at the examples of kinayah above, we will find that some kinayah may indicate the essential meaning understood from the explicit lafaz, and in some kinayah this cannot be the case.


  1. Rule


(26) Kinayah is a word that is intended to indicate its ordinary meaning, but may be intended for its original meaning.


(27) From the point of view of what is behind the kinayah, there are three kinds of kinayah, because the thing described by the kinayah is sometimes an attribute, sometimes a want, a shuf, and sometimes a nisbat.


  1. Practice

Example Problems:


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said about Saif ad-Daulah’s battle with the Banu Kilab:


He came to them in the evening, and their bed was silk. And he came to them in the morning, and their bed was earth. One who holds a spear shaft from them, is like one who holds henna (to color the tips of the fingers).


  1. He said in praise of Kafur: –


Verily in your garment there is a majesty from which emanates a radiance that dazzles other rays.


Examples of Completion:


  1. The kinayah that their clothing is silk indicates their nobility and honor: the kinayah that their clothing is dust indicates their poverty and humiliation. So, the kinayah in these two sentences is kinayah about characteristics.


What is meant by kinayah is that the person carrying the spear is a man, while the person holding the henna is a woman. Al-Mutanabbi said that men and women are equally weak in the face of Saifud-Daulah’s attacks. Both of these kinayahs are kinayahs about maushuf.


  1. In the third stanza, Al-Mutanabbi intends to assign greatness to Kafur. However, he does not express his intention with a Sharih expression, but rather assigns the honor to something related to him, namely his clothes. So, the kinayah is about nisbat.


  1. Explain the appropriate attribute in each of the following kinayahs!


  1. We are the ones who sleep a lot at dawn (the rich).


  1. He put down his stick (stopped to rest).


  1. She is the one who is gentle with her palms (the rich).


  1. Pulan ground his teeth (angry). .


  1. Many are pointed by the index fingers (famous people).


  1. Finally, he turned his palms over what he had given, and they were empty (hard, fruitless effort).


  1. He rides on the two wings of an ostrich (fast running).


  1. The nights make him attach his palms to his staff (never stops walking all night).


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said in characterizing his horse:


And I can kill all the wild animals that I chase with this horse. And I usually dismount from a horse like him.


10, Pulan never takes his staff off his shoulders (a strong man walks).


  1. Explain the maushuf referred to in each of the following kinayahs!


  1. A people on the day of war you see their spears loving the hiding places.


  1. Allah says: –


Is it fitting (to be a child of Allah) that one should be brought up in adornment, and not be able to give a clear reason for quarreling? (Az-Zukhruf: 18)


  1. Al-Manshur was in a garden on the days of his battle with Ibrahim bin Abdillah bin Al-Hasan” and looked at a khallah tree, then said to Ar-Rabi “What is this tree?” Ar-Rabi’ replied: “Obedient, O Amiral-Mukminin.”


  1. A man passed by Ar-Rashid’s courtyard carrying a bundle of rattan. So Ar-Rashid said to Al-Fadhl bin Arabi, “What is that?” Ar-Rabi’ replied, “It is the straps for the spearheads.” He did not like to say Khizuran (rattan) because it was the same as the name of Ar-Rashid’s mother.


  1. Abu Nuwas said about khamr:


When we drank khamr and its effects began to creep through my nerves, then I said to him, “Stop!”


  1. Al-Ma’arri said about the sword:


The forge of fire is thin and slender, so it is as if his father had given him tuberculosis.


  1. Pulan was old and a warning came to him,


  1. A Bedouin asked about the cause of the fullness of gray hair replied, “It is the foam of youth.”


  1. Another Bedouin was asked about the same thing. Mak, he replied, “It is the dust of the events of the age.”


  1. It is narrated that Al-Hajjaj said to Al-Ghadhaban b. AlQaba’tsara, “I will indeed take you on adham (i.e. will drag him in chains)” Al-Ghadhaban replied, “One who is equal to the amir (lord) deserves to give adham (black horse) and ashhab (blonde horse) a vehicle.” Al-Hajjaj said, “I meant al. hadid (chain).” Al-Ghadhaban replied, “Al-hadid is really better than al-balid.” (Al-Hajjaj finally forgave him, even though he had intended to punish him. Thanks to his ingenuity, Al-Ghadhaban was finally saved from the notorious and cold-blooded Al-Hajjaj).


III. Explain the appropriate nisbat in each of the following kinayahs!


  1. Indeed, mercy, authority, and gentleness are found in the dome made for Ibnul-Hasyraj.


  1. A Bedouin said:


I entered the city of Bashrah, and the clothes of the free men were worn by the servants.


  1. A poet said:


The barakah follows its shadow, and the majesty walks after its mount.


  1. Describe the following kinds of kinayah and give their meanings!
  2. A Bedouin Arab praised a preacher:


He was wet on his tongue and moved little.


2 Yazid bin Al-Hakam praised Al-MuhallabV.


In your leadership there is favor, majesty, the virtue of peace, and position.


  1. The Arabs said:


Pulan is the one who has a long chest, clean clothes, pure sarong, and clean heart.


  1. Al-Buhturi said, describing his state after killing a wolf:


Then I followed one thrust with another thrust by plunging my blade into its heart of hearts and its malice.


  1. Another poet said in mourning a man who died of a disease in his chest:


And a disease moves maliciously in the place of his patience, like the movement of a shilal (a small, venomous and very dangerous snake).


  1. A Bedouin Arab characterized a woman:


She stretches her tail over the heel of an ostrich.


  1. Describe the following kinds of kinayahs and explain the correct interpretation of them and the incorrect interpretation!


  1. A Bedouin described a man who was bad at socializing:


When he sees me, he brings his eyebrows close to mine.


  1. Abu Nuwas praised a man:


Mercy does not pass him by nor does it hinder him. Rather, it walks when it walks.


  1. The Arabs nicknamed a man who openly antagonized others:


He puts on him the skin of a tiger, the skin of a striped snake, and turns the face of his shield against him. .


  1. The long pillow of his neck) and the thick hair of his nape.


  1. A poet said:


Anklets adorn women, but I never saw Ramlah’s anklets adorning her.


  1. The Arabs say of one who is praised:


Generosity is in the center of his garments. They say, “Pulan enlarges both ends of his lips (i.e. is proud), (he) swells his nose when angry.”


  1. A Bedouin Arab said to some rulers:


I complain to you about the lack of rats.


  1. A poet said:


The whiteness of the kitchen is because its women do not cook the jug and do not wash the handkerchief.


  1. Another poet said:


The cleanliness of David’s kitchen was most similar to the throne of Bilgis. The clothes of his cooks, when dirty, are still whiter than paper.


  1. Another poet said:


He is a young man who eats little and drinks little and is perfumed, and his cup, bowl, handkerchief, and pot are clean.


  1. Analyze the following poem and explain the kind of kinayah!


So we do not stand on our heels with bleeding wounds, but we stand on the soles of our feet with blood flowing.


  1. The Value of Kinayah in Balaghah


Kinayah is one of the phenomena of balaghah. However, it cannot be known except by those who are soft in temperament and clear in thought. The secret of balaghah in kinayah lies in some forms that explain to us a fact along with its evidence and a decision along with its proofs.


An example is Al-Buhturi’s statement about the people he praises:



They close the gift of scrutiny (eyes) so that it does not appear to them because of the great authority of the beloved in the chest. With this verse Al-Buhturi makes kinayah about people’s respect for the person they praise and their fear of him with the words that they close their eyes, which in fact this action is a proof of fear and respect. This is evident in the kinayah about the attributes and nisbat.


Among the factors that add value to kinayah in balaghah is that it brings abstract things into concrete form. Of course, this is a specialty of art, because if a painter – for example – shows us a painting, we will be overwhelmed and then be able to see what we were unable to express clearly and accurately.


Hence the words katsiirur-ramaadi (one who has a lot of ashes) as kinayah for a generous person, and the words rasuulusy-syarri (messenger/bringer of evil) as kinayah for joking, as well as Al-Buhturi’s statement:


Do you not see the majesty throwing its saddle out, ga Talhah, then not moving again. as a kinayah about the attribution of glory to the family of Talhah. All these kinayahs express the abstract in a visible form and soothe the soul.


One of the features of kinayah is that it can make us lose our grudge against our enemy without us doing anything for him and without breaking politeness. An example is Al-Mutanabbi’s statement in a kasidah praising Kafuur and satirizing Saifud-Daulah:



I departed, so many people wept for me with sad eyes, and many cried with reddened eyelids. And the sweet-toothed woman is no more frightening than the man with the sword that can cut every bone. If I didn’t have a lover who wore a face covering, it would be forgivable, but I have a lover with a turban. Who throws his arrows at me while dodging mine. And behind his protection lies lust that breaks my palms, my bow, and my arrows. When a person’s behavior is bad, so is his conjecture and justifies the prejudice that is in accordance with his habits. At first he makes a reference to Saif ad-Daulah with a turbaned lover, but then he characterizes him as a traitor by accusing him of having a woman’s temperament and reproaches him for suddenly becoming hostile. Then he accused him of cowardice because he was shooting archery while avoiding the enemy’s throws by hiding behind others, while Al-Mutanabbi did not repay him with the same evil because he only endured a long lust, which broke his palms, his bow, and his arrows when he tried to beat him in archery. Then he characterizes him as a person who has a bad opinion of his brothers because he has a bad attitude, many prejudices, so ja assumes that all people are as bad as him in acting and fulfilling obligations. Notice how he describes Saif ad-Daulah’s character in this way without even mentioning his name.


Thus, one of the features of kinayah is that it expresses ugliness in a way that does not deafen the hearer. Examples like this abound in the Qur’an and the speech of the Arabs. They do not want to express bad things except through kinayah, and because of their excessive pride they often call women eggs and goats.


Among the beauties of kinayah is found in the expression of some Arabs:


Behold, the date of Dzati ‘Irgin, may the salvation and mercy of Allah be upon you, and he will give a date to a woman whom he loves.


Hopefully, this description will be sufficient in explaining the features of kinayah and revealing its clarity and beauty.








We have seen in the previous lessons that a meaning can be conveyed in a number of different ways. Sometimes the meaning is expressed in one of the most interesting ways: tashbih, isti’aarah, majas mursal, majas agli, and kinayah. A poet characterizes someone as generous:


The kings wanted a position like Ja’far, yet they: did not do what he did. He is not richer than them, but his kindness is more extensive than theirs. This sentence is a very baligh (clear, eloquent, and appropriate to the situation and conditions) sentence with no tashbih or majas. The poet, in this sentence, characterizes the person he praises with favor, and the kings desire to be in the same position as him, but they do not buy the praise they desire with wealth, as he has done, even though he is not richer than them.


Another poet characterizes a person’s generosity with another uslub:


His mercy is like the sea that gives pearls to those who are near and sends clouds to those who are far away.


In this poem the poet likens the person he praises to the sea, and leads our imagination to liken the person he praises to the sea that casts pearls to those who are near and sends clouds to those who are far away.


Or to put it another way:


He is the sea whichever way you come to it, its depth is goodness, and its shore is mercy. In this poem the poet claims that the person praised is the sea itself by denying likeness.


This is an exaggeration and a claim of perfect likeness. Or to put it another way:


He is of such a high rank that wealth has never remained in his hands. How can the top of the mountain withstand the flood? In this verse, the poet presents tashbih to us in a vague way so that his expression reaches the highest degree of balaghah and to make the dhimni tashbih a proof for us of his claim, because he claims that the person he praises because of his high rank, wealth is always out of his hands. In order to prove this, he points to the fact that no matter how high a mountain peak is, it cannot withstand the flood.


Or to put it another way:


The river flows, so that I imagine it to be a pleasure, a pleasure from you. You water without stinginess and give without calculation.


In this poem the poet distorts tashbih in an attempt to enhance the exaggeration and to increase the attractiveness of the transpositional phrases. He likens the water of the river to the pleasures of the person he is praising, whereas in general these pleasures are likened to river water. Or to put it another way:


It is as if when he gives away his wealth while smiling, it is a cloud that pours down rain and he looks brilliant.


In this poem the poet presents tashbih murakkab and an interesting description of the situation of the person he is praising, namely that he is generous, and the smile of happiness that breaks his lips. Or to put it another way:


The hand of Fatah is generous, while the rain is miserly, for the raindrops sometimes solidify and what is hit by them is destroyed.


In this poem the poet likens the generosity of the person he praises to rain. He assumes that his generosity will not cease when the rainfall stops. Or another expression:


I have said to the thick and ever-flashing cloud, “Do not turn to Ja’far to liken him to the openness of his hand, for you are no match for him.”


In this poem the poet mentions with fearless clarity the superiority of his friend’s mercy over the mercy of the thick cloud. However, he does not feel that this is enough, rather he strictly forbids the thick cloud to liken itself to “the hand of the one he praises” because he is no match for it.


Or to put it another way: –


He walks straight on the tapestry, but he does not know whether he walks to the sea or he ascends to the moon.


In this poem the poet characterizes the state of the Roman envoy when he comes to Saifud-Daulah. He characterizes the person he praises (Saifud-Daulah) as generous by using isti’aarah tashrihiyyah which – as we know – serves as an explanation that pretends to forget tashbih, in which the exaggeration is very dominant, and its effect on the soul is very deep.


Or to put it another way:


I call upon his mercy, and he fulfills my call. And his kindness taught me how I imagined him.


In this poem the poet likens the mercy and kindness of the person he praises to a human being, but the musyabbah bih is removed and the sign is something that corresponds to it, this is one type of exaggeration that requires isti’aarah in its expression.


Or to put it another way:


 Whoever goes to the sea does not need water.


In this statement the speaker conveys an expression that seems to be a proverb. He is describing to us that the one who goes to the one whom the speaker is praising does not need the one who is lower than him, just as the one who goes to the sea does not need to carry a bucket. So, this sentence is a very beautiful and interesting isti’aarah tamtsiliyyah, in addition to containing evidence of the truth of the speaker’s charges and confirming the situation that was alleged.


Or in other words:


You always put your hand on the person over whom you exercise authority, so that I think that my life is from your hands.


The poet moves from tashbih and isti’aarah to majas mursal. The word yad (hand) means pleasure, because the hand is one of the tools and causes of pleasure.


Or in another expression: .


Your days return my days to brilliance, and your generosity kills my poverty and poverty.


The poet attributes the verb to day and mercy as a step towards creating isti’aarah.


Or to put it another way:


Heavy rains never watered him, and he did not live in a rainy area. However, mercy walks whenever it walks.


In this poem, the poet makes kinayah about the attribution of mercy to the person in question by claiming that mercy always goes with him because he replaces the statement that the person in question is merciful with the expression that mercy goes with him wherever he walks. This kinayah has a great value and influence on the soul and has a beautiful picture of meaning, more than what the listeners find in other types of sentences.


From the above examples, we can see that fourteen different uslub can be used to characterize a person with the attribute of mercy, each with its own beauty and subtlety. If we want, we can still come up with other uslub for the same purpose because poets and art experts have a high imagination and creation of almost unlimited uslub and meanings. In fact, there are still some uslub that correspond to other qualities, such as courage, defiance, and determination. However, we do not want to prolong the discussion and we are sure that if we read Arabic poetry or literary relics, we will find this clearly for ourselves, and we will be carried away to a distant imagination that can only be reached by the human mind that is capable of appreciating balaghah and being creative in arranging uslub.


These different uslubub for the same meaning are the object of discussion of Bayan Science. We do not believe that it is enough to know the science of Bayan to be able to compose an expression, because a high imagination in making an expression is not enough to be achieved by only learning the rules of balaghah, but a person can become a worthy writer, or a charming poet, or a mesmerizing orator if he reads a lot of literary books and Arabic relics, and if he is diligent in animating and understanding poetry, as well as Tajin studying prose writings that have artistic value. With this mode, a person’s artistic talent can become perfect and lead to him being able to create a beautiful and good work of art. In addition, one thing that cannot be left out is pure talent and innate sensitivity. These two factors greatly help and elevate the talent.


However, furthermore, we cannot deny the benefits of Bayan Science and underestimate its rules, because with the details of the various uslub, Bayan Science can function as a precise balance to know the types, as an art to examine each uslub and as a tool to explain the secrets of balaghah.







  1. Definition


  1. Examples
  2. Abu Ishag Al-Ghazzi said:


Had it not been for Abu Thayyib Al-Kindi, people’s ears would not have been full of praise for Ibn Hamdan.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


I am not greedy for something that still exists, and I am not disappointed by the loss of something that has disappeared.


  1. Abul-‘Atahiyah said:


Indeed, even if a miserly person becomes wealthy, you will see in him the signs of poverty.


  1. One of the philosophers said to his son:


O my son, learn you how to receive good information, just as you learn how to deliver good information.


  1. Abdullah bin Abbas gave a will to someone:


Do not speak anything that is not useful to you, and refrain from speaking in most things that are useful to you until you find the right situation to speak.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


Do not pass your time, but with indifference as long as your spirit is with your body.


  1. Discussion

Abu Ishag Al-Ghazzi tells us that Abu Abuth-Thayyib Al-Mutanabbi was the one who spread the virtues of Saif ad-Daulah bin Hamdan. For this reason he said, “Had it not been for Abuth-Thayyib, his fame would not have arisen, and people would not have known all his merits as they do now.” This statement makes it possible that Al-Ghazzi was right, just as it is possible that he was lying. If his statement corresponds to reality, then he is correct, and if it does not correspond to reality, then he is lying.


Al-Mutanabbi in the second example mentions that he is content and willing with his existing condition. So, he does not have the personality of hoping for something to come that will bring him glory, and does not regret anything that is gone. And perhaps he is lying and dishonest.


Similarly AbulAtahiyah, in the third example he may be truthful and he may be lying.


Then look at the fourth example, and you will find a man speaking to his son and instructing him to learn how to receive news properly and how to deliver news properly. The person who speaks in such a manner cannot be said to be truthful or a liar because he does not tell us about the occurrence or non-occurrence of something, rather he only calls out and commands.


The same applies to Abdullah ibn ‘Abbas in the fifth example and Al-Mutanabbi in the sixth example. They cannot be characterized as truthful or lying because each of them did not inform us about whether or not something happened.


If we look carefully at all the sentences or conversations that we hear, they cannot be separated from one of these two kinds of sentences. The first type of sentence is called kalam khabar (news sentence), while the second type of sentence is called kalam insya’ (not news sentence).


Then look at the examples above or other sentences, and you will find that every sentence consists of two basic elements, namely mahkum ‘alaih (subject) and mahkum bih (predicate). The first element is called musnad ilaih (the place where the news is attached), and the second element is called musnad (the news that is attached). As for words that do not belong to either of the two, they are referred to as gaid (sentence complements) and are not essential elements.


  1. Rule


(28) There are two kinds of speech: khabar speech and insya’ speech.


  1. Kalam khabar is a sentence in which the speaker can be said to be truthful or lying. If the statement corresponds to reality, then the speaker is truthful: and if the statement does not correspond to reality, then the speaker is lying.


  1. Kalam insya is a sentence in which the speaker cannot be said to be true or false.


(29) Every kalam, whether kalam khabar or kalam insya”, consists of two basic elements, namely mahkum ‘alaih and mahkum bih. The first element is called musnad ilaih and the second element is called musnad while the rest of the words, other than mudhaf ilaih and shilah, are called gaid.”


4 Exercises


Sample Problem:


Explain the kinds of sums (kalam/sentences) and determine the musnad ilaih and musnad in each of the following main sentences!


  1. Abdul Hamid Al-Katib gave advice about the beauty of literature to people in his profession:


O writers, compete in beautifying the aspects of literature, understand religion, start by studying the knowledge of the book of Allah, then Arabic because it is a sweetener of your language, then improve your writing because it is a decoration of your books, narrate poems, know their uniqueness and meanings, know the days of Arabs and non-Arabs, events and their life journeys because this will support the achievement of your goals.


  1. Abu Nuwas said:


The coming and stopping of sustenance is determined by the decree and power of Allah. Therefore, be patient when time afflicts you with calamity, for the shield of the steadfast is patience.


  1. Differentiate the khabariyyah from the insya’iyyah and determine the musnad ilaih and musnad!


  1. Some of the pearls of wisdom attributed to Ali bin Abu Talib r.a. in his letter to Al-Harith Al-Hamadzani100 are:


Hold fast to the provisions of the Qur’an and seek advice from it. Make lawful that which it makes lawful and forbid that which it makes unlawful. Take lessons from the events that have occurred on earth in order to deal with future events because some of the events of the world resemble some of the events of the other world. The events of the world that occur in the future follow the events that have already passed. Every event changes. Honor the name of Allah and do not mention His name except in the right thing.


  1. Among the pearls of wisdom also attributed to Ali k.w.:


Avoid the beginning of the cold and accept its end, for it attacks the body as it attacks the vegetation, first breaking it down and finally regrowing its leaves.


  1. Some Balaghah scholars wrote about the plea for mercy:


I seek refuge in your forgiveness, I take shelter in your generosity. So grant me the sweetness of favor, and forget from me the bitterness of past wrath.


III. ‘ Understand the following stanzas, distinguish between their khabariyah and insya’iyah counts, and determine their musnad ilaih and musnad!


  1. The compiler of Al ‘Igdul-Farid describes the world:


Behold, the world is (like) beautiful trees, which when one side is green, the other side is dry. He who hopes much for the world will surely be hungry. And there is no pleasure in the world except as a calamity. So do not fill your eyes with tears for weeping over a part of the world that is passing away, for surely you too will pass away.


  1. Ibn al-Mu’tazz said:


The generous person is not the one who gives his gift because he wants to be praised even if the price of his gift is high. Rather, the generous person is the one who gives his gift without any motivation other than that he knows kindness to be good.


He does not expect praise for doing good, and does not expect anything in return for giving.


III. ‘Turn it into a correct prose sentence and determine the number of khabariyyah and the number of insya’iyyah.


Do not do good except to the noble ones, for they will return pleasure to the one who gave them pleasure.


As for the one who does good to the reproachful, afterwards you will see that he is disappointed.


  1. 1. Characterize the lives of the rural people with kalam khabar!


  1. Send a letter to someone who is sick with an eye disease and you hope for his recovery, and you advise him with things that support his recovery for good, and part of the letter should be kalam insya’!


  1. Kalam Khabar

B.1 Purpose of Kalam Khabar


  1. Examples

1)The Prophet Muhammad was born in the year of the Elephant and revelation was revealed to him when he was forty years old. He lived in Mecca for thirteen years and in Medina for ten years.


2)  Umar bin Abdul Aziz did not take any money from the baitul mal, and did not set for himself a single dirham from the fai’ property.


3) Indeed you rose from your sleep today early in the morning.


4) You work in your garden every day.


5) Yahya Al-Barmaki said to Caliph Harun Ar-Rashid:


Verily, the people of ‘Barmak who are afflicted by calamity from you have yellow faces and their clothes look contemptible.


6) Allah swt. says about the complaint of Zakariya a.s.:


O my Lord, indeed my bones have grown weak and my head is covered with gray hair. (QS Maryam: 4)


7) One of the Bedouin Arabs mourned for his son:


When I call upon patience and sorrow after you, then sorrow responds obediently to my call, while patience does not. So if from you I lose hope, indeed distress will always befall you as long as time goes on.


8) Amr bin Kultsum said:


When our child reaches the time of weaning, the great and arrogant will bow down to him.


9) Thahir bin Al-Husain sent a letter to Al-Abbas bin Musa Al-Hadi who was late in paying the tribute of his region:


The one who has many needs is not the one who sleeps soundly all night. Rather, the one who has many needs is the one who spends the whole night in fear.


  1. Discussion

Look at the first two examples, each of which shows that the speaker intends to convey a law contained in the news he is delivering. The ruling is referred to as faa-idatul khabar. So, the speaker in the first example intends to inform his audience about what they did not know before, namely the year of the Prophet’s birth, the history of the revelation of the Qur’an to him, and the length of his stay in Mecca and Medina. In the second example, the speaker informs the listener about something he did not know about ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdullāh Aziz, i.e. his honor-keeping attitude and his zuhud (austerity) towards the Muslims’ wealth.


Then look at the next two examples, and you will find that the speaker did not intend to simply tell the listener something, because the ruling contained in the sentence was already known to him before the speaker spoke it. The speaker’s intention is to make it clear that he knows what he is talking about. This is called laazimul faa-idah.


Looking at the next five examples, you will find that the speaker in each of them did not intend to convey faa-idatul khabar or laazimu faa-idah, but rather had other intentions that can be discerned by those with a keen understanding by analyzing the speaker’s intentions from the sentence structure. Yahya Al-Barmakij in the fifth example did not intend to tell Harun Ar-Rashid everything he knew about the plight of the humiliated and poor Barmak people because Harun Ar-Rashid was the one who instructed the action. So it was Harun Ar-Rashid who knew more about it. Nor did the speaker intend to show that he knew about the suffering. His intention was nothing other than to appeal to Harun Ar-Rashid’s compassion and attention, perhaps so that he would pay attention to what he was saying and return to being kind and merciful to them.


In the sixth example, Zakariya characterizes himself and reveals his weakness and eroded strength. The Bedouin in the seventh example shows his sadness at the loss of his son and mate. In the eighth example, Amr bin Kultsum shows off and is arrogant with his people and proud of their strength. Thahir b. al-Husain in the last example did not intend to convey news, but rather to urge his servants to be active and earnest in collecting the tribute of their region.


All the intentions in these last five examples can be understood from the sentence structure, not from the subject matter.


  1. Rule

(30) Basically, the kalam khabar is said for one of the following two purposes:


  1. To inform the person to whom it is addressed of the ruling that it contains, and that ruling is called faa-idatul khabar.


  1. To let the speaker know that he knows the ruling, and this is called laazimul faa-idah.


(31) However, sometimes kalam khabar is said for other purposes that can be understood from the structure of the sentence. These other purposes include:


  1. Al-Istirhaam, to seek mercy.
  2. Izhhaarudh-Dha’fi, to show weakness.
  3. Izhhaarut-Tahassur, to show disappointment.
  4. Al-Fakhr, for arrogance.
  5. To urge effort and diligence.


  1. Exercises

Sample Problems:


1) Mu’awiyah r.a. was a good political and leadership person, merciful and gentle in his place, and harsh in his place.


2) You really educate your children with gentleness and love, not with harshness and torture.


3) Umar bin Al-Khaththab died in the year twenty-three Hijri.


4) Abu Firas Al-Hamdani said:


My mercy is the number of stars, my house is the refuge of the noble and the resting place of the guests.


5) Abu Thayyib said:


Not everyone who loves beauty can realize it, and not everyone who realizes beauty is perfect.


6) Abu Thayyib said in mourning the sister of Saifud-Daulah:


O death, you have betrayed, how many people’s souls have you taken with your calamity and how much have you silenced their hustle and bustle.


7) AbulAtahiyah mourned the death of his son Ali:


I wept for you O Ali, with my tears, but they did not benefit you in the least. In your life there were many lessons for me, and today you are a deeper lesson than when you were alive.


8) Indeed, the eighty and my discovery of them have made my hearing in need of an interpreter.


9) Abul-‘ala’ Al-Ma’arri said:


I have a thought that is not willing with your true position, given that I dwell between two high stars.


10) Ibrahim bin Al-Mahdi said to Al-Ma’mun:


I committed a great wrong, and you are very forgiving. So if you forgive me, that is what I hope for, and if you kill me, then you are just.


Sample Answers:


1) It means to inform the person being spoken to of the ruling contained in the conversation.


2) It means informing the person being spoken to that the person being spoken to knows how to educate his child.


3) To inform the person being spoken to of the ruling contained in the speech.


4 To show pride, because Abu Firas wanted nothing more than to boast of his generosity and morals.


5) To inform the person spoken to of the ruling contained in his speech because Abu Thayyib wanted to explain to those who heard about the negligence in kindness that some people do.


6) To show sadness and suffering.


7) To show distress and sadness at the departure of his parents.


8) To show weakness and incompetence.


9) To boast of intellect and speech.


10) To ask for mercy and compassion.


  1. Explain the meaning of the following sentences!


  1. Whoever improves his relationship with Allah, Allah will improve his relationship with his fellow human beings. Whoever improves his affairs in the Hereafter, Allah will improve his worldly affairs. And whoever makes himself a warner, Allah will be his protector.


  1. Indeed, you are able to restrain anger and be patient when angry, you are willing to forgive when in power, and are patient with slips.


  1. Abu Firas Al-Hamdani said:


Indeed we, when times become precarious and wars escalate, you ask for help to keep around our homes the means of courage and mercy to welcome the enemy with sharp swords, and for his dig in the form of red camel cattle. That was and is our tradition, blood is flowed and the blood is paid.


  1. A poet said:


The bright nights have passed in childhood, and gray hair comes on every dark day.


  1. Marwan bin Abi Hafshah stated in a long gasidah in mourning Ma’n bin Za-idah.


Ma’n has died in the path of Allah leaving behind merit that will not perish and cannot be achieved by others. It was as if the sun on the day of Ma’n’s death was shaded because it was so dark. He is the mountain on which Bani Nizar repelled his enemy to another mountain. If because of his death his country becomes silent and sinks, then with his death pride will survive. That death when it happened to Ma’n was to have taken away a man who was the most noble of his deeds.  All people feel an interest in Ma’n so they visit his grave.


  1. Another poet said:


So there is no power for me except to hope and be favorably disposed towards your forgiveness if you forgive.


Many times because I slipped into sins (mistakes), I bit my fingertips and gnashed my teeth (regret). People think I am good, when in fact I am truly the worst of creatures if you do not forgive me.


  1. Abu Nuwas said when he was sick before his death:


Illness attacked me from above and from below, and I thought all my limbs were dying one by one. My youth had passed by following my lusts, and I came to the realization of obeying Allah when I was clothed in decay and emaciated (old age). My soul suffered day and night, all of which I spent in play and extravagance. We have truly done wrong. Therefore O Allah, I ask for Your forgiveness and pardon.


  1. When you see a disgrace in your brother, do not hide it.


  1. Ibnuh Nabatah As-Sa’di said:


What the lazy person seeks with empty hopes will disappear, and the one who strives will be able to approach his needs.


  1. Al-Amir Abul-Fadhl Ubaidullah’) characterized the rainy day:


The heavens afflicted me on a clear day with a shower of rain that covered my negligence.


My friends were able to avoid the danger, whereas it covered a very frightening danger.


So no one took refuge behind the walls and sought refuge in the empty mountain hollows.


The skylight did me a favor by shedding tears that did not flow with sorrow.


  1. Al-Jahizh said: “Deliberation is the seed of reason and the guide of truth; the one who deliberates is near (good fortune), and the illumination of one person by the opinions of others is a sure thing and is an educational relay.”


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said when he was sick with a fever:


I settled in the region of Egypt because neither behind nor in front of me were camels to carry me.


The bed has bored me, and my back is tired of meeting it even once a year.


  1. Describe the following saying of Abu Thayyib and explain its meaning!


I am friendly to my patience when it is tolerant towards me, and I am not friendly to my patience when it is cowardly towards me. And I do not want to abound in wealth that causes me to be humiliated, and I do not want to take pleasure in something that causes my dignity to be defiled.


III. Describe the nature of your country (with kalam khabar) with the intention of boasting about its location, its air, the clarity of the sky, the fertility of its soil, and the progress of its development.


  1. 1. Make six sums of khabariyah, three of which are for the purpose of telling the ruling contained therein, and the other three for the purpose that you also know the ruling contained therein.


  1. Make three sums of khabariyah, the arrangement and karinahs of which indicate asking for mercy, showing weakness and disappointment.


  1. Make three sums of khabariyah whose structure and karinah conditions indicate exhortation to effort, then to reproach, and the third to boast in succession.


B.2 Types of Khabar


1 Examples.

  1. Mu’awiyah wrote a letter to one of his officers. Among its contents it states:


It is not proper for us to govern people with the same rules. We should not be lenient with all people, for then they will rise up and take pride in sinning. We should not be harsh with all people, for that will not lead them to destruction. Rather you are harsh and harsh, while I am gentle and compassionate.


  1. Abu Tamam said:


A young man is successful in achieving his life, even though he is ignorant. And a young man has very little wealth throughout the year, even though he is clever.


Had sustenance been in accordance with the ability of the intellect, animals would have perished because of their ignorance.


  1. Allah says:


Verily Allah knows those who obstruct among you, and those who say to their brothers, “Come to us.” And they do not come to the battle but briefly. (QS Al-Ahzab: 18)


  1. As-Sariyyur-Rafa-i said:


Verily, when a building is destroyed on one side, it cannot be guaranteed that people will not destroy the rest.


  1. Abul Abbas As-Saffah 11) said:


Indeed I will appoint the meek as my officials so that they will become hard. Indeed I will honor certain people whom I cannot entrust their management to the general public.


Indeed I will sheath my sword unless it is drawn by truth. And indeed I will give so much that there will be no place for giving.


  1. Allah swt. says:


You will indeed be tested on your wealth and yourselves (QS Ali Imran: 186).


  1. By Allah, I really have aspirations that lead to glory, and these aspirations are not weak.


2, Discussion

If we look at the examples above, we will find that they are all kalam khabar and we find that in the first group of examples there is no taukid custom. The examples in the next two groups are reinforced with one or two or more reinforcing phrases.


So what is the secret of the difference in the number of reinforcing phrases? If we look closely, we will not find any reason other than the condition of the mukhathab (the person being spoken to). So, the mukhathab in the first group of examples is khaaliyudzdzihni (his heart is free) from the content of the news sentences. That is why the speaker does not consider it necessary to emphasize the news he is giving. Such news sentences are called ibtidaa-i (starter sentences).


In the second group of examples, the mukhathab is a little doubtful and there is a desire to know the truth. In this situation, it is best to give him a sentence that will reassure him and remove his doubts. Therefore, in the third example the sentence is strengthened with gad, and in the fourth example it is strengthened with inna. Such sentences are called thalabi.


In the last group of examples, the mukhatab denies and opposes the content of the news. In this case, the sentence must be accompanied by some means of reinforcement that can dispel the mukhathab’s denial and make him accept. This reinforcement must be proportional to the frequency of the denial. Therefore, the sentences in the fifth and sixth two examples are reinforced with two reinforcers, namely gasam (oath) and nun taukid. As for the last example, the poet estimates that the denial is even stronger, so he strengthens his statement with three kinds of amplifiers, namely gasam, inna, and laam taukid. Such sentences are called inkaari.


To strengthen the kalam khabar, there are some phrases that we will explain together with the following explanation of gawa’id.


  1. Rule


(32) The condition of the mukhathab is of three kinds:


  1. His heart is free from the ruling contained in the sentence. In this case, the sentence is delivered without the custom of taukid. This kind of khabar is called ibtidaa-i.


  1. Doubting the ruling and wanting to gain certainty in knowing it. In this case, it is better for the sentence to be conveyed accompanied by a reinforcing phrase so that it can control itself. This kind of sentence is called fhalabi.


  1. Denying the content of the sentence. In this case, the sentence must be reinforced with one or more reinforcers according to the frequency of denial. Such a sentence is called inkaari.


(33) There are many words that reinforce the khabar, including inna, anna, gasam, laam ibtida’, two nun taukid (nun khafifah and nun tsagilah), tanbih (warning) letters, zaa-idah (additional) letters, gad, and ammaa syarthiyah.


  1. Exercises



Name the following types of kalam khabar and their taukid customs!


  1. Abul-‘Atahiyah said:


I know all the consequences of the world. For this reason, I leave what I desire in view of what I fear.


b Abu Thayyib said:


Willpower comes according to the degree of firmness, and mercy will come according to the degree of mercy. A little earnestness and mercy will be great in the sight of a small person, and a great earnestness and mercy will be small in the sight of a great person.


  1. Hassan bin Tsabit r.a. said:


Verily I am sweet mixed with bitter. And verily I leave behind many things that I am not accustomed to.


  1. Al-Arrajani said:


We live in a time of fitnah, so one who is overwhelmed by fear is not to be condemned.


  1. Labid said:


Truly I know that my death will surely come. Verily the arrows of death never miss.


  1. An-Nabighah Adz-Dzubyani said:


You are not one who wants to preserve brotherhood with someone whom you do not want to associate with in a state of dusty dirty hair. Which man is clean (from disgrace).


  1. Ash-Sharif Ar-Ridha said:


Sometimes a coward with his wealth can reach a level that a brave man without wealth cannot reach.


  1. Explain the following types of kalam khabar and their taukid customs!


1 As mentioned in Nahjil-Balaghah:


Time corrupts the body, renews the imagination, brings death nearer, keeps the aspirations at bay,


then he will be fortunate: and whoever does not take advantage of it, then he will be exhausted.


  1. Al-Arrajani said:


The spirit of generosity and fulfillment of promises has disappeared from human culture except in their feelings. Betrayal by trustworthy people and others has become so ingrained that we take it for granted.


  1. Al-Abbas bin Al-Ahnaf said:


I swear that at no time did I reproach you because I feared you, but because I knew that it was not beneficial.


  1. Muhammad bin Bashiir said:


Verily, if I were to lose my enthusiasm for wealth and my wealth were not able to fulfill my needs, I would abandon everything that causes me disgrace and would rather go to the place where murky water is drawn.


5 Allah says:


Remember, the guardians of Allah have no fear for them, nor do they grieve. (QS Yunus: 62)


6 Allah says:


Fortunate indeed are those who believe, those who are solemn in their prayers and those who abstain from useless speech and action. (QS Al-Mu’minun: 1-3)


  1. Abu Nuwas said:


Indeed I involved myself with those who went astray and gave up all lustful desires with them. I had achieved what a man achieves with his youth. Then it turned out that the result of that feeling was sin.


  1. A Bedouin Arab said: –


Never have I seen anything like a ma’ruf thing: its taste is sweet and its face is beautiful.


  1. Ka’b bin Sa’d Al-Ghanawi said:


I am not one who reveals my secrets to people, and I do not ask many questions about their secrets.


  1. Al-Ma’arri said in a lament: ,


Verily he who is troubled in his house is comforted by mercy in his grave.


  1. Determine the number of khabariyyah in the following statements, explain their types and their taukid customs!


  1. Yazid bin Mwawiyah said after the death of his father:


Verily amir al-Mu’minin is one of Allah’s cords which He has extended as long as He wills, then cut when He wishes to cut it. He is below the one who preceded him and better than the one who came after him. I did not mention his cleanliness before his Lord; he has returned to Him. If He forgives him, it is for His mercy: and if He punishes him, it is for his sin. I have been entrusted with the affairs of government after him. I make no excuse for my ignorance, and I do not object to seeking knowledge. Do not be hasty; if Allah hates something, He will change it, and if He loves something, He will make it easy for it.


  1. A poet said:


Indeed if I need patience, then surely at times I need ignorance more. I am not willing of ignorance as a friend and lover, but am willing of it when I fall into it. I have a horse that rides on patience, which leads me to patience, and I have a horse that rides on ignorance, which leads me into ignorance. So whoever wishes to straighten me, then indeed I am one to be straightened: and whoever wishes to turn me aside, then indeed I can be turned aside.


III. 1. Imagine that you are arguing with a student majoring in literature, while you are a student majoring in science. Explain to him the advantages of science over literature using various kinds of kalam khabar!


  1. If you are a student of literature, then explain the advantages of literature over science!


  1. Make ten kalani khabar each containing one or more of the taukid customs you know!


  1. Describe the following two stanzas of poetry clearly, and explain the different kinds of kalam khabar they contain!


You have compassion on my enemy, yet you consider me your friend? Surely your opinion is far off (illogical). My brother is not the one who loves me before his eyes, but my brother is the one who loves me when he is not in front of me.


B.3 Deviation of the Kalam Khabar from its Natural Conditions


  1. Examples
  2. Allah swt. says:


And do not speak to Me of the wrongdoers; surely they will be drowned. (QS Huud: 37)

  1. Allah says:


And I do not exempt myself (from blame), for indeed lust always urges to evil. (Yusuf: 53)

  1. Allah says:


Then, after that, you will indeed die. (QS Al-Mu’minun: 15)


  1. Hajal bin Nadhlah Al-Oaisi said:


Shaqiq came with his spear spread out. Verily your uncle’s sons have many spears.


e Allah swt. says, calling out those who deny His oneness:


And your Lord is One Lord. (QS Al-Baqarah: 163)


  1. Ignorance is harmful. (This sentence is addressed to those who deny the danger of ignorance).


  1. We have seen from the previous explanations that if the miukhathab is empty-hearted, then the khabar does not need to be reinforced with taukid letters. If he doubts the content of the news, then it is better for the sentence to be accompanied by a taukid. And if he denies it, then the sentence must be accompanied by a taukid. This kind of speech is in accordance with the outward intention. However, sometimes there are considerations that require deviating from the original intent,


Look at the first example above, and you will find that the mukhathab is actually khaalidz-dzihni (empty-hearted, will believe completely) in the ruling that is specific to the wrongdoers. So, basically, the sentence conveyed to him did not need to be reinforced with a taukid. However, the words above are accompanied by a taukid. So what is the reason why this verse is deviated from its external meaning? The reason is that when Allah forbade Noah a.s. to complain to Him about the affairs of those who disobeyed His command, then Allah showed Noah a.s. something that would happen to them. Therefore, Allah placed Noah as a questioner who doubted whether they would be punished by drowning or not. So Allah answered with His words: “Indeed they will be drowned.”


This is the case in the second example. Indeed, the mukhathab is khaaliyudz-dzihni to the ruling contained in His words: “Verily, lust always incites to evil.” However, because the ruling is preceded by another phrase, namely the words of Allah: “And I do not exempt myself (from blame)” which implies that the lust or soul is given a ruling that it does not like, so the mukhathab is startled and focuses his attention on that ruling. Hence, Allah places him as a mukhathab who doubts and seeks the truth. And the khabar is conveyed to him with the letter taukid.


Look at the third example, and you will find that the mukhathab does not deny the ruling contained in Allah’s words: “Then, after that, you will indeed die.” But why was it conveyed to them with the letter taukid? The reason is that the signs of disbelief appeared to them because their negligence of death and their unpreparedness with good deeds to face death were considered signs of disbelief. Hence, they were placed as those who disbelieved, and the news conveyed to them was reinforced with two taukid letters.


This is the case with the words of Hajal ibn Nadhlah in his poem. Verily Syagig did not deny the spears that his uncle’s sons had. However, his coming with his spear extended not to prepare for war was something that showed his indifference and his belief that his uncle’s sons were people who had no weapons. Hence, he is placed as one who denies, and hence the news conveyed to him is reinforced with the letter taukid. Look at the fifth example, and you will find that Allah calls out to those who deny and oppose His oneness. However, He conveys the message to them without being accompanied by the letter taukid as it is conveyed to other deniers. Why is this so? The reason is that there are clear proofs and definite evidences before them, which, if they would pay attention to them, they would find very satisfying and subduing. Hence, Allah did not establish a consideration for such denial, nor did He deem it necessary to direct the khithab specifically to them. Such is the case with the last example. Indeed, before the mukhathab are several proofs of the dangers of ignorance, which, had they paid attention, would have eliminated their denial. Hence, the khabar is conveyed to him without the taukid.


  1. Rule

(34) When a khabar is delivered without a taukid to a khaaliyudz-dzihni mukhathab, but with a taukid as a kindness to the mukhathab who seems doubtful, and with a taukid as an obligation to the one who denies, then such a khabar is in accordance with its external meaning.


(35) Sometimes the meaning of a kalam khabar contradicts its outward meaning because of some considerations that are taken into account by the speaker, including:


  1. The mukhathab who is khaaliyudz-dzihni is placed as a doubtful questioner when the kalam khabar is preceded by a sentence that implies the ruling in the kalam khabar.


  1. The mukhathab who is not a denier is considered a denier because some signs of denial appear on him.


  1. The mukhathab who is a denier is regarded as a non-denier when there are some proofs and evidences before him which, if he had paid attention to them, would have eradicated his denial.


  1. Exercises



Explain the reason for the deviation of the meaning of kalam khabar in the following sentences!


  1. Allah says:


O mankind, fear your Lord, for indeed the shaking of the Day of Resurrection is a very great (terrible) event. (QS Al-Hajj: 1)


  1. Indeed, doing good to one’s parents is absolutely obligatory. (Said to the one who disobeys his parents).


  1. Verily, Allah sees all the deeds of His slaves. (Said to the one who wrongs others without right.)


  1. Allah exists. (It is said to the one who denies the existence of Allah.) ,


Sample Answers:


  1. Outwardly, this verse indicates that the message was conveyed without the use of the letter taukid, because the mukhathab was a person who was khaaliyudz-dzihni about the ruling contained in it. However, because it was preceded by a sentence that hinted at another ruling, the mukhathab’s attention was drawn to it. Hence, he is placed in the position of a doubting questioner, and it is better if the words are accompanied by a taukid.


2 The outward indications of this statement indicate that it was not necessary for it to be accompanied by the letter taukid, because the mukhathab did not deny that it is obligatory to do good to one’s parents and did not doubt it. However, his disobedience is one of the signs of disbelief. Hence, he is placed as one who denies.


  1. The outward appearance of this kalam indicates that it was basically said without the need for taukid, because the mukhathab did not deny the ruling contained in it and did not doubt it. However, he is regarded as a denier, and the words spoken to him are accompanied by the customary taukid, because he shows signs of denial, namely his tyranny against his fellow human beings without right.


  1. The outward appearance of this kalam necessitates its utterance with taukid because the mukhathab is denying the existence of Allah. However, because there are proofs and evidence in front of him, which, if he were to pay attention to them, would eradicate his denial, he is regarded as one who does not deny, and the words spoken to him are not accompanied by the letter taukid.


  1. Explain the reasons for the deviation of the meaning of the kalam khabar from its outward meaning in the following sentences.


  1. Allah says:


And supplicate for them; surely your supplication will give them peace of mind. (QS At-Taubah: 103)


  1. Allah says:


Say (O Muhammad): He is Allah, the One. Allah is the Lord on whom all things depend. (QS Al-Ikhlas: 1 – 2)


  1. Verily, the recitation of the Qur’an is a corruption. (Said to someone who knows the consequences, but refuses to work).


  1. Knowledge is beneficial. (Said to someone who denies the benefits of knowledge.)


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


Be gentle with them, O Lord, for indeed to be gentle with a sinner is a reproach (to him).


  1. 1. Construct two khabar sentences, each with a taukid, that are proper to the mukhathab, even if they contradict its external meaning, and explain the reason for each.


  1. Construct two khabar sentences, each of which must be accompanied by a taukid custom and violates its external meaning, and explain the reason for giving a taukid letter to each of them.


  1. Construct two kalam khabar which do not have the taukid custom and violate the external meaning, and explain the reason for the deviation in both examples.


III. Explain the following statement of “Antarah” and explain the reason for giving it the custom of taukid!


How great the Banu Abs are. They have indeed produced noble people like those produced by the (prominent) Arabs.


C, Kalam Insya’

C1. Kalam Insya’ is divided into Insya’ Thalabi and Insya’ Ghair Thalabi.



a, Love others as you love yourself!


  1. Among the fatwas of Al-Hasan r.a. are:


Do not demand anything in return except what you have done.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


Look, today no one is criticizing the SaifudDaulah. May all of mankind cut him down with the sharpest of swords.


  1. Hisan bin Tsabit said:


May my poem and the bird tell me what happened between Ali and Ibn Affan.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


O one for whom it is difficult to part with them, whatever we get after (parting with) you is nothing (for us).


  1. Ash-Shimmah bin Abdullah said:


By me, how good the high earth is and how beautiful it is as a resting place in summer and spring.


  1. AlJahizh said about the book:


After that, the best substitute for slipping is excuses, and the worst substitute for repentance is continued sinning.


  1. Abdullah bin Thahir said:


By your age, wealth cannot be acquired with reason, just as reason cannot be acquired with wealth.


  1. Dzur-Rummah!


Perhaps the shedding of tears can be an antidote to longing Or can cure the anxiety and distress that fills the chest.


  1. A poet said:


Perhaps the one who asks you a request today has a need when you do not serve him, it is feared that the situation is reversed, tomorrow is the day for him.


  1. Discussion All of the sentences in the examples above are kalani insya’ because they do not imply justifying or denying. If we look at the examples, they are divided into two parts. The first part is the sentences used to wish for the success of something that has not yet succeeded at the time the wish is expressed. Hence, such kalam insya’ is called kalam insya’ thalabi. As for the sentences in the second part of the examples of kalam insya’, they are not used to will something to happen, and are therefore called insya’ ghair thalabi.


If we look at the insya’ thalabi in the examples of the first part, we will find that there are insya’ thalabi in the form of amr (command) as in the first example, nahyi (prohibition) as in the second example, istifham (question word) as in the third example, tamanni (word to wish for something that is difficult to realize) as in the fourth example, and nida’ (word preceded by an exclamation) as in the fifth example. These are the types of insya’ thalabi that we will discuss further.


And if we look at the examples of the second part, we find that in some of the forms of kalam insya’, some are in the form of ta’ajjub (words that show amazement) as in the sixth example, some are in the form of al-mad-h wadz-dzamm (sentences to express praise and blame) as in the seventh example, some are preceded by a gasam (oath) as in the eighth example, some are in the form of tarajji sentences (sentences preceded by la’alla/asaa, and the like) as in the last two examples, and in addition there are also in the form of contracts such as the words bi’tu or isytaraitu.


This type of insya’ ghair thalabi buran is the field of discussion of ma’ani science, so there is no need to elaborate on it.


  1. Rule

(36) There are two kinds of insya’, thalabi and ghair thalabi.


  1. A thalabi sentence is a sentence that calls for something to happen that has not yet happened at the time the sentence is uttered. This type of speech is in the form of armr (command), nahyi (prohibition), istifham (question), tamanni (a word to express hope for something that is difficult to realize), and nida’ (exclamation).


  1. Kalam insya’ ghair thalabi is a sentence that does not require something to happen. This type of kalam has many forms, including fa’ajjub (words to express praise), adzdzanim (words to express reproach), gasam, words that begin with afalur raja, and also words that contain the meaning of contracts (transactions).


  1. Exercises


Explain the type of kalam insya’ in each of the following examples:


  1. Abu Tamam said:


Do not water me with the water of reproach, for indeed I am a drinker who finds the water of my tears tasteless.


  1. A proverb states:


Love your lover moderately, perhaps one day he will turn into the one you hate: and hate the one you hate moderately, perhaps one day he will turn into your lover.


  1. Ibnuz-Zayyat said in praise of Al-Fadhl bin Shl.


O helper of religion, when the noose is broken, you are truly the noblest of those who take refuge and help.


  1. Umayyah bin Abush-Shalt said in asking for a need:


Should I mention my need, or is your shyness enough for me, indeed shyness is your temperament.


  1. Zuhair bin Abi Salma said:


The best of people is Harim (bin Sinan), who in every calamity becomes the refuge of everyone who is afraid.


  1. Imru-ul Oais said:


O my helper, verily both of us here are travelers, and every traveler is in the same boat as another traveler.


  1. Another poet said:


If the charcoal that prevents good is prevented from getting good, so many people will feel the consequences of what they do.


  1. Abu Nuwas said in the hope of Al-Amin’s mercy:


By the One who gave you life, I will not repeat the same thing, by the One who gave you life.


i Di’bal Al-Khuza’i said:


How many people there are! No, rather how few they are! Allah knows that I do not speak lies. Verily I did open my eyes to the multitude, but I saw no one.


  1. Explain the kalam insya’, its kind, and its method in the following sentences!


  1. Abu Thayyib said in praise of himself:


I am a far cry from the disgrace and shortcomings of your morning star, while the disgrace and shortcomings are gray hair and senile dementia.


  1. He said:


May your labor be praised for its results. Often the body becomes healthy due to some illness.


  1. He said:


Alas, if only the distance between me and my beloved were as great as the distance between me and my calamities.


  1. He said in praise of Saifud-Daulah:


My Elder, you have indeed occupied death with your enemies. So in what way does death ask you for work?


5 He said in praise of the same person: |


O one who kills with his sword whomsoever he wills, yet I became a victim of your killing by your kindness.


  1. He said in praise of the same man: ‘


By Allah, had it not been for you, no one would have known how to be generous and how to strike the head (of killing).


7, He also said:


The deceit of the ignorant will befall them, while to be hostile to the poets is the worst thing to keep.


  1. He also said:


Woe to the nights that destroyed my property so tenderly; forgive me, and do not reproach me.


9 He also said:


The worst of nights are those in which I cannot sleep because of longing for and worrying about someone who sleeps soundly.


  1. 1. Make eight kalam insya’, four insya’ thalabi and four insya’ ghair thalabi!


  1. Write two phrases of kalam insya’ in gasam, two phrases in mad-h and dzamm, and two phrases in ta’ajjub!


  1. Use the following words to construct a sentence and explain the type of insya’!


Laa nahyihamzah istifhamlaitala’alla “asaahabadzaalaa habadzaamaa ta’ajjubwawu qasanihal.


III.Explain the following types of kalam insya’ and kalam khabar!


  1. By your age, this earth will not become narrow by its inhabitants. Rather, it will be the morals of the people that will become narrow.


  1. If the person who is related is not the same as his parents, then what is the use of the glory of the parents?


  1. Suppose the mountains erupt violently at the time of his death, so that not a single stone remains of him.


  1. Indeed, if some of your lamentations and words are good, then it is certain that your praises will be good.


  1. Playtime is brief and fleeting, like a kiss given by a passing lover.


  1. O my beloveds, if death had not befallen you, I would have censured you, but there is no reason to censure the times.


  1. Verily distress has a promise of happiness. They are two brothers who are at stake for the evening or the next day.


So when you hear of someone who is perishing, be sure that you will take that path, so be ready.


  1. Any courage is sufficient for one’s existence. However, courage is not the same for a wise person.


  1. Leave me, for surely stinginess does not make one immortal, and kindness does not destroy the one who does it.


  1. At some point every man will be forced to ride on the shoulders of his enemies and relatives.


  1. I think that the meeting of water and fire is no more difficult than my combining luck and intelligence,


  1. O my daughter, if you wish to know the sign of goodness and beauty that adorns the body and mind, then put away the habit of showing yourself, for the beauty of the soul is more precious and higher. Many people can make artificial roses. However, the real roses in the garden cannot be duplicated.


  1. Turn the following khabar words into insya’ words and complete the types of insya’ thalabi that you know!


The garden is flowering. The bird is chirping. The craftsmen competed with each other. The Nile was overflowing. The laborer is active. The scribe is good at writing.


  1. Explain the kinds of insya’ in the following two stanzas, then make them into good prose sentences!


O one who adorns himself with something other than his character, and one whose character changes and whose lips are sweet, return to your known character, for you will be found out when you behave with something other than your character.


C.2 Kalam Insya’ Thalabi


C.2.a Amar (command sentence)


  1. Examples
  2. Among the contents of Ali’s letter to Ibn Abbas who was then the governor of Mecca was: “Amma ba’du, perform the pilgrimage for the people and remind them of the days of Allah. Imitate them in the Maghrib and Isha prayers. Give fatwas to those who need them. Teach the ignorant. And remind one another with the pious.”


b Allah says:


And let them fulfill their vows, and let them circumambulate the old house (the House of Allah). (QS Al-Hajj: 29)


c Allah swt. says:


Take heed to yourselves; the misguided will not harm you when you are guided. (QS Al-Maidah: 105)


  1. Allah says:


And do good to your parents with the best of intentions. (QS Al-Isra’: 23)


  1. Abu Thayyib said in praise of Saifud-Daulah: .


Thus, let the one who seeks the enemy travel by night, and let like your night journey those who seek the enemy travel by night.


  1. He said to him:


Remove the envy of the envious from me by humiliating them, for you are the one who made them envy me.


g Imru-ul-Qais said:


We will cry together, remembering our beloved and our homeland which lies in Sigthil-liwa, between Dakhul and Haumal.


  1. He also said:


Remember O long night, how good it is for you to reveal the morning light, and the appearance of the morning light by you is (actually) not a better thing.


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


So whoever wishes, let him be miserly, and whoever wishes, let him be charitable. Your generosity has provided me with all my needs.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


Live as an honorable man, or live as a noble man between the lenient eye and the waving of the flag.


k Another poet said:


Show me someone who is stingy who lives a long life because of his stinginess, and show me someone who is generous who dies because he gives much.


  1. Another poet said:


If you are not worried about the consequences of your actions and you are not ashamed, then do what you want.


  1. Allah swt. says: –


And eat and drink until the white thread becomes clear to you from the black thread, which is dawn (QS Al-Baqarah: 187).


  1. Discussion

If we look at the first set of examples, we find that each of them contains a sentence demanding something to happen that has not yet happened, with a demand that is stressful and imperative. If we look further, we find that the one making the demand is in a higher position than the one who is required to do the work in question. This is the true amar (command), and if we look at its wording, it can’t be separated from the following four wording: fi’il amar as in the first example, fi’il mudhari preceded by lan amar as in the second example, isim fi’il amar as in the third example, and miashdar which replaces fi’il amar as in the fourth example.


If we look at the examples of the second part, they are not all used in their essential meaning, which is to demand a job by the higher party to the lower party as a necessity, but each of them shows a separate meaning that we can know through the sentence structure and the related situations and conditions.


Abu Thayyib in the fifth example does not intend to demand or require, but rather to advise the one who is boasting about Saif ad-Daulah and show him the path that Saif ad-Daulah took in seeking greatness and nobility. So, the wording of the command here means advice and guidance, not demands and obligations.


The wording of the command in the sixth example is also not intended for its original meaning, because Abu Thayyib AlMutanabbi was speaking to his ruler, and the ruler cannot be commanded by one of his subjects. What he meant to say was nothing but a prayer or a request. The same applies to every sentence of command given by a lower party to a higher party.


If we look at the seventh example, Imru-ul Oais imagines the presence of two friends whom he stops and weeps with, as is the custom of poets. He reveals his secrets and what is in his chest to his two friends. When this kind of statement is made by a person to his friend or enemy, it is not a demand or an obligation, but rather an offer.


Imru-ul Oais in the eighth example also did not order Majam to do something because that night he did not hear and would not carry out the order. The sentence of command that he utters is nothing but a tamanni (unfulfilled hope or supposition).


If we look at the other examples and understand their phrasing, and examine the karinahs associated with them, we find that all the wording of the command is not intended for its original meaning, but rather to indicate takhyiir (choosing), taswiyah (equating), ta’jiz (interpreting), tahdid (threatening) and ibahah (permissibility). The meanings mentioned above are in order from the ninth example (f) to the last ().


  1. Rule

(37) Amar is a demand for a task to be done by a higher party to a lower party.


(38) Amar has four kinds of words: fi’il amar, fi’il mudhari’ preceded by lam amar, isim fi’il amar, and mashdar which replaces fi’il amar.


(39) Sometimes the word amar is not used for its original meaning, but for another meaning. This can be seen from the structure of the sentence. These other meanings are irshad (guidance), supplication (request), iltimas (offer), tamanni (unattainable hope), takhyir (selection), taswiyah (equalization), ta’jid (weakening the mukhathab), tahdid (threat), and ibahah (freedom).


  1. Exercises


Example Problems:

  1. Allah swt. said to Yahya a.s.:


Take the A.l-Kitab (Torah) seriously! (QS Maryam: 12)


  1. Al-Arrajaani said: .


Deliberate with others when you are afflicted with a calamity at any time even if you are one of the experts of deliberation.


  1. Abul’Atahiyah said:


Humble yourself when you are endowed with power, and keep yourself away from lowly pleasures.


  1. Abul’Ala’ said:


O death, come, verily life is despicable. And O soul, be earnest, verily the age is lean.


  1. Another poet said:


Show me a generous person who dies of emaciation (hunger) or a miserly person who lives eternally, perhaps I can hold a view like yours.


  1. Khalid bin Shafwan said in advising his son:


Abandon by you secret deeds that do not deserve to be done openly.


  1. Basyar bin Burd said:


Live alone or befriend your brother, for he may commit a sin one moment and avoid it the next.


h Allah Almighty says:


Say: “Enjoy yourselves, for surely your place of return is Hell.” (QS Ibrahim: 30)


  1. Abu Thayyib said to Saifud-Daulah:


O gracious one, give the people what you say and never give them what I say.


  1. Oathari bin Al-Fuja’ah said to himself:


Be patient in the matter of death, for attaining immortality is impossible.




  1. Why do the following redactions of amar indicate irshaad, iltimas, ta’jiz, tamanni, and supplication, respectively?


  1. Be careful of people, you will surely be able to cover them. And do not be lulled by the bright teeth of a smiling person. |


  1. O my two lovers, leave me with what I have, or give me back my youth.


  1. O house of “Ablah in the Valley of Souls’, speak, good morning O house of “Ablah and be safe.


  1. Why the following redactions of Amar respectively indicate the meaning of supplication, ta’jiz, and taswiyah (equalizing)


  1. Submit, O Yazid, for there is no corruption in religion when you submit, and there is no corruption in the kingdom of Allah.


  1. Show me the person with whom you associate, and you find that he does not get angry with you for trivial reasons.


  1. Be patient or do not be patient.


III. Explain which of the following statements are in amar and what they mean?

  1. A caliph advises one of his officers:


Hold fast to the rule of the Qur’an and seek its advice, halachah what it prohibits and forbid what it forbids.


  1. The judge said to his son:


O my son, seek refuge with Allah from the evils of mankind, and be the best of men with great prudence.


  1. A scholar says to his son:


O my son, urge the scholars with your knees and pay attention to them with your ears, for the heart will become alive with the light of knowledge, just as the dead earth becomes alive with the rain.


  1. Abu Thayyib said to Saifud-Daulah:


Honor me when a verse of praise is recited to you, for it is indeed with the verse that those who praise you come to you time and again. Abandon all sounds except mine, for indeed I am a bird whose voice is imitated, while those other than me are its hunters.


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


Preserve the safety of your perfect temperament from some unfavorable events and situations.


  1. Abu Nuwas said:


Then pass on, do not give me a gift. Your giving me a favor muddies the enjoyment that I have.


  1. Ash-Shimah bin Abdullah said:


Stop, and leave Najed and its inhabitants protected. And it seems to me that very little of Najed is abandoned.


  1. Allah Almighty says:


O people and jinn, if you are able to penetrate between the heavens and the earth, then cross over; you cannot do so except by means of power. (QS Ar-Rahman: 33)


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


O heart, lessen the longing, often I see you sincerely loving someone who does not want to return your affection.


  1. Mihyar Ad-Dailami said:


Live as the companion of a disciplined person, who can be trusted when he is away, or live as a single person.


  1. Al-Ma’arri said:


O daughters of Al-Hadil, be happy, or promise to grieve a little by making others happy. How fortunate kantu, you are women who are good at buying. hara affection well.


  1. 1. Give some examples of the wording of the four amar for their essential meaning!
  2. Give two examples of the wording of the amar for its takhyir meaning!
  3. Give two examples of the wording of the amar for the meaning of tahdid!
  4. Give two examples of the wording of amar for the meaning of ta’jiz!


  1. Look at the following wording of the command!


Play and leave studying! Sometimes the two commands above are meant for taubih (reproach), for irshad (guidance), or for tahdid (fear). Explain under what circumstances the commands are appropriate for each of these purposes!


  1. Consider the following wording of the amar!


Swim in the sea. Sometimes the above command is meant for supplication, for iltimas (offer), for ta’jiz, or for irshaad. Explain under what circumstances the above command is appropriate for each of these purposes!


VII. Change the following kalam khabar into kalam insya’ tharigah amar by using all the redactions!


You are too early in your work. Ali went to the garden. I patiently endure many burdens of suffering. The brave man holds the sword. Hisham remained in his position. Muhammad left the banter.


III. Describe the following sentences and explain the balaghah aspect and the good set of meanings according to your understanding! “


Abu Muslim said to his commanders, “Fill your hearts with courage, for courage is one of the factors that determine victory. Increase the remembrance of malice, for it will awaken the spirit to face the opponent. And stay with the army, for it is the fortress of a soldier.


C.2.b Nahyi (Prohibition)


  1. Examples
  2. Allah swt. says in prohibiting taking the property of orphans without right:


And do not approach the property of orphans except in a way that is more beneficial. (QS Al-An’am: 152)


  1. Allah swt. says in prohibiting breaking the relationship with someone:


And do not let those who have wealth and plenty among you swear that they will not support their relatives. (QS An-Nuur: 22)


  1. Allah Swt. says in forbidding taking evil confidants:


O you who believe, do not take as your confidants those who are outside your ranks (because) they will not cease (to cause) you harm. (QS Al-Imran: 118)


  1. Muslim bin Al-Walid said about Harun Al-Rashid:


Never did the fence of the prohibition of Islam stop you from being king, (rather) you upheld its banner after it was crooked.


  1. Abu Thayyib said about Saifud-Daulah:


Never tell him what I say, for he is a brave man who if a reproach is mentioned to him, he gets angry.


  1. Abu Nuwas said in praise of Al-Amin:


O camel, do not be bored or come to the king, kissing his palm and kissing the hathim (on the Ka’bah) are the same. Whenever you manage to travel to him safely, then you will witness how the gathering of creatures in the form of human statues.


g Abul-‘Ala’ Al-Ma’arri said:

And do not befriend those with low tastes, for the manners of fools are contagious.


  1. Abul-Aswad Ad-Dauli said:


Do not forbid an action while you are doing something similar. If you do so, it will be a great disgrace to you.


  1. Another poet said:


Never offer yourself to Ja’far to help him, for you are not his equal.


j Do not obey my orders. (Said to an inferior person.)


  1. Abu Thayyib reproached Kafur:


Do not buy a hariba unless you buy a stick, for the servant is unclean and of little good.


  1. Discussion

If we look at the first set of examples, we find that each of them is a wording to prohibit an action, and if we look further, then the one who prohibits is higher than the one who is prohibited, because the prohibitor in these first set of examples is Allah, the Almighty, while the prohibited are His slaves. A prohibition such as these examples is a true prohibition. If we notice, the wording of the prohibition in each of these examples is the same, namely fi’il mudhari’ preceded by laa nahiyah.


Then look at the second set of examples. Then we find that all of them are not used for the true meaning of prohibition, but rather indicate other meanings that we can understand based on the sentence structure and the conditions and situation.


Muslim ibn al-Walid in the fourth example does not mean anything else by the wording of the prohibition that he uttered except to supplicate to Caliph Harun Ar-Rashid to stay in power in order to strengthen Islam and elevate his sentence.


Abu Thayyib in the fifth example merely invites his two friends not to convey to SaifudDaulah whatever they hear from him (Abuth-Thayyib) about his bravery, his attack on the enemy, and the good spirit of war because he is a brave man, and every brave man will long for war if it is told to him. This poem is in accordance with the Arab tradition of poetry, because in this poem the poet imagines the presence of two of his friends who accompany him and listen to his poetry, so he speaks to them in the style of language that is conveyed to people of equal level. When the words of prohibition are spoken by one person to another person of the same level, it indicates the meaning of iltimas tajakan/offer).


Abu Nuwas in the sixth example wished nothing more than for his camel to make the arduous journey without weariness and despair until it reached the village of Al-Amin, and there he saw how Allah assembled nature in human form.


Abul ‘Ala’ in the seventh example intends to advise the person he is speaking to and point him to keep away from fools and people of low tastes.


Abul Aswad Ad-Dauli in the eighth example intends to reproach the one who forbids others to do evil, but himself does it.


While the last three examples in order are meant for tai-iis (pessimism), tahdid (threatening), and tahgir (hypocrisy). |


  1. Rule

(40) Nahyi (prohibition) is a demand for not doing an action that is conveyed by a person to a person of lesser dignity.


(41) The word nahyi is a mudhari’ fi’il, preceded by laa nahiah.


(42) Sometimes the word nahyi departs from its essential meaning and indicates other meanings that can be understood from the structure of the sentence and the situation, such as prayer, iltimas, tamanni, irshad, taubih, tai-iis (pessimistic), tahdid, and tahgir (humiliating).



Sample Problem:


Explain which are the nahi redactions and what they mean!

  1. Allah says:


And do not make corruption in the earth after (Allah) has made it good. (QS Al-A’raf: 56)


  1. Abul ‘Ala’ said:


Never swear by honesty and never by falsehood, for they do not benefit you except sin.


  1. Allah says:


Let not a people make fun of another people (for) it may be that they (the made fun of) are better than they (the made fun of). (QS Al-Hujurat: 11)


  1. Allah swt. says:


There is no need for you to apologize because you disbelieved after believing. (QS At-Taubah: 66)


  1. Al-Buhturi said to Al-Mu’ tamid ‘Alallah


Forever you will not be separated from a life that brings no happiness, but the Feast of Nauruz is a feast for you.


f, Al-Ghazzi said:


Do not make my neck heavy with the virtues of the ignorant, so that I travel with them constantly like a carrier pigeon.


g Another poet said:


Seek not glory, for the ladder of glory is hardship. Live at ease, with a happy heart.


h Al-Khunsa’ mourned his brother Shakhr:


O my two eyes, be generous, and do not be dry, let you weep to be generous to Shakhr.


  1. Khalid bin Shafwan said:


Do not demand your needs except in due time, and do not demand them except from the experts.


I Why do the prohibitions in the following sentences in order denote irshad, tamanni, tahdid, and tahgir?


  1. Never be seduced by the tears of your enemies, and cherish your youth from your enemies, then you will be cherished.


  1. Do not let it rain, O sky!


  1. Do not let go of your arrogance! (Said to a person of lesser dignity.)


  1. Thou shalt not force thyself to do what the generous are not willing to do!


  1. Explain the following nahyi phrases and their meanings!


1 Abu Thayyib praised Saifud-Daulah:


Never look for a benefactor after you have seen Saifud-Daulah, indeed the benefactors with their generosity have been ended (by him).


  1. Do not think of greatness as dates that you can eat at any time. You will not attain greatness until you have licked fortitude.


  1. Ath-Thaghraz-i said:


Do not yearn for some position before you fulfill its means and infrastructure.


  1. Ash-Sharif Ar-Ridha said:


Never trust a soft-spoken enemy, for behind his noise is a venomous snake for which there is no cure.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


Do not let the night overtake you, for when it strikes, its hands will break large and hard trees with small and weak plants.


  1. Never be distracted from your return (hereafter) by pleasures that will perish and then forever you will have misery.


  1. Do not think that the person you kill is still alive so that no one will eat the carcass except a dubuk or a kind of coyote (hyena).


  1. Abul ‘Ala’ said:


Do not hide the secret from me on the day of the calamity because it is an unpardonable sin. Vinegar is like water: it reveals what it is when it is clear and conceals it when it is cloudy.


  1. Allah says:


And let not some of you eat of the wealth of others of you by unlawful means. (QS Al-Baqarah :188)


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


Do not complain to another person, so that he will be pleased, like the complaint of a wounded person to crows and vultures.


  1. Do not seek greatness, and accept things as they are, for seeking greatness is difficult.


III.1: Make two prohibition sentences that show the true prohibition!

  1. Make three prohibition sentences that show the meaning of supplication, iltimas, and tamanni, respectively!
  2. Construct three prohibition sentences that respectively show the meaning of irshad, tai-iis, and tahdid!


  1. Look at the following sentences!


Do not leave the ten folds of your sleep. This prohibition sentence can mean irshad, tahdid, or taubih. Explain under what circumstances the sentence would have these meanings!


  1. Change the following khabar kalarams into nahyi kalarams and explain the intended meaning of each prohibition phrase!


  1. You depend on others.


2, You obey my orders.


  1. You criticize your friends a lot.


  1. You forbid evil, but you yourself do it.


  1. You make excuses today.


  1. You punish me every time I am negligent.


  1. Ali attended our assembly.


  1. The villagers pay no attention to the education of their children.


  1. Analyze the following two stanzas and explain the meaning of each prohibition!


Never burden people with anything other than what they are good at, then you will be worn out by much abuse, and they will be worn out. Do not be enticed by the hospitality of some of them; the lightning that shines the most is the lightning that is not accompanied by rain.


C.2.c Istifham and its Question Words

1) Hamzah and Hal


  1. Examples
  2. 1) Is it you who has been traveling, or is it your brother?


2) Are you the buyer or the seller?


3) Was it millet that you planted, or wheat?


4) Did you come by car, or on foot?


5) Do the workers rest on Friday, or Sunday?


6) Does gold rust?


7) Does the cloud walk?


8) Does the earth move?


9) Are animals intelligent?


10) Do plants have sensitivity?


11) Can inanimate objects hum?


  1. Discussion


All of the sentences above indicate a question, which is – as we know – finding out about something we didn’t know before. The adat (question word) in examples part a and part b is harizah, and in example part c is hal. We will discuss the difference between these two interrogative words in terms of meaning and usage.


If we look at the examples in part a, we find that the speaker knows the nisbah in the sentence he is speaking. However, he is wavering between two things and wants clarity on one of them. In the first example, the speaker knew that the traveling was certain and that it was done by one of two people, the mukhathab and his brother. Therefore, he does not seek to know about the nisbah (the relationship between something and something else as the essence of information), but rather he seeks to know about the mufrad (unit of information), and he waits for the person being asked to determine and show him the mufrad. Hence, the answer is in the form of specifying the mufrad, such as “my brother”. In the second example, the speaker knows that one of the purchases and sales has definitely been made by the mukhathab. However, the speaker is unsure whether the mukhathab is buying or selling. So, in that case he did not ask about the nisbah, because he already knew it. Rather, he was asking about the mufrad and wanted to determine it. Therefore, the question must be answered with that definition, such as “seller”. This is also the case with the other examples of part a.


If we look at the mufrads that are asked in all the examples of part a, as well as in other examples that we can find, we find that they come after the interrogative word (hamzah) directly, either as musnad ilaih as in the first example, as musnad as in the second example, as maf’ul bih as in the third example, as hal as in the fourth example, or as zharaf as in the fifth example, and so on. And we find that each of these mufrad has a counterpart that comes after the word am, as can be seen in the examples. Sometimes this counterpart is omitted, so it is said: A-antal-musaafir? and A-musytarin anta? And so on.


y Then look at the examples of part b, we will find a different situation from part a, because in the examples of part LB the speaker is wavering between the presence and absence of the nisbah. So, he doesn’t know about the nisbah, and so he asks and wants to know about it. As in the sixth example, the speaker is indecisive between the occurrence and non-occurrence of rust on the gold, and so he asks and wants to know this ratio. The first answer is “na’am” (yes) if it happens and “laa” (no) if it does not happen. If we look at the examples in part b, we do not find a comparison for the thing being asked about (nisbah).


From the above, we can see that the interrogative word hanmizah is used for two purposes: to ask about the mufrad and to ask about the nisbah. Knowing the mufrad is called tashawwur, while knowing the nisbah is called fashdig.


Then look at the examples in part c, and we find that the speaker in each sentence is not uncertain about knowing the nisbah, so he does not know whether the nisbah occurred or not. So, he is asking this question. This kind of question can be answered with “yes” if the nisbah happened, and with “no” if the nisbah did not happen. When we look at the examples of interrogative sentences that use hal, we find that what is desired is knowledge of the nisbat, and nothing else. So, the word hal is nothing but a search for tashdig, and with it, no comparison can be discerned.


  1. Rule

(43) Istifham seeks knowledge of something previously unknown. There are many types of Istifham (interrogative words), including /hianizah and hal.


(44) Hamza is used to seek knowledge of two things:


  1. Tashawwur, which is a description of the mufrad. In this case, the hamzah directly accompanies the thing being asked about and generally the thing being asked about has a counterpart mentioned after the lafaz ani.


  1. Tashdig, which is a description of nisbah. In this case, the comparison of the questioned matter cannot be mentioned. ( )


(45) Hal is used to ask about taslidig, nothing else: and it is not permissible to mention the comparison of the thing asked with hal.


2) Other Question Words


  1. Examples.


  1. Who planned the city of Cairo?


  1. Who built the Suez Canal?


  1. What is sleepiness?


  1. What is exaggeration?


  1. When did Umar assume power as caliph?


  1. When did the travelers return?


  1. He asked, when will the Day of Judgment occur?


  1. They ask you about the Hour, “When will it be?” (QS Al-A’raf: 187)


  1. Discussion


All of the above sentences are interrogative sentences. If we look at the meaning of the interrogative words, we find that the word man adajah refers to intelligent beings, while maa refers to non-intelligent beings. Sometimes the interrogative word maa is used to specify a name, such as when it is said: “Mal-Karaa?” (What is sleepiness?). This question can be answered: “Sleepiness is sleep.” Sometimes it is to ask the nature of a term, such as when it is said: “Mal-Israaf?” (What is exaggeration?). This question can be answered: “Excessive is exceeding the limit in spending and so on.” We also find that the word mataa is used to ask about a time period, either past or future. The word ayyaana is used to ask about future times in a special and meaningful way, showing majesty and horror.


In addition, there are several other adatul-istifhami, namely kaifa (how), aina (where), annaa/st (how, when, from where), kam (how much), and ayyun (which). Kaifa is for asking for clarification of a situation, such as: “Kaifa ji-tum?” (How did you get here). Aina to ask for an explanation of place, such as: “Aina Dajlatu wal-Furaatu?” (Where are the Dajlah and Furat Rivers?). Annaa can mean “how”, such as: “Annaa tasuudu al-‘asyiiratu wa abnaauhaa mutakhaadziluun?” (How can it happen that a family becomes noble, while its children become despicable people?), can mean “from where”, such as: “Annaa lahum haadzal-maalu wa gad kaanuu fuqaraa’?” (From where do they have this wealth, while they are poor people?): and can mean “when”, such as “Annaa yahdhurul-ghaa-ibuun?” (When will the people who ask for numbers, such as: “Kam junBar fil batibah (How many soldiers are in the army an bun ayyun to ask one of two things that are united in a matter, such as: “Ayyul-akhawaini akbaru sinnan?” (Which of the two brothers is older?), and ayyun can be used in relation to time, place, circumstances, intelligent beings, and non-intelligent beings, according to the lafaz on which it relies. All of these adatul-istifham are used to ask for a description, and therefore all the answers are explanations of what is being asked.


  1. Rule


(46) Adatul-istifham other than hamzah and hal are as follows:


Man/ to ask for a description of an intelligent being.

Maa/ for asking about the name or hakiKat of something with a name.

Mataa/ to indicate time, either past or future.  Ayyaana/ is used to indicate a time that will “come” specifically and show horror. 

Kaifa/ to ask about a situation.

Aina/ is used to indicate a place. 

Annaa/ has three meanings, namely how, from where, and when. 

Kam/ is used to ask about quantity. It is used to ask about one of two things that are united in a case and to ask about time, place, condition, number, intelligent beings, and non-intelligent beings, according to the lafaz on which it is based.


47) All of these adatul-istifham are used to ask about descriptions, and therefore the answer is a description of the thing being asked about.


3) The Meanings Indicated by the Istifham Based on Several Karinahs


1 Examples

a Al-Buhturi said:


Time is nothing but the coming and going of difficulties and the rapid alternation of hardship and opportunity.


  1. Abu Thayyib said about the person he praised:


Will the enemies still demand proof of his victory after they have seen clear signs of it?


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


Aren’t you the one who is the most evenly distributed in mercy, the healthiest in body, and the sharpest in sword?


  1. Another poet said:


 To what extent is the dispute between you, to what extent? And what is the commotion based on?


  1. Abu Thayyib said in a lament:


Who else will lead the assemblies, the soldiers, and the night-walkers who have lost their torches because of your death? Who will you appoint as your successor to receive guests? They have been wasted, while one like you hardly ever wastes.


f… He said in an insulting way towards Kafur:


From where does glory come to one like you? O Kafur, where are the bottles for cupping and where are the combs?


  1. He also said:


How long can we chase a star in the midst of darkness? While the star travels without shoes and soles.


  1. He said when stricken with fever:


O daughter of the age, all the princesses are upon me. So how will you reach me from the insistence of those princesses?


  1. Allah swt. says:


They said, “It is the same for us, whether you give advice or do not give advice.” (QS Ash-Shu’ara’: 136)


  1. Allah says:


Then is there for us a provider who will give us peace? (QS Al-A’raf: 53)


k Allah Almighty says:


Would you like me to show you a trade that will save you from a painful punishment? (QS Ash-Shaff: 10)


  1. Discussion


In the previous section, we have seen the redactions of istifham with their essential meanings. Now we will see that the words of the istifham sometimes deviate into other meanings, which can be seen from the structure of the sentence.


Look at the first example, and we see that al-Buhturi is not asking anything except that he wants to state that the times are nothing but the rise and fall of hardship and the alternation of hardship and ease. So, the word hal in the sentence is for nafyi (meaning “nothing”), not for asking for an explanation of something that was previously unknown.


Abu Thayyib in the second example is nothing but denying the enemy’s doubts about Kafur’s victory and their demand for proofs of Allah’s help in victory, after they knew how he subdued everyone who wanted to attack him and how the times brought calamity to everyone who intended to harm him. So, the istifham in this sentence does not indicate any other meaning other than denial.


Al-Buhturi in the third example intends nothing other than to motivate the person he is praising to acknowledge the merit of what he is claiming, which is that he outshines all caliphs in terms of his mercy, physical strength, and courage. He did not intend to ask his mukhathab about all these abilities. Thus, istiffham in this sentence means tagrir (determination/affirmation).


The poet in the fourth example reproaches his mukhathab for constantly quarreling and constantly insulting and avoiding each other. In addition, he reprimands them for their excessive shouting and noise. So, the istifham in these examples has gone beyond its original meaning to taubih (reproach) and tagri’ (reprimand).


Abu Thayyib in the fifth example intends to glorify and honor the person he is mourning by showing his abilities when he was alive, namely his nobility, courage, and generosity while showing his disappointment and pain. As for the sixth example, by insulting Kafur, he mentions his shortcomings, emphasizes his humiliation, and denigrates his glory.


And if we look at the examples that follow, we find some of the adatul-istifham that go beyond their original meaning to istibtha (discouragement), ta’ajjub (amazement), taswiyah (likening), tamanni (unattainable hope), and tasywig (stimulation).


  1. Rule

(48) Sometimes the words of an istifham depart from their original meaning to another meaning that can be discerned from the structure of the sentence. These other meanings are nafyi (negation), inkar (denial), tagrir (affirmation), taubih (reproach), ta’zhim (exaltation), tahgir (humiliation), istibtha (weakening), ta’ajjub (amazement), taswiyah (equating), tamanni (unattainable hope), and tasywig (stimulation).


  1. Exercises


Sample Problem 1:


  1. There was a fire in Madinah and you didn’t see it, so ask your friend about his witnessing of the fire.


  1. You heard that one of your two friends, Ali and Najib, saved a drowning man. Ask Ali to tell you who saved him!


  1. If you know that there is a type of plant that grows a lot, but you do not know exactly whether it grows in the fall or in the winter (rain). Then make up a question to find out what season it grows in!


Sample Question 2:

Explain what the following questions mean!


  1. Abu Tamam said about the man he praised:


Never has the whole tribe of Adnan assembled on the battlefield except that you are its leader?


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


Is it possible for me to deny the favors I have received, while they are constantly growing like the dawn, and the dawn is light? You are the One who honored me after I was humiliated. So no word is humbled and no sight is subdued.


  1. Ibnur-Rumi said in one of his praises:


Are you not the one who holds all praise when there is no one worthy of it?


  1. Abu Tamam said:


What is the reason for the distress and misery that afflicts me, as if he does not know that your mercy is always lurking.


  1. Another poet said:


Then abandon the threat, for your threat does me no harm. Does the sound of a fly’s wing cause harm?


  1. So they have wasted me, and to which youth (again) have they wasted on a day when war is raging and borders need to be closely guarded?




  1. A friend of yours promised to visit you tomorrow, but you are unsure whether he will visit before Lohor or after Lohor. So formulate a question to ask him to clarify the timing of his visit!


  1. You know that one of your two uncles, Hamid and Mahmud, has bought a house. So create a question to ask who exactly bought the house!


  1. If you are unsure whether the sugarcane was planted in the spring or in the dry season, then how can you construct a question to ask when it was actually planted?


  1. Ask your friend about his/her tendency to travel!


  1. Make interrogative sentences about the hal, maf’ul bih, zharaf, mubtada, khabar, and jar majrur in the following statements!


He composed the gasidah very influentially.


He bought a pen.


He writes letters at night.


Ali is a lucky man.


Egypt is fertile.


The book was at home.


III. Make questions about the following!


  1. The first caliph of Ar-Rashidin.
  2. The longest road in Medina.

3 The state of Egypt during the Mamlouk Dynasty.

  1. The time of the grape season.
  2. The number of Madrasah Aliyah in Egypt.


  1. Location of maintenance


  1. The nature of honesty


  1. Meaning of dhaigham (lion).


  1. 1. Why does the istifham in the following examples show the meaning of nafyi, inkar, and ta’zhim, respectively?


  1. Is there (nothing) but a moment of time, then it is gone because of the alternating sorrows and pleasures?


  1. Allah swt. says:


Do you call upon other than Allah? (QS Al-An’am: 40)


  1. Who among you is a king who is obeyed as if he were in armor comparable to Tubba’ in Himyar?


  1. Why do the istifham in the following examples denote tagrir, ta’ajjub, and tamanni, respectively?


  1. Allah says:


(“Have we not brought you up in our household when you were a child …?” (Ash-Shu’ara’: 18)


  1. An Arab woman said of her son: ..He grew up tearing my clothes and educating me. Will he still educate me after I turn gray?


  1. Abul “Atahiyah praised Al-Amin:


Be aware, O Aminallah, of my lacquer and my honor. You are not a ruler over me, may you realize. Who will look at me with eyes such as you gave me once in the past.


  1. What is the meaning of istifham in the following examples?


  1. Al-Mutanabbi said:


Who is there who has not loved the world since ancient times? However, the world does not lead to a long life.


2 He said:


I do not care after I have attained a high position, whether what I have attained is inherited or the result of my own labor.


3 He said:


Are letters sufficient against the enemy when they are not accompanied by the sharp edge of a sword?


  1. He said when Badr bin ‘Ammar conquered the lion:


O one who throws the lion to the ground with his whip, for whom do you provide your sharp and shiny sword?


  1. Abu Tamam said:


Do I keep quiet about a man who, if I mock him, will turn his good deeds against me?


  1. How can I fear poverty or be hindered in my aspirations, when the sight of Amirul mu’minin is beautiful.


  1. O world, what are you, a sleeper’s dream, a newlywed’s night, or wine?


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


Why do you pay so much attention to the maintenance of the spear, when this position can crush your enemy without a javelin?


  1. Does he mean that he refuses to give money to the beggar? Or does the word defer mean to promise?


  1. How long will you frolic and spend? Even though death is always stalking you with its mouth open.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


Sentence after sentence will run out before it can express all your virtues. Can something that will run out include something that will not run out?


12.Allah Almighty says:


Who can offer intercession with Allah without His permission? (al-Baqarah: 255)


13 Abu Thayyib said:


Does the house know which blood it is flowing and the hafi of which person among this group is stricken with longing?


14 Al-Mutanabbi said about Saif ad-Daulah who visited him because of a boil:


How can the world inflict a disease on you, when you are the physician of the world’s diseases? And why are you groaning in pain? When you are the place to seek help in every calamity.


  1. Abul ‘Ala’ Al-Ma’arri:


Do you think that you are reaching a high position? The end of your affairs is the worst crime and disgrace.


  1. 1. Make use of all the adatul istifham in the two counts by giving an answer to each question. Turn the use of the istifham to its true meaning!


  1. Use the hamzah istifham in six sentences, three of which ask for tashawwur, and the other three for tashdig. Turn your istifhani meaning to its essential meaning!


  1. Make three perfect interrogative sentences using adatul istifham hal and with the intention of showing the essential meaning!


  1. Make three perfect interrogative sentences using the word anna ( ) with all its meanings and with the intention of showing the essential meaning!


VII. 1. Construct three interrogative sentences that show the meaning of taswiyah, nafyi, and inkar, respectively!


  1. Make three interrogative sentences that show ta’zhim, tahgir, and taubih, respectively!


  1. Give examples of interrogative sentences that go beyond their original meaning to ta’ajjub, tamanni, and istibtha!


VIII. Describe the following two stanzas and explain the meaning of the questions they contain! The following two stanzas are attributed to a Bedouin who praised Al-Fadhl bin Yahya Al-Barmaki:


The Imams denounced your generosity, O Fadhl. So I said to them, “Does the reproach affect the sea? Do you forbid Fadhl from giving much to people? And who can forbid the clouds from shedding rain?”


C.2. Tamanni


  1. Examples
  2. Ibnur-Rumi said about the month of Ramadan:


It would be nice if one night of Ramadan were as long as a month, while the day traveled as fast as a cloud.


b Allah Almighty says: .


So is there for us a giver of peace who will give us peace in the morning? (QS Al-A’raf: 53) Farir said:


  1. Gone are the days of youth whose days were praiseworthy. (How wonderful) if those days could be bought or brought back.


  1. Another poet said:


O flock of gatha (pigeon-like) birds, who will lend me their wings so that I may fly to the one I love?


  1. Allah swt. says:


Alas, if only we had what was given to Qarun. (QS Al-Oashash: 79)


  1. Discussion

All the examples above are insya’ thalabi. If we look closely, the thing to be achieved in each sentence is something pleasant, but it cannot be expected to succeed, sometimes because it is impossible to achieve, as in the first four examples, and sometimes it is possible to achieve but cannot be expected to achieve, as in the last example. Such Kalam inSya’ is referred to as tamanni.


The words that indicate the meaning of tamanni in the above examples are laita, hal, lau, and la’alla. However, the first word was originally used to indicate this meaning. The other three words are used for this meaning by da. Sar balaghah review.


Thus, if something that is hoped for is possible to achieve and can be expected to succeed, then the hope is referred to as tarajji and the words for it are la’alla and ‘asaa. Sometimes the word laita is also used in consideration of the person who has reached puberty, as in the poem of Abuth-Thayyib:


How wonderful it would be if the distance between me and my beloved were equal to the distance between me and the calamities that befall me.


  1. Rule


(49) Tamanni is wishing for something that cannot be expected to succeed, either because it is impossible for it to happen, or it may happen but cannot be expected to succeed.


(50) The word used for tamanni is laita, and the words hal, lau, and la’alla are sometimes used for balaghah purposes.


(51) When the pleasant thing can be expected to be achieved, the expectation is called tarajji. The words used for the meaning of tarajji are la’alla and ‘asaa. Sometimes the word laita is also used for the sake of balaghah.


4 Exercises

Sample Problem: Explain the meaning of tamanni or tarajji in the following sentences, and explain the word tamanni or tarajji in each sentence!

  1. Shari’ Al-Ghawani:


Hey, how wonderful the days and childhoods would be if they could be experienced again even for a moment.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


Alas, if only the love of one’s beloved were so moderate that it weighed on every heart according to its ability.


  1. Allah swt. says:


So is there a way (for us) out (of hell) (QS Al-Mu’min: 11).


  1. Explain what is tamanni or tarajji in the following sentences, and explain the secret of using tarajji or tamanni words that are not in accordance with their original meaning!


  1. Marwan b. Abu Hafshah said in his lament against Man b. Za-idah:


May those who rejoice in his death be a ransom for him and may his life be prolonged.


  1. Abu Thayyib said in his lament against the sister of Saifud-Daulah:


MAF May the rising one of the two suns disappear and may the sinking one of the two suns not sink.


  1. Another poet said:


May the nights that have made my body ache with separation one day bring me and her back together.


4 Allah Almighty says:


(Pharaoh said), “O Haman, build for me a high building, that I may reach the doors of the heavens. (QS Al-Mu’min: 36-37)


5 Allah swt. says:


If we could return once more to the world, we would be believers. (QS Ash-Shu’ara’: 102)


  1. A poet said:


O the two dwellings of Salma, may salvation be everlasting upon you. Do the times that have passed come back again?


7, Ja said:


May the kings give something to the poets according to their dignity, so that the low-class people do not have to expect their gifts.


  1. He says of the person he praises:


If those who are praised are perfect according to their praise, then who are Kulaib and the people of the first periods.


  1. 1. Give two examples for each word that shows tamanni!
  2. Give two examples of tarajji using the word la’alla in the first sentence and the word ‘asaa in the second sentence!
  3. Give two examples of tarajji using the word laita, and explain the balaghah reason for choosing this word!


III. “Describe the following two stanzas of Al-Mutanabbi’s poem in praise of Kafur!


By Allah, how lowly is this world. It is a place of wandering for those who ride it. Everyone who aspires in it will be tormented. I wish I could recite the gasidah without groaning and without straining.


C.2.e Nida’ (exclamation)


  1. Examples
  2. Abu Thayyib sent a letter to a governor in Ytigal:


O master of my servitude, and (O) one who has the character of giving silver and freeing haniba. I call you when there is no hope, and death is like a vein to me.


  1. Abu Nuwas said:


O my Rabb, if my sins are great, then surely I know that Your forgiveness is greater. Al-Farazdag boasted of his ancestors and insulted & farir:


These are my ancestors, so show me people like them when one day we meet in a play, O Jarir.


d Another poet said:


O one who despises the world without limit, for whom are you accumulating wealth, when you are about to die?


  1. Discussion When we want someone to come to us, we must call him by name, one of the characteristics after mentioning the letters that replace the phrase ad’uu/ (I call) with nida’ (exclamation).


The letters of nida’ are hamzah, ay, yaa, aa, aay, ayaa, hayaa, and waa.


The original nida’ letters for calling a close person are hamzah and ay, and in calling a distant person are the other nida’ letters. However, due to balaghah considerations, sometimes the nida’ letters can be used in violation of their original function. We will explain the reasons for this deviation below.


If we look at the first example, we find that the person being called is far away. However, Abu Thayyib called him with the letter nida’ hamzah which is reserved for the munada (called person) who is near. What is the balaghah consideration?


The consideration is that Abu Thayyib wanted to make it clear that his munada, although far away, was close to his heart, always present in his heart. So, it is as if he is always present with her in one place. This is the secret of gentle balaghah, which allows the use of hamzah and ay to address a distant munada.


Then if we look at the next three examples, we find that the munada in each example is close, but the speaker uses the letters of nida’ reserved for distant munada. Why is this so?


The reason is that the munada in the second example is very noble and respected. So, it is as if the distance is the same as the distance traveled. Therefore, the speaker chose the letter reserved for addressing the distant munada to show that elevation. As for the third example, it is because the speaker considers the munada to be inferior, as if the difference in the degree of the munada that is far below the speaker is the same as the distance between their places. In the last case, it is because the mukhathab is absent-minded and directionless, as if he is not present with the speaker in the same place.


Sometimes even the phrase nida’ goes from its original meaning – which is to address someone – to another meaning. This can be found out through its karinah. Among these other meanings are:


  1. TeQur’an or stern warning, such as the verse saying:


O heart, woe to you for not listening to those who counsel you when you are cornered and cannot avoid reproach.


  1. Showing distress and pain, as in the verse:


O grave of Ma’n, how do you conceal his mercy, when the land and the sea can gather because of it.


  1. Encouragement, such as the words conveyed to a person who is facing persecution: “O persecuted one, speak up!”


  1. Kaidal-Kaidah

(52) Nida’ is the intention of facing someone by using a letter that replaces the phrase ad’uu.


(53) The letters of nida’ are eight: Hamzah ( ), ay ( ), yaa Ka – ( ) | ba ay ( ) ayaa ( ), hayaa ( ), and waa ( ).


(54) Hamzah and ay are for calling a close munada, while the other nida’ letters are for calling a distant munada.


(55) Sometimes a distant munada is considered to be a near munada, so it is called with the nida’ letters hamzah and ay. This is a sign that the munada is close to the heart of the one who is calling it. And sometimes a near munada is regarded as a far munada, so it is invoked with nida’ letters other than hamzah and ay. This is a sign of the munada’s high status, or its low dignity, or its negligence and stubbornness.


(56) Sometimes nida’ can deviate from its original meaning to another meaning, and this can be known through some karinah, such as as a teQur’an, to express distress, and to incite.


  1. Exercises



Point out the letters of nida’ in the following examples and explain which ones are used for their original function and which ones are used for an incorrect function!


  1. O my son, indeed your father is approaching the day of death. So when you are called to glory, hasten.


  1. O the One to whom help is sought in all kinds of difficulties. O the One to whom all disappointments are reported.


  1. Abul Atahiyah said:


O one who lives a long life in the world, spends his life in aggravating others, exhausts his energy for something that will disappear, and accumulates haraam or halal wealth. If the whole world were given to you, would it not eventually disappear?


  1. Sawar bin Al-Mudharrab said:


O heart, does advice prevent you, or has the long time made you forget?


A father sent a letter to his son advising him:


O Husayn, indeed I am advising and educating you. So understand, for indeed a reasonable person is one who is willing to be educated.


Sample Answers:


  1. The letter of the nida’is hamzah, which is used to summon a close person, according to its original function.


2: The nida’s letter is yaa, to call a close munada, in violation of its original function, as a sign of the high dignity of the munada.


  1. The nida’s letter is ayaa, to summon a close munada, in violation of its original function, as a sign of the mukhathab’s negligence.


  1. The nida’s letter is yaa, to summon a close munada, in violation of the original function, as a sign of the munada’s negligence, as if it were not close.


  1. The nida’s letter is hamzah, to invoke the distant munada, in violation of its original function, to indicate that the munada is always present in the heart as if it were physically present.


  1. Point out the letters of nida’ in the following examples and explain which letters are used in accordance with their original function and which are used in contradiction to their original function, and explain the balaghic reasoning!


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


O hunter of the dreaded great army, verily “the lion hunts men one by one.


O my Rabb, You have been kind to me incessantly, yet Gratitude for Your kindness does not rise.


O dwellers of Na’man Al-Arak, be assured that you are in my heart.


  1. Allah swt. says, revealing Pharaoh’s words to Moses a.s.:


Verily, I thought you, O Moses, were a man of sorcery (QS Al-Isra’: 101).


  1. Abul ‘Atahiyah said:


O one who wishes all his life, and that long life is for him something harmful, when you become old and youth separates itself from you, then there is no more good in the life of old age.


  1. Abu Thayyib said in praise of Kafur with gasidah:


O hope of all eyes in the whole world, there is no more hope for me than to see you.


  1. O my son, speak back what you have heard from me!


  1. O Muhammad, do not raise your voice so that no one can hear our conversation.


  1. O this man, see that fearful things have surrounded you.


  1. Address the following people using “nida’ letters that do not fulfill their original function” and explain the balaghah rationale!


  1. The one who is far away, whom you long to meet.


  1. A fool whom you forbid to approach a noble person.


3 A person who has turned away from his work, whom you urge to return to his work earnestly.


4 A great man whom you talk to and expect help from.


III. What is meant by nida’ in the following examples?


  1. O “Adda’, there is no enjoyment of life without you, and no ‘happiness of a friend with his friend.


  1. O brave one, come forward! (Addressed to one who is indecisive in the face of enemies.)


  1. I called you, my son, but you did not respond to my call. So the rejection of my call made me despair.


  1. By Allah, tell me, O Fulan, I have the right to speak and I have the right to ask. Will you be able to do something at the age of twenty when you reach the age of seventy?


  1. O house of Atikah, may life occupy your house, I have deliberately gifted my verses to you and your people.


  1. 1. Make two examples of nida’ with hamzah to call a distant munada and explain the reason for this deviation in function!


  1. Make two examples of nida’ for a close munada who is considered a distant person because of the height of his status!


  1. Give two examples of nida’ for a close munada who is considered distant because of his low status!


  1. Make two examples of nida’ for a near munada who is considered distant because of his negligence and carelessness!


  1. Give examples of nida’ used to express distress (tahassur), theQur’an (zajr), and encouragement (lighra’).


  1. Describe these two stanzas of Abu Thayyib’s poem correctly and explain the meaning of the nida’ contained therein!


O one who is the most just except for me, with you is the base of enmity. You are my enemy and judge in this dispute. I hope that your view will be correct, so that you will not think .fat because of fat against one who is fat because of swelling.








A Its Definition, Means, and Two Parts


1 Examples

  1. No one will prosper except the one who strives.


  1. Life is only hardship.


  1. The earth moves, not stands still.


  1. The earth is not stationary, but moving.


  1. The earth is not stationary, but moving.


  1. I praise only men who work.


2, Discussion

When we look at the examples above, we find that each of them contains a specialization of one thing to another. In the first example there is a specialization of good fortune for the one who is earnest, meaning that the good fortune will only be achieved by the one who is earnest and will not be achieved by others. In the second example there is a specialization of life and toil, meaning that life is prepared for toil and will not separate itself from it to relax. The same is true of the other examples.


If we want to know how to make takhshish (specialization) in a sentence, then look at these examples for a moment. Take the first example and remove the nafyi and the istitsna’. Then the sentence no longer shows the meaning of takhshis. In that case, the nafyi and istitsna’ are the means of making the sentence takhshish. Thus, we can see that the means of takhshish in the other example are: innamaa ( ). ‘athaf with the letters Iaa ( ), bal ( ) or laakin ( ), and giving precedence to the phrase that according to its position should be given precedence. The Ma’ani scholars call the takhshish indicated by these means qashr, and they call these means thurugul-qashr.


Let us look at these examples again and discuss them one by one. We find that the speaker of the first sentence is singling out good fortune for the one who is earnest. So, the good fortune is magshur, and the one who is earnest is called magshur ‘alaih. These two components are referred to as tharaf qashr. Since luck is one of the attributes, and the earnest person is one of the maushuf, the gashar in this example is called qashr shifat ‘ala maushuf, meaning that the attribute does not extend from one maushuf to another. In the second example we find that life becomes magshur and suck becomes magshur ‘alaih. Since life is the maushuf and suck is the attribute, the qashr in this example is called qashr mausuf ‘ala shifat, meaning that the maushuf cannot be separated from the attribute (suck to relax). If we look at all the qashr, both those mentioned above and those not mentioned here, we will find that every qashr contains magshur and magshur ‘alaih. We will also find that there are two kinds of qashr: qashr shifat ‘ala maushuf and qashr maushuf ‘ala shifat.



If we want to know the signs that make it easier to know and distinguish between magshur and magshur ‘alaih, then let us look at the following rules.


  1. Rules

(57) Qashr is the attribution of one thing to another in a special way.


(58) There are four well-known means of qashr, namely:


  1. Nafyi and istitsna’, and the magshur ‘alaih is after the letter istitsna’.


  1. innamaa ( ), and its magshur ‘alaih is the phrase that must be mentioned last.


  1. Athaf with laa ( ), bal ( ), or laakin ( )


If the ‘athaf’ is with laa, then the magshur ‘alaih is the phrase that contradicts the phrase that comes after laa, and if the ‘athaf is with bal or laakin, then the magshur ‘alaih is the phrase that comes after it.


  1. The precedence of a phrase that should have been delayed. Here the magshur ‘alaih is the phrase that comes first. (60) Every qashr has two tharafs, namely magshur and magshur ‘alaih.


(60) Based on the connection of the two tharaf, qashr is divided into two, namely qashr shifat ‘ala maushuf and qashr maushuf ‘ala shifat.


  1. Division of Qashr into Hagigi and Idhafi 1. Examples


  1. There is no river that refreshes Egypt except the Nile.


  1. The giver of sustenance is only Allah.


  1. There is no generous person except


  1. Hasan is only a brave man. .


  1. In the previous section, we explained that qashr is divided into qashr shifat ‘ala maushuf and qashr maushuf ‘ala shifat based on the connection of the two tharafs. Here we will explain another division that is based on nature and reality.


If we look at the first two examples, we find that the qashr is qashr shifat ‘ala maushuf. If we look further, we find that the attribute that is magshur in both examples cannot be separated from the maushuf absolutely. The freshness of the Egyptian soil in the first example is an attribute that cannot be separated from the function of the Nile River and not any other river. In the second example, sustenance is inseparable from the mercy of Allah and not the mercy of others.


Oashar in the first two examples above is referred to as qashr hakiki. Similarly, any qashr in which the magshur is specific only to the magshur ‘alaih according to its essence and reality, i.e. it does not escape from it to others.


Looking at the last two examples, we find that the first example (cl) is qashr shifat ‘ala maushuf, while the second example () is qashr maushuf ‘ala shifat. If we look further, we find that the magshur in both examples is specific to the magshur ‘alaih when attributed to a certain thing and not attributed to other things because the speaker in the first example intended to attribute the generous trait to ‘Ali when attributed to certain people, such as Khalid for example, and the speaker did not intend to state that the generous trait is completely absent in anyone other than ‘Ali because this is not the case. This is also the case with the last example. Hence, the qashr in these last two examples is called qashr idhafi. The same applies to any qashr whose specificity is limited by being attributed to a particular person.


3, Rules

(61) Based on its nature and reality, qashr can be divided into two, namely:


  1. Hakiki is when the magShur is specific to the magShur ‘alaih based on reality and reality, i.e. the magShur is the same as the magShur, and it is not separated from the magShur ‘alaih to anything else.


  1. Idhafi, is the specialization of magshur to magshur ‘alaih by being attached to something specific.


  1. Exercises

Sample Questions


1: List the types of qashr, magshur, and magshur ‘alaih in the following examples of qashr!


1, Allah says:


Verily, those who fear Allah among His servants are the scholars. (QS Faathir: 28)


  1. Allah says:


Muhammad is nothing but a messenger; indeed, several messengers have gone before him. So when he dies or is killed, do you turn back (apostatize)? (QS Ali Imran: 144)


3, Labid said:


A person is nothing but a moon; its light becomes more and more perfect in the middle of the month, then it disappears.


  1. Ibnur-Rumi said in his praise: “


His wealth is on people’s shoulders as a gift, not in the form of gold and other treasures in warehouses as a hoard.


  1. He said:


I am not astonished even if you are astonished at me because I can extract gold from his field. Rather, my astonishment is at a favor that I cannot repay, and I wish you were more astonished at it than I am.


  1. Al-Ghathammasy Adh-Dhabiyyu said:


Only to Allah do I complain and not to my fellow man. Indeed, I see that the earth is still, while my close friends are gone.


Sample Question 2:


1.Point out the magshur ‘alaih in the following two examples and explain the difference in their meanings!


Verily it is only Ali who defends your position.


2, Verily Ali is only defending your position.


Example Answer 2:


1, Magshar ‘alaih in the first sentence is Ali. So, the speaker is stating to the mukhathab: Ali alone gave a defense of your position, no one else did that with him. It is possible that Ali had other skills to serve the community, such as treating the sick and supporting the poor.


  1. Magshur ‘alaih in the second sentence is defense. So, Ali did not do anything other than defending, in addition to the possibility of others doing the same thing as him.


Thus, we can see that the first sentence is more glowing in its praise of ‘Ali on two counts: firstly, because it indicates that ‘Ali was the only one who did the defending, and no one else joined him; secondly, because it does not negate ‘Ali’s other skills.




  1. List the types of qashr, their suggestions, magshur and magshur ‘alaih in the following examples!


  1. Allah says: :


… for indeed, your duty is only to convey, while We are the ones who reckon with their deeds. (QS Ar-Ra’d: 40)


  1. Allah says:


Only to You do we worship and only to You do we seek help. (QS Al-Fatihah: 5)


  1. Ibnur-Rumi said in his praise:


His kindness to all mankind is divided, and his praise is for all mankind not for any particular group.


  1. He said:


Ja appeared to them as a villager, but not because of his ignorance of living in a village, but because his intellect exceeded that of a clever man.


5, He said:


He sways to the right and left when he hears praise. A sway of majesty, not a sway of shaking with excitement.


  1. He said:


I do not speak of you except the truth, and you are always on the path of the great and clear sunnah.


7, Ibn al-Mu’taz said:


Remember, the world is nothing but a means to an end, either to the crooked path or to the straight path.


  1. He said:


Life is but a short time and will come to an end, and wealth is but something that will perish and perish.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


By hoping for your favor, poverty may be expelled, and by making enemies life will be exhausted.


  1. He said:


The astonishment is not because of the amount of the gift of his wealth, but because of the safety of his wealth until the time of the gift again.


  1. Allah says:


And there is no help for me except from Allah. Only to Allah do I put my trust and only to Him do I return. (QS Hud: 88)


  1. Only to Allah do I complain that I have a need that has passed through several days, but is still as it was before.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


Verily we are in the same generation of reproach and disgrace, which is more evil to a free man than a wound in the body.


  1. You are a traveler, and some nights you live in lodgings, and it is a hardship for you to remain idle any longer.


  1. Ibnur-Rumi said:


They do not expect anything in return for the pleasure they give. Rather, they are able to pulverize the need to achieve greatness.


  1. Abul Atahiyan said in praise of Yazid bin Mazyad Ash-Shibani


It is as if you are fighting a war, but in fact you are running only from the ranks that are behind you. So there is no cheating of soldiers except in your noise, and there is no calamity of property except as a gift to you.


  1. Abu Tamam said:


Only against the home and playground is such an outpouring of unstoppable tears humiliated.


  1. Name the magshur ‘alaih in the following sentences and explain the differences in their meanings!


  1. Ali only likes to swim in the morning.


  1. The only one who likes to swim in the morning is Ali.


  1. The only thing Ali likes to do in the morning is swimming.


III. Which of the following two sentences is more eloquent in praising Sa’id? Explain why!


  1. Verily, Sa’id is the one who is good at giving speeches.


  1. Verily, Sa’id is only good at speeches.


  1. Make the following sentences into sentences that show the meaning of qashr, then explain the type of qashr and its means!


  1. The reciter of the Qur’an is destructive.


  1. The blessing of wealth is by paying zakat.


  1. Safety is in caution


  1. Making friends with an ignorant person sucks.


  1. I am silent towards people who are stupid.


  1. A lot of practice increases intelligence.


  1. Happiness will last by seeing friends of the same religion.


  1. He who leads you to evil has betrayed you.


  1. A person will rule over his people by doing good to them.


  1. It is an injustice to place good in other places.


  1. Look at the following sentences! –


Parents do not delight in anything except the intelligence of their children. When is the qashr in this sentence referred to as qashr galab, when is it referred to as qashr ifrad, and when is it referred to as qashr tayin?


  1. 1. Make the following sentence to show qashr sifat “ala maushuf without adding a single letter!


We honor the scholar who practices his knowledge.


  1. Make the following sentence to show qashr, and use the means of qashr that you know!


We have grown tired of the company of fools.


  1. Make the following sentences to show qashr by using the means of nafyi and istitsna, and by the means of athaf!


When calamity comes, friends will be known.


VII: Refute the opinion of those who believe that the earth is stationary or motionless with one of the uslub qashr, then explain the type of qashr and its means!


VIII. Explain the types of qashr found in the following story, their suggestions, magshur, and magshur ‘alaih!


The Arabs say that a rabbit found a date and a weasel snatched it. So they came quarreling for justice to the monitor lizard. The rabbit said, “O Abal Hisl!” He replied, “I heard you calling.” The rabbit said, “We have come to you to settle our quarrel.” He said, “To the just you both seek the law.” The hare said, “Come out to us!” He said, “In his house the judges are visited.” The hare said, “I have found a date.” He said, “Sweet, eat it!” Rabbit said, “Then it was snatched by a weasel.” He replied, “For himself, he disobeys kindness.” Rabbit said, “Then I struck him once.” He said, “As for your right, take it!” The hare said, “But then he struck me.” He said, “He is free, seek help!” The hare said, “Then punish us both!” He answered, “I have done so.” Then the lizard’s words became proverbs.


  1. 1. Make two sentences of qashr shifat ‘ala maushuf: one is qashr hakiki and the other is qashr idhafi.


  1. Make two sentences of qashr maushuf ‘ala shifat, both qashr idhafi.


  1. Give an example of each two-sentence qashr in which the first sentence is magshur ‘alaih in the form of shifat and the second sentence is maushuf.


  1. Make two sentences of qashr maushuf ‘ala shifat using the means of the letter athaf bal in the first sentence and the letter athaf laakin in the second sentence.


  1. Describe these two couplets of Abu Thayyib in praise of Abu Shuja’ Fatik and explain the types of qashr and their means!


No one will attain glory except an intelligent sayyid because it is not hard on sayyids to do so. Not the one who gets an inheritance, the one whose right hand does not know what he has given, and not the one who is fortunate, the one who without a sword begs.









A Places of Fashal

  1. Examples


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


Time is nothing but the speakers of my gasidah. If I recite a verse, then time will recite it.


  1. ‘Abul-‘Ala’ said:


Man is for another man, whether from the countryside or from the city: some are for others even though they do not feel they are servants.


  1. Allah says:


Allah orders the affairs (of His creatures), explaining the signs (of His greatness), so that you may believe in the meeting (of your Lord).


  1. Abul-Atahiyah said:


O owner of wealth who loves it, you are the one whose labor will never end. 


  1. Another poet said:


Verily, every person depends only on his two small possessions (heart and mouth). Every man is rewarded for what he has done.


  1. Abu Tamam said:


The barrier does not keep my aspirations from getting you. Verily the sky is expected to rain when it is obstructed by clouds.


  1. Discussion

What is meant by washal, according to the Ma’ani scholars, is to interrupt a sentence with another sentence with the letter athaf wawu, as Al-Abyurdi said to the time:


A slave will be refreshed by the pleasure you give him, while a free man will have a hot stomach because he is thirsty. And what they mean by fashal is leaving as above, as Al-Ma’arri said:


You should never make ends meet with one of the tools of the pen of an adult without having the good fortune to be a spinning wheel.


Each of the fashals and washals has a place that is required by necessity and desired by circumstances. On this occasion, the places of fashal will be explained:


Let us look at the examples of the first group, and we find that there is a perfect connection between the first sentence and the second sentence in each example. The second sentence in the first example is nothing but an amplification of the first sentence. The meaning of the two sentences is one. The second sentence in the second example is nothing but an explanation for the first sentence.


The second sentence in the third example is part of the meaning of the first sentence because explaining the signs of His greatness is part of managing the affairs of creatures. So, the second sentence is the badal of the first sentence.


Of course, we know that the second sentence in each example is fashalized from the first sentence, and there is no secret to this fashal except that there is a perfect connection and unity. Hence, the two sentences are said to have perfect continuity (kamiaalul ittishaal).


Then look at the examples of the second group, and you will find that the problem is the opposite of the above, because the first sentence and the second sentence in each example are very different. In the fourth example, the two sentences are different: one is khabar and the other is insya’. This is very clear. In the fifth example there is no harmony between the two sentences because there is no connection at all between the sentence “Every man depends on his two little things” and the sentence “Every man will be rewarded for what he does”. Here we find that the second sentence in these two examples is fashalized from the first sentence, and there is no secret to this fashal except that there is a great difference. Hence, the two sentences are said to have a complete disconnection (kamaalul-ingitha’).


Then look at the last example, and you will find that the second sentence has a very close relationship with the first sentence because it is the answer to the question raised by the first sentence. So, after reciting the first verse of his poem, it is as if Abu Tamam expected someone to ask “How can the obstacles of the ruler not stand between him and the achievement of his goal.” So he replied, “Verily, the ruler cannot stand between him and the achievement of his goal.” So he replied, “Verily, the sky is expected to rain when it is obstructed by clouds.” We know clearly that the second sentence is separate from the first sentence, and there is no secret to this fashal other than that there is a very close connection between the two sentences. Because the answer is so closely related and continuous with the question, it is similar in some respects to the situation in the examples of the first group. Hence, it is said that between these two sentences there is a perfect semblance of continuity (shibhu kamaalil ittishal).


  1. Rule

(62) Washal is when one sentence is followed by another sentence with a wawu. Fashal is the omission of such an ataph.


Each washal and fashal has its own place.


(63) Between two sentences, it is obligatory to make fashal in three places:


  1. When there is a complete unity between the two sentences, as in the case of the second sentence, which is a confirmation of the first sentence, or an explanation of it, or a badal of it. In this case, it is said that there is perfect continuity between the two sentences (kamaalul ittishaal).


  1. When there is a great difference between the two sentences, such as the khabar and the insyaa, or there is no correspondence between them at all. In this case, it is said that there is a complete discontinuity between the two sentences.


  1. When the second sentence is an answer to a question that arises from understanding the first sentence. In such a case, it is said that there is a syibhu kamuaalil ittishaal (perfect resemblance of continuity) between the two sentences.


B Places of Washal

  1. Examples


  1. AbulAla al-Ma’arri said:


The love of life enslaves every free man and teaches the hungry to eat bitter herbs.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


The secret in me has a place that cannot be known by drinking companions, and cannot be uncovered by liquor.


  1. He said:


He rolled up his garments from his calves to go out to sea, and the waves had struck him while he was still on the shore.


  1. Basyar bin Burd said:


Draw near to those who draw near to you, and do not consult with those who cannot keep secrets.


  1. No, and may Allah bless you. (In answer to the question: “Do you have a need that I can help you with?”)


  1. No, and may Allah ease his suffering. (In answer to the question: “Has your brother recovered from his illness?”)


  1. Discussion

Look at the two sentences in the first example and you will see that the first sentence, “A’bada kulla hurrin”, has a position in i’rab because it is the khabar of the mubtada’ that came before it, and the speaker intended to include the second sentence with the first sentence in this i’rab.


Then look at “Laa yanaaluhu nadiimun” and “Laa yufdhii ilaihi sharaabun” in the second example, and you will see that the first sentence also has a position in i’rab because it is the adjective of the previous nakirah phrase. The speaker also intended to include the second sentence with the first sentence in this ruling.


If you look further at the two second sentences in the two examples above, you will find that they are attributed to the first sentence and are connected to it. Likewise, it is obligatory to hash every two sentences like this.


If we look at the two sentences in the third example, we find that they are both kalam khabar that agree in meaning, but we do not find that they are fashal-kan, but rather diwashal-kan with the second sentence being diathaf to the first sentence. Similarly, the fourth example consists of two sentences that are both kalam insya’, and they are consistent in meaning, but they are not fashal-kan, but rather diwashal-kan with the diathaf of the second sentence to the first sentence. The same applies to any two sentences that are both in khabar or insya’ and are consistent in meaning, and there is nothing that requires them to be fashaled.


Let us now look at the fifth example. We find that the first clause, laa, is a khabar clause, while the second clause, baarakallaahu fiika, is an insya’ clause. If we fashalize the two sentences and say “Lag baarakallaahu fiika”, then the children’s listeners will think that we are wishing him bad, whereas we are wishing him good. Hence it is obligatory to move from fashal to washal. This is also the case with the last example, where the words are different in khapar and insya’a, which would have led to a misunderstanding of the true meaning had they not been interpolated.


3, Rule


(64) Washal is obligatory between two sentences in three places, if:


  1. the second sentence is to be included in the first sentence in terms of its i’rab.


  1. the two sentences are both kalam khabar or kalam insya’ and are perfectly compatible in meaning, but there is nothing that requires them to be fashaled.


  1. The two sentences are different in khabar and insya’, and if they are fashaled, it will lead to misunderstandings that violate the original meaning.


  1. Exercises


Explain the places of fashal and washal in the following sentences and mention their reasons!


  1. Allah says:


Verily, the disbelievers are the same to them, whether you warn them or not, they will not believe. (QS Al-Baqarah: 6)


  1. Al-Ahnaf bin Oais said:


There is no loyalty for a liar, and no peace for the envious.


  1. Allah says:


And he was afraid of them. The angel said, “Do not be afraid…” (Huud: 70)


  1. Mentioned in the words of wisdom:


Turban is quite painful, the goodness of a man depends on the maintenance of the tongue.


  1. A saying attributed to Imam Ali (a.s.):


Abandon extravagance for economic reasons, and remember today about tomorrow, and save a portion of your wealth according to your primary needs, and give priority to the rest for the day of your needs.


  1. Abu Bakr said:


O people, indeed I was given the power to govern you, and I am not the best among you.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


Verily the calamities of the times tell me, I am one who bites the wood for a long time (endures and is steadfast to calamities).


  1. No, may you be sufficed from his evil. (In response to the question: “Has the sick person’s fever gone down?”)


9 Allah Almighty says:


…. Who has given you what you know. He has given you livestock, children, gardens, and springs of water. (QS Ash-Shu’ara’: 132 – 134)


10, Abul Atahiyah said:


Sometimes the sleeper who is guided achieves what he seeks, and sometimes the one who walks in the afternoon and evening suffers loss.


  1. Al-Ghazzi complained to people:


They turn away without reason when afflicted with calamity, and they obey commands and prohibitions when in enjoyment.


  1. Abul ‘Ala Al-Ma’arri said:


Let it never astonish you the presence of someone who shows light, verily the calmness of the fire – by my age – is the peak of its turmoil.


  1. They say that I bring dishonor to them. I seek refuge in my Lord from the humiliation of one who is equal to me.


  1. Allah says:


They inflicted on you the severest of torments, they slaughtered your male children…. . (QS Al-Baqarah: 49)


  1. Allah Almighty says: .


And nothing he (the Qur’an) speaks is according to the whim of his lust. His speech is nothing but a revelation revealed to him. (QS An-Najm: 3 – 4)


Sample Answers:

  1. The two sentences are fashalized, i.e. between “Sawaa-un ‘alaihim a’andzartahum am lam tundzirhum” and “Laa yu-minuun”, because these two sentences are perfectly connected, as the second sentence is a taukid for the first sentence.


  1. The two sentences are hashed together because they are both kalam khabar and agree in meaning, and because there is nothing that requires them to be hashed together.


  1. The second sentence (gaaluu) is fashaled with the first sentence (wa aujasa minhum khiifah) because the two sentences have perfect continuity, because the second sentence is an answer to the question that arises from understanding the first sentence. So, it is as if the question arises: “Then what did they say when they saw him: fear?” The answer is: They said, “Do not be afraid.”


  1. The two sentences are fashaled because there is a complete disconnection between them, as there is no correspondence of meaning between the first sentence and the second sentence.


5- All of these sentences have been fashaled because they are all kalam insya’ and have the same meaning, and because there is nothing that requires them to be fashaled.


  1. The sentence “Ayyuhan-naas” and the sentence “This is wulliitu ‘alaikum” are hashed because there is a difference in khabar and insya’ between them. “Wulliitu ‘alaikum” and “Lastu bi khairikum” were hashed because Abu Bakr intended to include the second sentence in the first sentence in terms of i’rab, as they were both in the rafa’ position. If wawu athaf is interpreted as wawu haliyah, then it is not washal.


  1. The two syathars of the verse are fashalized because the second syathar is an answer to a question that arises from the listener’s understanding of the first syathar. Thus, the two syathars have a perfect semblance of continuity.


  1. The sentence “Iaa” and the sentence “Kuffiita..” are hashed because there is a difference between khabar and insya’, and if they were hashed, it would lead to misunderstanding that violates the original intention.


  1. The phrase “Amaddakum bi maa ta’lamuun” and the phrase “Amaddakum bi an’aamin …” are hashed out because they have a perfect continuity, because the second phrase is the badal of the first phrase, namely that livestock, children, gardens, and springs are among the things that you know.


  1. Abul-‘Atahiyah flashes the two sentences together because they are both kalam khabar and have perfect continuity of meaning, and there is nothing that requires them to be flashalized.


  1. Al-Ghazzi has also hashed the two SYathar of his poem for the same reason.


  1. Abul-‘Ala’ fashaled his two syllables because there is a complete disconnection between them, because they are different in khabar and insya’.


  1. The phrase “Yaguuluuna innii ahmiludh-dhaima” and the phrase “A’uudzu bi Rabbee …” are fashaled because they have a semblance of perfect continuity, because the second phrase is an answer to the question that arises from understanding the first phrase. So, it is as if after the poet recited the first syathar, someone asked him, “Is what they say about you bringing disgrace true?” So he answers with the second syathar.


  1. The phrase “Yasuumuunakum suu-al-‘adzaabi” and the phrase “Yudzab bihuuna abnaa-akum” are fashalized because they have perfect continuity, as the second phrase is the badal of the first.


  1. Allah fashaled the two sentences in the verse because they have perfect continuity, as the second sentence is an explanation for the first sentence.




  1. Explain the places of fashal and washal in the following examples and explain why!


  1. Some people of wisdom said:


A slave is free when he is gana’ah (accepting reality), and a free person is a slave when he is thama’ (always wishing for more or not accepting reality).


  1. Ibnur-Rumi said:


Sometimes the hasty seeker of good misses it, and sometimes evil hits the one who runs away from it. 


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


An opinion for a rudimentary person is that courage is first (in its appearance), and it takes second place.


4 Al-Hajjaj said:


O Allah, show me that deceit is deceit so that I may avoid it, and show me that guidance is guidance so that I may follow it, and do not bestow it upon me so that I may go far astray.


  1. Ash-Sharif Ar-Radhiy said in one of his laments:


Do you know who they carry on a coffin, do you know how the light of the generous is extinguished?


6, Hisan bin Tsabit Al-Anshari said:


I preserve my soul with my wealth, I will not defile it. Allah does not bless wealth without a good soul. If the wealth is gone, I can try to get it again, and I cannot try to get my soul / my dignity again after it is destroyed / damaged.


  1. Am-Nabighah Adz-Dzubyani mourns his brother in law:


It is enough for two friendly people that the earth separates them, one lives on it, and the other is destroyed under it.


  1. Ath-Thaghra’i said:


O one who lives the rest of life, all the rest of life is murky. You have spent all your life in your past days.




Tears need not be shed and your heart need not be comforted. Death stops by the lion’s den.


  1. Zainab bint Ath-Thatsariyyah mourned for her brother:


He can satisfy the sword with the palm of his hand and his gifts have reached distant tribes.


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


The noblest place in the world is the saddle of a fast-running horse, and the best companion throughout the ages is the book.


  1. The eyes make me weep and lust makes me thirsty. My intellect has died and the majesty of a benefactor has disappeared.


  1. A man from Banu Asad said in a taunt:


Don’t think of greatness as a single date that you just eat. You will not attain greatness until you lick the bitter sap of the tree.


14 Umarah Al-Yamani’ said:


The cheating of a person is in his promise and fulfillment, and the cheating of a sharp sword is when it cannot be used for cutting.


15, Allah says about the story of Pharaoh and Moses a.s.:


Pharaoh said, “Who is the Lord of the worlds?” Moses replied, “The Lord of the heavens and the earth and what is between them (is your Lord) if you are believers.” Pharaoh said to those around him, “Are you not listening?” Moses said, “The Lord of you and the Lord of your fathers.” (QS Ash-Shw’ara’: 23-26)


  1. Allah says:


And when Our verses are recited to him, he turns away arrogantly as if he had not heard them, as if there were plugs in his ears. (QS Lugman: 7)


  1. 1. Why is the second half of Abu Tanam’s verse not properly attributed to the first half?


No, by Allah the Omniscient, indeed An-Nawatwi is a steadfast man, and indeed Abul Husayn is a noble man.


2 Why is it good to say:


(Ali was an orator and Sa’id was a poet).


And why is it not good to say:


(Ali was sick and Sa’id was a scholar)?


III. 1. Make three examples of ‘sentences’, each of which is fashal-ka because it has perfect continuity!


  1. Make two examples of sentences that are fashal-ka because they have a semblance of perfect continuity!


3, Give two examples of sentences that are fashaled because they have perfect continuity!


IV, Give two examples of each place of washal!


V, Analyze the following two couplets of Abu Thayyib in praise of SaifudDaulah and explain the reasons for their fashal and/or washal!


O one who always kills with his sword the one he wants, I have become a victim of killing with your kindness.


When I saw you, my sight was astonished: and when I praised you, my tongue was astonished.







  1. Musawah
  2. Examples
  3. Allah says:


And whatever you work out of good for yourselves, surely you will have your reward with Allah. (QS Al-Baqarah: 110)


  1. Allah says:


Evil plans will not befall except those who plan them. (QS Faathir: 43)


  1. An-Nabighah Adz-Dzubyani said:


Verily, you are like the night that can chase me even if you think that there are many wide places to avoid you.


  1. Tharafah bin Abd said:


The days will show you what you do not know, and there will come to you people whom you have never provisioned with a variety of news.


2, Discussion


A mature person, in order to express his heart, will choose one of the following three ways of expressing his heart, using sentences with brevity, at length, and in moderation, according to the circumstances of the mukhathab and the situation of the conversation. We will discuss these three ways of expressing things, starting with musawah, because musawah is the main style of language.


When we look at the examples above, we find that the words are arranged in accordance with the intended meaning, and if we add a word, there will be an excess: and if we subtract a word, there will be a reduction in the meaning. So, the words arranged in each of the above examples are equal to the number of meanings. Hence, such an expression of kaJimat vang is referred to as musawah.


  1. Rule

(65) Musawah is the expression of a sentence whose meaning corresponds to the number of words, and the words correspond to the breadth of the intended meaning without any addition or subtraction.


  1. Ijaz
  2. Examples
  3. Allah swt. says


Remember, to create and to command is the right of Allah. (QS Al-A’raf: 54) .


  1. The Prophet said:


A weak person is the ruler of a group of travelers.


  1. It was said to a Bedouin Arab who was herding his many camels:


“Whose property is this?” He replied, “Allah’s in my hand.”


  1. Allah swt. says:


And your Lord came, while the angels were marching. (QS Al-Fajr: 22)


  1. Allah says:

Qaaf, by the Glorious Qur’an. (They did not accept it), rather they were astonished that a warner had come to them from among themselves. (QS Oaaf: 1-2)


  1. Allah swt. says about the story of Moses and the two daughters of Shu’aib:


So Moses gave the cattle water to help them, then he returned to a shady place and prayed: “My Lord, I am in need of a favor that You have revealed to me.” Then there came to Moses one of the two women, walking shyly, and she said, “Indeed, my father has called me, that he may reward you for your kindness in giving us water.” (QS Al-Oashash: 24-25).


  1. Discussion When we look at the examples of the first part, we find that the words in each sentence are few in number, but cover a lot of meaning. In the first example, there are two words that include everything and everything in its entirety. In this regard, it is reported that Ibn ‘Umar, when reciting the verse, said, “Whoever thinks that there is something else, let him seek it.” The second example is symbolic of balaghah and beauty. It encompasses the courtesy of travel and the need to care for the weak. This is not easily expressed by a mature person except in long words. The same applies to the third example. Such uslub is called jijaz. Because the scope of ijaz is in accordance with the breadth of the scope of the few words to the many meanings, and not by removing some words or sentences, it is called ijaz qashr.


Furthermore, if we look at the examples of the second part, we find that the sentences are also concise. To find out the secret of brevity, let us look at the fourth example. We find that some of the words have been omitted, because it is believed that the original sentence was: “Wa jaa-a aniru Rabbika”. In the fifth example, part of the sentence is also omitted, namely the answer gasam, because it is thought that the origin of the sentence is: “Oaaf, wal-Our-aanil-majd latub’atsunna” L.. really you will be resurrected). As for the sixth example, the lafaz that were removed were several sentences, which if they had not been removed so much, the flow of the sentence would have been: Then the two women went to their father, and they told him what had happened to Moses. So “yah sent one of them to Moses, and one of . .. . Since the ijaz in the second part of the examples is achieved by omitting some of it, it is called ijaz hadzf. The condition for this type of ijaz is that there must be evidence to indicate the omitted phrase. If there is no such evidence, then the omission of part of the word/sentence is destructive and cannot be justified.


  1. Rule


(66) Ijaz is the gathering of many meanings into a few words clearly and eloquently. Ijaz is divided into two:


  1. Ijaz gishar, which is ijaz by using short expressions, but containing many meanings, without the removal of some words/sentences.


  1. Ijaz hadzf, i.e. ijaz by removing some words or sentences on condition that there is a karinah that indicates the existence of the removed lafaz.


  1. Exercises Sample Problem: Explain the types of ijaz in the following examples!


  1. Allah says:


They are the ones who have security. (QS Al-An’am: 82)


  1. Allah says: .


By Allah, you will always remember Yusuf. (QS Yusuf: 85)


  1. Allah says:


He brings forth from it springs of water and vegetation. (QS An-Naazi’aat 31)


  1. Allah says:


As for those who become black in the face, (it will be said to them), “Why do you disbelieve after you have believed?”. (al-Imran: 106)


5, Allah says:


And if there were a scripture by which the mountains could be shaken or the earth divided, or by which the dead could speak (surely the Qur’an would be it). Indeed, all affairs belong to Allah. (QS Ar-Ra’d: 31)


  1. Abu Thayyib said:


The children of the age have found the age when they were young so that it pleased them, and we have found it senile.


  1. I eat fruits and water.


Sample Answers:


1 In this verse there is ijaz gishar because the word “al-imnu” includes all pleasant things, including freedom from fear of poverty, death, persecution, loss of pleasure, and from other frightening things.


  1. This verse contains ijaz hadzf because the meaning of the verse is “Tallaahi laa tafta-u . .” (By Allah, you do not cease/always . . .), then the nafyi is removed.


  1. This verse contains ijaz gishar. With these two words Allah shows that He brings out from the earth all that He brings out, both foodstuffs and goods that are a means of enjoyment for humans, such as grass, trees, firewood, clothing, fire, and water.


  1. In this verse there is ijaz hadzf because the answer ammaa is omitted, because the original sentence is “Fayugaalu lahum akafartum ba’da jimaanikum” (then it is said to them why they disbelieved after believing).


  1. In this verse there is ijaz hadzf because the answer lau is omitted, because it is thought that the omitted sentence is “Lakaana haadzal-Our-aan”.


  1. This verse contains ijaz hadzf, as the word fa saa-anaa is omitted in comparison to the word fasarrahum.


  1. In this sentence there is ijaz hadzf, it is estimated that the origin of the sentence is… wa sharibtu maa-an.




  1. Describe the types of ijaz in the following sentences and explain why!


  1. Allah swt. says:


And there is no God with Him. If there were other gods with Him, each of them would have brought his creation, and some of them would have defeated others. (QS Al-Mu-minun: 91)


  1. Allah swt. says:


Be forgiving and enjoin people to do what is right, and turn away from those who are foolish (QS Al-A’raf: 199).


  1. The Prophet said:


Verily, some of the parables really contain magic.


4 Allah says about Paradise:


And in Paradise is everything that the heart desires and the eyes delight in. (QS Az-Zukhruf: 71)


5, Allah Almighty says:


And (how great) if you had seen when they (the disbelievers) were seized with fear (on the Day of Resurrection), they could not escape…. (QS Saba’: 51)


  1. Allah swt. says:


And if they disbelieve you (after you have warned them), then indeed they have disbelieved the messengers before you (QS Faathir: 4).


  1. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said:


Thama’ is poverty and hopelessness is wealth.


  1. Ali said:


The key to the success of a leader is leniency.


  1. It is said that As-Samau-al said:


And if he is not able to bear his own suffering, then there is no way for him to be able to achieve beautiful praise.


  1. Allah swt. says about the end of the flood:


And it is said: “O earth, swallow up your waters, and O heavens (rain), cease”: and the waters were stilled, the command was accomplished, and the ark was anchored on the Hill of Judi, and it was said: “Perish the wrongdoers.” (QS Huud: 44)


  1. Explain the beauty of ijaz and mention the types of ijaznyu in the following sentences!


  1. Thahir bin Al-Husain sent a letter to Al-Ma-mun. Thahir was the prime minister whom Al-Ma-mun appointed after defeating the army of Ali bin Isa bin Mahan”)),


My letter to Amirul-Mu-minin: The head of Ali bin Isa bin Mahan is in my hand, his ring is in my hand, and his army has surrendered to my command. Wassalam.


  1. Ziyad made a speech:


O people, never let the evil of your deeds prevent you from utilizing the good and what you have heard from me.


III. Explain the beauty of ijaz in the following taugiat!


  1. Abu Ja’far Al-Manshur received a complaint from some people from among his governors, so he said: ,


According to your circumstances, you have been appointed as governors.


  1. The judge of Egypt sent a letter to him about the low water of the Nile, so he wrote:


Cleanse your army from corruption, then the Nile will give you guidance.


  1. He responded to a letter from his assistant in Himsha, a city plagued by corruption:


Find a replacement for your secretary: otherwise, you will be replaced.


  1. The judge of India wrote to him that an army had molested him and broken the keys of the temple. So he wrote:


Had you been just, they would not have molested you, and had you fulfilled their rights, they would not have robbed.


  1. Harun Ar-Rashid wrote to the judge of Khurasan:


Your wound will not spread.


  1. He wrote about the story of the people of Barmak:


They are grown by obedience and harvested by disobedience.


  1. Ibrahim bin Mahdi sent a letter to Al-Ma-mun: “When you forgive, it is by your mercy: and when you punish, it is your right.” So Al-Ma-mun wrote:


Power removes anger.


  1. Ziyad b. Abih wrote about the persecuted:


It is enough for you.


  1. Ja’far bin Yahya wrote to a servant who had many complaints about him:


There are many who complain about you, and few who are grateful to you. Then will you be just, or will you resign?


  1. He wrote about a man in prison:


Justice put him in prison, and repentance will release him.


  1. A Bedouin man named Dhabbah had two sons, one named Sa’d and the other named Su’aid. One day Dhabbah’s camel ran away. So the two sons searched for it separately. Sa’d found it and returned it, while Su’aid continued to look for it until he met Al-Harith bin Ka’b. At that time Su’aid wore two sheets.


At that time Su’aid was wearing two blankets. Then Harith asked him for the two blankets. He did not give them to him, so Harith killed him and took the two blankets.


When it was evening Dhabbah saw a figure in the darkness, so he said, “Is it Sa’d or Su’aid?” His words later became proverbs for success and failure. Then after that incident Dhabbah did not leave the house for a long time. Then he performed the pilgrimage, and when he entered the marketplace of ‘Ukazh he met Harith b. Ka’b. He saw Harith wearing two sheets of cellophane. He saw Harith wearing two blankets of his son Su’aid, and he recognized him. So he asked him, “Can you tell me the history of these two blankets that you are wearing?” He replied, “I met a boy wearing these two blankets, so I asked him for them. He did not give it to me, so I killed him, and I took the two blankets.” Dhabbah asked, “With this sword of yours? Harith said, “Yes.” Dhabbah said, “Show it to me, I think it is very sharp.” So Harith gave the sword to Dhabbah. When Dhabbah held the sword, he moved it, saying, “The story has many paths.” Then he struck Harith with the sword and he died.


So it was asked of him, “O Dhabbah, was it in the month of ha


ram (did you commit murder)?” He replied, “The sword overcomes the insult.


It beats a slur.” So, he was the first to say the above three proverbs.


  1. 1. Make three examples of ijaz gishar and explain the ijaz aspect!


  1. Make three examples of ijaz hadzf where the omitted phrase in the first example is one word, in the second example one sentence, and in the third example more than one sentence, and explain the omitted phrases!


  1. Explain the balaghah and ijaz aspects of Abu Tamam’s poem in praise!


If you had to describe yourself, you could not add to the glory of your character.


  1. Ithnab

1, Example


  1. Allah swt. says:


The angels and Archangel Gabriel descended that night. (QS AlOadr: 4)


  1. Allah says:


O my Lord, forgive me, my father and mother, those who enter my house in faith, and all those who believe, male and female. (QS Nuh: 28)


c Allah swt. says:


And We revealed to him (Luth) the matter, that they would be utterly destroyed at dawn. (QS Al-Hijr: 66)


  1. Antarah b. Shaddad said in some of his narrations that he was once hung on the Ka’bah:


They invited ‘Antarah, while the arrows were like a well mine in the horse’s chest. They invited ‘Antarah, while the swords were like lightning in a dark cloud.


  1. An-Nabighah AlJa’di said:


Do the sons of Sa’d not think that I – actually they are lying – am an old man and will perish?


f Al-Huthai-ah said:


You see a young man who gives away his wealth saying praise. Whoever gives for praise is praiseworthy.


  1. Ibn Nubatah said:


Your generosity no longer leaves me anything to hope for. You left me to live the life of the world without hope.


  1. Ibn al-Mu’taz characterized the horse:


We whip him with our whips unjustly, so his hands and feet fly away quickly.


  1. Discussion

In the previous explanation, we have seen the meaning of ijaz. This time, we will explain another type of uslub which is the opposite, i.e. it has more words than the intended meaning.


If we look at the first example, we find that the phrase “Ar-Ruuh” is an additional phrase because its meaning is already covered by the previous phrase, which is the phrase “al-Malaa-ikatu”. If we look at the second example, we also find that the phrase “Lii wa liwaalidayya” is also an additional phrase because its meaning has been included in the generality of the phrase “al-Mu-miniin wal-Mu-minaat”. Likewise, all of the above examples include extra words, as will be discussed further, and it will also be explained that these extra words are not useless, but are brought in from a subtle aspect of balaghah to add weight to the sentence that elevates its meaning. Expressing a sentence in this way is called ithnab.


If we look again one by one, we find that there are various techniques of ithnab. The first method in the first example is the mention of a specific phrase after a general phrase (dhikrul-khash ba’dal-‘am). In this verse, Allah specifically mentions Ar-Ruuh, i.e. Gabriel, even though he is included in the generality of angels. This is meant to honor and respect Jibril, as if he were of another kind. So, the benefit of benambahan in this verse is to honor something that is different from others. 


The second method in the second example is to mention the general phrase after the specific phrase (dhikrul-‘am ba’dal-khash). In this verse, Allah mentions “al-mu-miniin wal-mu-micat”, which are both general phrases that include the people mentioned in the previous phrases. The purpose of adding these phrases is to show the inclusion of the unique phrase in the general phrase by giving special attention to something unique because it is mentioned twice.


The third method in the third example is by al-idhah ba’dal-ibham (mentioning a lafaz whose meaning is clear after mentioning a lafaz whose meaning is not clear) because Allah’s words “Anna daabira haa-ulaa-i maqthuu’un mushbihiin” are an explanation for the lafaz “al-amr” mentioned before. This is intended to increase the firmness of the meaning in the hearts of the listeners by being mentioned twice, once vaguely, and once firmly.


The fourth method in both stanzas of the ‘Antarah poem is by way of tikrar (repeated mention), to emphasize and solidify the meaning in the hearts of the listeners. This purpose is most evident in speeches and in the context of boasting, praising, giving guidance and warning. The repetition may also be due to other reasons, such as tahassur (showing sadness), as in the poem of al-Husayn Muthayyar ( ) in mourning Ma’n bin Zaidah:


O grave of Ma’n, you are the first pit of the earth that became a place of glory and mercy.


O grave of Ma’n, how can you cover up his mercy, when the land and the sea are filled with his mercy? Another reason is because there are many separating sentences such as in the verse: .


The people of Yemen know that when I say “Amma Ba’du”, I am the one who says it.


The fifth method is the i’tiradh method, which involves inserting one or more words into the middle of a sentence or between two related words. The added sentence has no position in i’rab. This is intended to enhance the soundness of the sentence. The phrase “alaa kadzabuu” in the verse of An-Nabighah is placed between the isim inna and its khabar, with the intention of emphasizing the warning to the one who accuses him of being old. Other reasons for i’tiradh include tanzih (purification), such as: “Innallaaha – tabaaraka wa t’aalaa – lathiifun bi’ibaadih” (Verily Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, is gentle to His servants). Sometimes it is also for supplications, such as: “Innii – wagaakallaahu – maridhun” (Verily I – may Allah preserve you – am sick).


The sixth method in the sixth and seventh examples is by tadzyiil, which is accompanying a sentence with another sentence that contains the same meaning. This is intended to emphasize the meaning. In fact, the meaning of the two stanzas has been completed in the first syathar, but is reviewed again in the second syathar. If we look at the tadzyiil in these two examples, we find that there is a difference between them. The tadzyiil in the first example is a sentence whose meaning is independent of the understanding of the previous sentence. Such a tadzyiil is called jaarin majral mitsl (applicable as an example). Whereas in the second stanza it is not a sentence whose meaning is independent, because its meaning cannot be understood without first understanding the previous sentence. Such a tadzyiil is called ghairu jaarin maj’al-mitsl (not applicable as an example).


Then let us look at the last example, and we find that if we had omitted the word zhaalimiin, the listener would have assumed that Ibn al-Mu’taz’s horse was a fool and deserved to be beaten. Such a meaning is not in accordance with the speaker’s intention. Such an addition is called ihtiraas (in order to protect). The same applies to any word that is added to prevent misunderstanding of the sentence.


3 Rule


(9) Ithnab is the addition of more words to a sentence than the meaning of the sentence for a useful purpose.


There are many techniques of ithnab, including:


  1. Dzikrul-khash ba’dal-‘am (mentioning the specific phrase after the general phrase). This serves the purpose of reminding one of the merits of something that is unique.


  1. Dzikrul-‘am ba’dal-khash (mentioning a general phrase after a specific phrase). This is meant to show the generality of the ruling of the sentence in question by giving separate attention to something that is unique.


  1. Al-Idhah ba’dal-Ibham (mentioning a phrase whose meaning is clear after mentioning a phrase whose meaning is not clear). This serves the purpose of emphasizing the meaning in the listener’s attention.


  1. Tikrar (repeating the mention of a phrase). This serves the purpose of tapping the listener’s soul to the intended meaning, to show sadness, and to avoid misunderstanding due to the number of clauses separating the elements.


The number of subordinate clauses that separate the main elements of the sentence in question.


  1. Ftiradh (inserting a clause in the middle of a sentence or between two related words, and the clause has no position in i’rab).


  1. Tadzyiil (accompanying a sentence with another sentence that includes its meaning). This serves as a taukid. There are two kinds of tadzyiil:
  2. Jaarin majral-mitsl (applies as an example) when the added sentence is independent in meaning, not requiring the first sentence.
  3. Ghairu jaarin majral-mitsl (when the second sentence cannot be separated from the first sentence).


  1. Ihtiras (safeguarding), i.e. if the speaker conveys a sentence that is likely to cause misunderstanding, then he should add a phrase or sentence to avoid such misunderstanding.


4 Exercise

Example Problems:


  1. Allah says:


So do the inhabitants of those lands feel safe from Our torment coming upon them at night while they are asleep? Or do the inhabitants of those lands feel safe from Our torment coming upon them at the time when the sun is halfway up while they are playing? So do they feel safe from the (unforeseen) punishment of Allah? No one is safe from the punishment of A’inh except those who are losers. (QS Al-A’raf: 97 – 99) .


  1. Allah says:


We have not made eternal life for any man before you (Muhammad), so if you die, will they be eternal? Every soul will taste death. (QS Al-Anbiya’: 34 – 35)


3, Abu Thayyib said:


Verily I am friendly with my wisdom and it makes me noble and I am not friendly with my wisdom if it will make me timid.


4, An-Nabighah Al-Ja’di said in a curse:


If only those poor people – and you are one of them – saw you, then they would learn from you for a long time.


  1. A Bedouin woman said to a man:


Verily Allah has made all your enemies beneficial to you except your lust.


  1. Allah says:


It is Allah who has bestowed upon you what you know.


He has given you livestock and children. (QS Ash-Shu’ara: 132 – 133)


Sample answers:

  1. This verse contains ithnab with tikrar in order to warn. This is to emphasize the meaning in the hearts of the listeners.


  1. This verse contains ithnab in two places, the first of which is the phrase “Afa in mitta fa humul-khaaliduun”, and the mention of this phrase is tadzyiil, which cannot be used as an example. The second place is the phrase “Kullu nafsin dzaa’iqatulmaut”, and this phrase is applicable as an example.


  1. This stanza contains ithnab with ihtiras in two places, the first of which is in the first syathar by mentioning the words “wahuwa bii karamun”, and the second in the second syathar by mentioning the words “wahuwa bii jubunun”.


  1. This stanza contains ithnab with i’tiradh. The phrase “wa anta minhum” is placed between the isim inna and its khabar. This is intended to sharpen the reproach to the mukhathab.


5: This expression is used in conjunction with ihtiras, because the lust of every person is his enemy, because it invites people to destruction.


  1. In this verse there is ithnab with al-idhah ba’dal ibham because the mention of the word bi an’aamin wa baniin is an explanation for the lafaz bimaa ta’lamuun.


  1. Explain the meaning of word repetition in the examples of ithnab in the following sentences!


  1. Some bold poets say:


(Go) to the great center of glory and mercy. There, there are virtues and manners that are established and noble.


  1. A Bedouin woman laments over her two sons:


O one who knows my two favorite sons, both of whom are like two pearls separated from their shells. O one who knows my two favorite sons, who are both my hearing and my sight. So my eyesight has been struck today.


3 Amrbin Kultsum’ said:


How could we want, O Amr bin Hindin, to be the servants of your helpers? How could we, O Amr b. Hindin, obey the lowly, and you yourself know who we are.


  1. Allah swt. says:


For surely after hardship there is ease, surely after hardship there is ease. (QS Alam Nasyrah: 5-6)


  1. Explain the places of i’tiradh and its benefits in the following sentences!


  1. Al-Abbas bin Al-Ahnaf said:


When this exile is complete, O Zhalum, and it is not complete at this time, then there will be no more desire for me to live.


  1. Abul-Fattaah Al-Busti said:


When a noble person praises (thanks) in the morning, and why this is so, then he will not praise in the afternoon.


3, Abu Khirash Al-Hudzali said warning his brother Urwah:


The woman said, “I saw him (Abu Khirash) become negligent after Urwah left.” That is a big accident if you know. Do not think that I forgot the promise. However, my patience is good, O Umaim.


  1. Know that a man’s knowledge is beneficial to him. Verily, whatever is destined will come.


III. Explain the places of tadzyiil and its types in the following sentences! Abu Tamam said when making tadzyiyah to the caliph because his son had died:


Be patient, O Amiral-Mu-minin, for surely for the sake of the event that you witnessed a small child was fed and born. Your son is nothing but a descendant of Adam. Everyone has a path to that lake of death.


  1. Ibrahim bin Mahdi mourned for his son:


Seek a change of house other than mine and a neighbor other than me. And the calamities of the times will also change.


3, – When I am killed, then you will be my killers. Some people’s deaths are more honorable than others.


  1. Allah swt. says:


Thus We recompensed them for their disbelief. And We do not inflict such a punishment except on those who disbelieve the most. (QS Saba’: 17)


  1. Explain the places of ihtiras and its causes in the following sentences!


  1. Abul-Husain Al-Jazzaar said about the one who is praised:


He sways like a gift when I praise him, just as the drinker of alcohol sways except for his speech.


  1. Another poet said:


I have never been thirsty for water except the water of the Nile even if – astaghfirullah – it is Zamzam.


3, ‘Antarah said:


Those of you who participated in the war will tell you that I participated in the war and I did not want to take a share of the ghanimah.


4, Ka’bbin Sa’id Al-Ghanawi said:


He is merciful when it adorns (is praised to) the expert. Even though he was merciful, he was frightening in the eyes of many people.


  1. Show the places of ithnab, and explain its types and meanings in the following sentences!


  1. Allah says:


Verily, Allah enjoins you to be just and to do good, and to give to your relatives, and Allah forbids evil deeds, wrongdoing, and enmity. (QS An-Nah!: 90)


2 Allah says: –


Keep all your prayers, and keep the wustha prayer (the ‘Asr prayer). (QS Al-Baqarah: 238)


  1. A poet said:


It is an injustice to seek sustenance when it has already been distributed. Note that one’s injustice will come upon himself.


4, Allah says:


Do you know what the Day of Reckoning is? Again, do you know what the day of recompense is? (QS Al-Infithar: 17 – 18)


  1. Allah says:


The believer said, “O my people, follow me; I will show you the right way. O my people, surely the life of this world is but a (temporary) pleasure and surely the Hereafter is an everlasting land.” (QS Al-Mu’min: 38 – 39)


  1. Allah swt. says:


Insert your hand into the neck of your garment, and it will come out white and unblemished. (QS Al-Oashash: 32)


7, Al-Hummasi said:


O prison, leash, longing, estrangement, and distant lover, verily this is a great matter. And indeed anyone who is able to fulfill his promise in such a way is truly a noble person.


8, Allah says:


Then Satan whispered evil thoughts to him, saying, “O Adam, shall I show you the tree of khuldi?” (QS Thaha: 120)


  1. Ibrahim bin Mahdi said in mourning his son:


Verily, I – even if you die before me – know that I – even if I die later – am close to you.


10, Allah Almighty says:


And they appointed for Allah daughters – Allah’s Glory – while for themselves (they appointed) what they liked (i.e. sons). (QS An-Nahl: 57)


  1. Ausbin Hajar said:


I am forever not one who stops eating for fear of tomorrow, for every tomorrow there is food.


  1. Allah Almighty says:


And let there be among you a group of people who call to goodness, enjoining the good and forbidding the evil. (QS Ali Imran: 104)


  1. Allah says:


Verily among your wives and your children there are those who are enemies to you, so beware of them: and if you forgive and do not anger and forgive (them), then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (QS At-Taghabun: 14)


  1. Allah says:


And I do not “absolve myself (from blame), for verily the passions always urge to evil. (Yusuf: 53)


  1. Allah says:


O my father, I dreamt that I saw eleven stars, the sun and the moon, and I saw them all bowing down to me. (QS Yusuf: 4)


  1. Point out the balaghah defects in the following stanzas of poetry!


1, Abu Nuwas said:


We stayed there one day, and another day, and a third day, and another five days to move from place to place.


  1. An-Nabighah said in characterizing the house:



Its signs became clear so that I recognized it. That has been the case for six years, and now is the seventh year.


3, AbulAtahiyah said:


Has died – by Allah – Sa’id b. Wahb, may Allah bestow His mercy upon Sa’id b. Wahb. | O Abu Uthman, you made my eyes weep. O Abu Uthman, you make my heart sick.


VII. Look at the ijaz sentence, then construct two other sentences by including the ijaz sentence, the first sentence being equal in meaning, and the second sentence being longer.


Amma ba’du. So exhort people with your deeds, be ashamed of Allah in proportion to His nearness to you, and fear Him in proportion to His power over you.


VIII. Why is every sentence in which there is fashal because of perfect continuity one of the types of ithnab? Give different examples and explain the type of ithnab!


  1. 1. Make two ithnab sentences with dzikrul-khash ba’dal-‘am and


two other ithnab sentences with dhikrul-‘am ba’dal-khash. Explain the meaning of the additional words in each sentence.


  1. Make two ithnab sentences with i’tiradh and explain the benefit of the i’tiradh!


  1. Make four sentences of ithnab with good tikrar, and explain the purpose of the repetition, and go through the whole purpose of the tikrar!


  1. Make two ithnab sentences with tadzyiil that can be used as examples, and two other ithnab sentences with tadzyiil that cannot be used as examples!


  1. Make two ithnab sentences with ihtiras!


  1. Explain Al-Mutanabbi’s two stanzas in describing Shi’b Bawwan (the name of a place in Shiraz), and explain the type of ithnab!


It is the playground of the jinn. Had the Prophet Solomon passed through it, he would have passed with his interpreter.


How captivating our horses are, so that I fear – even though the place is so noble – the horses remain there and do not want to move.









After discussing the issue of Ma’ani Science at length, it is possible to conclude that the discussion of Ma’ani Science is based on two things:


Firstly, the science of Ma’ani explains the necessity of applying a sentence according to the situation of the listeners and the issue it addresses, and shows us that a word is not said to be grammatical, no matter what form it takes, until it is appropriate to the issue it addresses and the situation of the listeners. The Arabs used to say, “Every issue has a delivery technique.”


Sometimes the kalam khabar is conveyed with a taukid, and sometimes it is not, according to the condition of the listener, because he does not know what the sentence is about, or he has previously doubted the matter that the sentence describes, or denied it. To evoke this original state of mind, if it is not accompanied by attraction, is to go against the rules outlined in the rules of balaghah. Consider what Allah says about the messengers of Isa (a.s.) sent to the people of Anthakiyyah:


And make for them a parable of the people of a country when messengers came to them: (i.e.) when We sent to them two messengers, and they denied them both: then We strengthened them with a third, and the third said, “Verily we are sent to you”. They said, “You are nothing but men like us, and Allah, the Most Gracious, has not sent down anything; you are nothing but liars.” They said, “Our Lord knows that we are sent to you.” (QS Yaasiin: 13-16)


When the messengers felt that the people of Anthakiyyah were denying them for the first time, they rejected the denial by emphasizing the sentence with the taukid “inna”, so they said, “Innaa ilaikum mursalun.” And when the people of the land became more disobedient and defiant, they said, “Rabbunaa ya’lamu innaa ilaikum lamursalun,” i.e. they emphasized their statement with gasam, inna, and lam taukid.


This subtle issue sometimes goes unnoticed by people who are not linguists. It is narrated that Al-Kindi rode up to Abul-Abbas Al-Mubarrid on horseback and said to him, “Indeed I have found a useless addition to the speech of the Arabs.” Abul Abbas asked, “Where did you get that?” Al-Kindi said, “I got it from their saying ‘Abdallaaha gaa-imun’, ‘inna abdallaaha qaa-imun’, and ‘inna Abdallaaha lagaa-imun’. These three phrases are repeated, while the meaning is one. “Abul Abbas said, “Even the meaning is different. The first sentence is information on the establishment of ‘Abdallaaha, the second sentence is an answer to a question, and the third sentence is a rejection of those who deny the establishment of ‘Abdallaaha.”


Thus, the Science of Ma’ani requires that each person be spoken to according to his readiness of understanding and his ability in terms of language and literature. Hence, an ignorant person cannot be spoken to in the language of an educated person who knows much about the Arabic language and its secrets.


Someone said to Basyar b. Burd, “You have indeed brought something that is flawed from every direction:” Ja said, “What is it?” The man said, “It is when you scatter dust and release hearts with your speech:


When we are angry with unbridled rage, then we will tear the veil of the sun so that it rains blood. When we censure a nobleman of a tribe who is on the pulpit, then he will ask for mercy and peace for us. I saw you say:


The daughter of my housekeeper pours vinegar into the oil. I saw you say: The daughter of my housekeeper pours vinegar into the oil, and she has ten hens – and a rooster with a good voice. tasyar said: “Each of these words has a direction and a destination. The first of my words really happened, while the second I said about the daughter of my wife – I never ate eggs from the market. And she has ten hens and a rooster, and she collects the eggs for me.


This saying is better for my son than the words ‘Qifaa nabki min dzikrai habiibin wa manzili’ for you.”


There are many poets who are so easy and gentle in expressing their hearts that their poems resemble conversational ba’hasa. Sometimes they are so harsh and harsh that it is as if they are throwing a huge stone at us. All of this is according to the situation and circumstances. Among the best examples of this type are the poems of Abu Nuwas because his poems are about praise and his explanations can include others.


The principle of Ma’ani is learned from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), who, when he wanted to write a letter to the King of Persia, chose the clearest and most understandable words. He wrote:



From Muhammad, the messenger of Allah, to Kisra, the ruler of Persi. May salvation be upon those who follow the guidance and believe in Allah and His messenger. I invite you with the invitation of Allah. For verily I am a messenger of Allah to all creation to warn the living in heart and to make certain the doom of the disbelievers. Islam, then you will be saved. If you do not accept this offer, then the sin of the Magi will be on your shoulders.


And when he was about to send a letter to Ukaidir, the judge of


Daumatul-Jandal, he chose strong and severe words and words that were rarely spoken:


From Muhammad, the messenger of Allah, to Ukaidir when he was ready to accept Islam and give up his idolatry and idols. Verily, we have borders of date palms that stand firm, date palms that have rotted, lands that have not been identified, lands that have not been touched by human hands, and weapons and swords. However, the borders of the date palms and the springs have been populated, and your livestock may not graze there, the rest of your property cannot be joined to it, and its vegetation cannot be expected by you. You shall offer your prayers according to their time and pay your zakat. Such is Allah’s promise to you. The suitability of a sentence to the demands of the situation of the listener and the issue being discussed is something that must be considered in choosing ijaz and ithnab, because ijaz has its place and ithnab also has its place. For a clever person for whom a quick word is sufficient, it is best to say ijaz to him. As for the slow-minded or the arrogant, it is better to say the words of ithnab.


If we look at the Qur’ān, we find that when it calls out to the Arabs or Bedouins, it uses the briefest of sentences and almost only signs and symbols. And when the Qur’an calls upon the Children of Israel or tells the story of the Children of Israel, it uses long sentences of ithnah. For example, the words of Allah swt. in calling the Meccans:


Verily, whatsoever you call upon besides Allah can never


create a fly, even if they unite to create one.


to create it. And if the fly snatches anything from them, they can never snatch it back from it. Very weak are those who worship and very weak are those who are worshiped. (QS Al-Hajj: 73)


And we find very little of the Qur’ān calling out to the Children of Israel except in long sentences, because the Jews of Medina thought themselves to be the people of knowledge and the people of the Book, so they exaggerated their pride and denial, while the Qur’ān regarded them as people of small minds, and hence the Qur’ān used long sentences. As evidence of this view of theirs is what the Qur’ān tells us about them and the extent of their knowledge of the things they encounter on their journey.


Ijaz has good places for it, such as in giving thanks, reasoning, comforting, reproaching, and so on. Ithnab also has appropriate places for it, such as in greetings, reconciling two groups, telling stories, making speeches about society. And the one who has a pure literary spirit can contribute his correct thoughts in this matter.


The second issue that is discussed in Ma’ani science is that Ma’ani science studies the secrets contained in a sentence through the garinahs that exist, because Ma’ani science teaches that the origin of a sentence is to indicate a meaning. However, it sometimes suggests that there is another meaning that can be understood from the sentence and the circumstances surrounding it. The science of Ma’ani explains that the word khabar can indicate tahassur (expressing sadness), the command sentence can mean weakening (to challenge), the prohibition sentence can mean prayer, istifham can mean nafyi, and so on.


Ma’ani also explains that sometimes khabar words must be accompanied by a taukid for those who are khaalidz-dzihni, and sometimes they are said to those who deny without a taukid because of a balaghah reason that the speaker wants so that he deviates from the external meaning.


Ma’ani explains that qashr is often used by literary scholars for many purposes, such as using qashr idhafi to exaggerate something, like Al-Mutafa-il saying:


The world is nothing but a beautiful dream that is awakened (ended) by the freshness of the morning. Al-Mutasya-im said: 


Time is nothing but a long night of staying up late, which blows a hot wind during the day. dash can also be used to satirize, as Allah says


It is only the people of understanding who can take lessons. (QS Ar-Ra’d: 19)


The purpose of this verse is not for the listener to know its external meaning, but rather to satirize the polytheists who, because of their excessive opposition and following their lusts, the Qur’an considers them to be unreasonable.


The science of Ma’ani shows that one of the purposes of fashal in one of its types is to emphasize and solidify the meaning in the hearts of the listeners, as in fashal because of the perfect continuity.


Hopefully, this brief description will satisfy the reader and give him an understanding of the science of Ma’ani, some literary devices, and how to construct a good sentence according to the circumstances.








It has been explained earlier that Bayan Science is a means of expressing a meaning with various uslub with tashbih, majas, or kinayah. It has also been explained that Ma’ani Science helps to express a sentence in a way that suits the demands of the situation, by covering one of the goals of balaghah, which can be known through the sentence and the garinah that cover it.


However, there are other aspects of balaghah that are not covered by Bayan and Ma’ani. This aspect, however, is nothing more than embellishing the words and meanings with various patterns of words and meanings. The science that covers this subject is called Badi’ Science. This science – as it suggests – includes the beauties of the words and the beauties of the meaning, and the following is an explanation of each.







  1. Al-jinas
  2. Examples


  1. Allah swt. says:


And on the Day of Judgment, the sinners will swear: “They do not dwell (in the grave) but for a moment” (Sūrat Ar-Ruum: 55).


  1. A poet said in mourning a little boy named Yahya:


And I gave him the name Yahya that he might live, but there was no way to resist Allah’s command to him.


  1. Allah says:


As for the orphan, you shall not abuse him. And as for the one who begs, then do not rebuke him. (QS Adh-Dhuha: 9-10)


  1. Ibnul-Faridh said:


Let your reason prevent you from reviling someone. Wretchedness cannot be felt by one who has never had pleasure.


  1. Al-Khunsa’ mourned his brother Shakhr with gasidah:


Verily, crying is the cure for the deep sorrow that lies between the ribs.


  1. “Allah Almighty says, narrating the conversation of Aaron to Moses a.s.:


Verily I fear that you will say (to me), “You have divided the Children of Israel….” (QS Thaha: 94)


  1. Discussion

If we look at the examples above, we find in each instance two words that are similar in form, but different in meaning. This kind of sentence expression is called jinas.


In the first example, we find that the word “as-saa’ah” is repeated twice, while the first meaning is the Day of Judgment, while the second is time. In the second example we have the word “yahyaa”, also repeated twice with different meanings. The difference in the meanings of two words – in the study of badi’ – that are exactly the same in terms of letters, syllables, number, and order is referred to as jinas tam (perfect similarity).


If we look at the two similar words in the second part of the examples, we find that each of them differs in one of the four aspects of similarity, such as taghar with tanhar, nahaaka with nuhaaka, al-jawaa with alJawaanih, and baina with banii, according to the order of the examples above. Such similarities are called jinas ghair tam (imperfect similarities).


According to the opinion of the majority of Arabic literary scholars, jinas is disliked because it leads to stuttering and prevents a mature person from expressing the hidden meaning. Of course, except for those that can be easily expressed without being made up.


  1. Rule

(68) Jinas is a similarity in the expression of two phrases that are different in meaning. Jinas is of two kinds:


  1. Jinas tam, which is the resemblance of two words in four ways: the type of letters, their syllables, their number, and their order.


  1. Jinas ghair tam, which is the difference between two words in one of these four respects.


4, Exercises


  1. Point out the jinas tam in the following examples!
  2. Abu Tamam said:


The favor of the times did not die on Yahya bin Abdullah as long as he lived.


  1. Abul ‘AlaAl-Ma’arri said:


We did not meet any human being to whom we could turn for refuge except you. So you have always been a person in the eyes of the age.


  1. Al-Busti said: –


I have understood your book, O my Sayyid. So I love it, and it is no wonder that I love it.


  1. He said in his praise:


With Saif ad-Daulah all the affairs that we saw (at first) scattered are organized. He is noble and protects the Banu Sam and the Banu Ham. There is no Samite or Hamite like him.


  1. Abu Nuwas said:


O Abbas, O Abbas, when war breaks out and O Fadhl and Ar-Rabi’.


Il. Point out the ghair tam jinas in the following examples and explain why they are ghair tam!


  1. Allah says:


And when news comes to them of security or fear, they broadcast it. (QS An-Nisa: 83)


2 Allah says:


They forbid (others) to hear the Qur’an and they themselves abstain from it. (QS Al-An’am: 26)


  1. Ibn Jubair Al-Andalusi said:


O fierce camel rider, do you know – your ransom is me – how the path leads?


  1. Al-Hariri characterized Huyam as not knowing the world:


He will not increase his love and longing for the world. Had he known, the remaining water would have sufficed him for what he desired. ..:


  1. Abdullah bin Rawahah praised the Messenger of Allah. According to one opinion, it is said that this poem of his is the best among the Arabs in terms of praise: |


He rides a white camel while wearing his embroidered clothes, like the full moon whose rays illuminate all darkness.


III. (Point out the places of jinas in the following examples and explain the type of jinas! 

  1. Al-Buhturi said in his famous gasidah:


Will I perish because I do not see him, or will I be healed because of this person who complained about my longing?


  1. An-Nabighah said in a lament:


Alas for you, with intentions and resolve buried by sudden death among the rocks and stones of the roof of the grave….


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


The garden wind that blows gently is the north wind, and the raindrops from the clouds are the wine that is blown by the north wind.


4: Al-Hariri said:


I will not give my reins to one who breaks my promise. And I will not plant my hands in the land of the enemy.


5, He said:


They run as fast as floods, and towards good as fast as horses.


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


So stop blissfully with them when you forgive, and go away from them when you reproach.


  1. Abu Tamam said:


The whiteness of the plate (sword) is not the blackness of the sheet (ink), in , it contains the influence of all doubts and hesitations.


  1. Allah says:


That is because you rejoice in the earth unrighteously and because you always rejoice in disobedience.


  1. The Messenger of Allah (saw) said:


The crown of a horse is good.


  1. Hisan bin Tsabit r.a. said:


When the Prophet fought a tribe, we always protected him with drawn spears and arrows.


  1. Abu Tamam said:


They were ready to protect all that should be protected by drawing swords that cut off (all disturbances).


  1. The ideal will not be achieved but by going through all obstacles.


  1. Construct two sentences that include jinas tam and two more that include jinas ghair tam, avoiding artificiality!


  1. Describe the following saying of Abu Tamam and explain the jinas niacam found in it!


I have not seen anything like the goodness of something that is claimed to be the debt of some people, whereas it is ghanimah.


  1. Iqitibas
  2. Examples


  1. Abul Mu-min al-Ashfahani said:


Do not be persuaded by the multitude of the troops and helpers of the persecutors. Indeed, We have delayed them until a day on which their eyes will be opened. (QS Ibrahim: 42)


b Ibn Sina’ Al-Mulk said:


They have departed and I will not inquire about their abode, henceforth I am like one who has perished from grief after their departure:


c . Abu Ja’far Al-Andalusi said:


Do not be hostile to people in their own country, very few travelers in a country are well cared for. If you want to live among them, then “treat people with good manners”.


  1. Discussion

The sentences between quotation marks in the first two examples are taken from the Qur’an, while in the second example they are from the hadith. The writer or poet includes these passages or hadith in his or her sentence without explaining that they are from the Qur’an or hadith. The purpose of the quotation is to borrow its force and to show the writer’s skill in connecting his sentence with the quoted sentence. This is called iqtibas. And if we pay attention, we find that sometimes the writer or poet slightly changes the sentence he quotes, as in the second example, because the original sentence in the Qur’an is:


Then perhaps you will kill yourselves after they turn away. (QS Al-Kahf: 6)


3, Rule

(69) Igtibas is quoting a sentence from the Qur’ān or hadith and inserting it into a sentence of prose or poetry without explaining that the quoted sentence is from the Qur’ān or hadith.


  1. Exercises

I, Explain for each of the following igtibas the greatness of the ability of a mature person to relate his words to the words he quotes!


  1. Seize the opportunity while your black hair has not turned white, for indeed the world is like “the walls of a house that is about to fall down”.


  1. Oadhi Al-Fadhil wrote a reply letter:


There came to a servant a noble reply, so he was grateful for it “and he approached it for supplication”, “and he placed it on a high place”, and it restored his youthful vigor, “even though he had reached a very old age”.


  1. He said of the carrier pigeon:


He is almost like an angel, when a letter has been hung around its neck, then it becomes like “having several wings, two, three, and four”,


  1. Among Muhyiddin Abduzh-Zhahir’s books


The state will not lose its sword “with which it can see those who lie against Allah, their faces become black”.


  1. Ash-Shahib bin Ubad( ) said:


I said, whereas I. had seen the sky had clouds moving from Hijran towards us and the clouds had scattered rain, “May the rain benefit our surroundings” “and not harm us”.


  1. Many people are greedy when they see someone who is about to beg, so they take him as an ambassador of death out of fear. Do not expect him to give even a little. “Far, far away is what is promised to you”.


II Quote the following verses of the Qur’an into sentences correctly!


  1. Verily, the noblest among you in the sight of Allah is the most pious among you.


  1. An evil plan will not befall except the one who planned it.


  1. Say, are those who have knowledge equal to those who have no knowledge?


  1. And no one can explain to you what the All-Knowing explains. ..


  1. Verily, those who believe are brothers.


III.  Make sentences by including quotations from the following hadith!


  1. Every good deed is shadagah.


  1. When you have no shame, do what you like,


  1. Persecution brings darkness on the Day of Judgment.


  1. The spirits are a ready army.


  1. Describe Ibnur-Rumi’s utterance in the following diatribe and explain the beauty of his igtibas!


Indeed, if I am wrong to praise you, then it is not wrong for you to prevent me. Indeed, I have placed my needs “in a valley that has no crops”.


  1. Saja’ (rhyme)
  2. Examples


  1. The Messenger of Allah said:


 O Allah, reward those who spend, and harm those who do not spend.


  1. A Bedouin whose son was washed away by a flood said:


O Allah, if You destroy him, then surely You have nourished him for a long time.


The free man when he makes a promise fulfills it, when he helps moderately, and when he becomes a king forgives much.


2 Discussion


If we look at the first two examples, we find that each consists of two sentence parts with the same final letter. If we look at the third example, we find that it consists of more than two sentence parts with the same final letter. Such sentences are called saja’ (rhymes). The last word of each part of the sentence is called fashilah. The final word of each part of the sentence is called a fashilah, and the final letter of the fashilah is always left off in the kalam natsar (prose) because of wagaf (stopping reading).


The best rhymes are those in which the parts of the sentence are balanced, and rhymes are not beautiful unless they are well-constructed, not contrived, and free from pointless repetition, as we saw in the example.


  1. Rule


(70) Saja” is the matching of the final letters of two or more fashilah. The best rhyme is one in which the parts of the sentence are balanced.


4 Exercises

  1. Point out the rhymes in the following examples and describe their beauty!


  1. The Messenger of Allah said: –


Allah loves the one who speaks well and is fortunate, or is silent and is safe.


  1. Ats-Tsa’alibi said:


Envy is the rust of the heart, and prolonged quarreling is the cause of war.


  1. Al-Hariri said:


A person’s rank rises because he dares to go through danger.


  1. A scholar of balaghah said: –


A man is distinguished by his manners, not by his jewelry and clothing.


  1. A Bedouin Arab said to a man who asked about the vile person:


You have lived in a valley that has never received rain, in a field that has not been populated, and men who are not easy. So either stay with regret, or leave and perish.


  1. A Bedouin Arab said: .


The spring rains have fallen on us early in the morning, followed by the second rain. Then the earth is like a spread, on which diamonds are scattered. Then there will come to us swarms of locusts carrying scythes for harvesting. Then the earth will become bare and man will perish. So Glory be to the One who destroys His strong and well-fed creatures, with His weak and well-fed creatures.


  2. Read the following letter and explain the beauty of its rhyme, then turn it into another sentence that does not rhyme. Ibnur-Rumi sent a letter to a sick person:


May Allah allow your recovery, match your sickness with your cure, lay the hand of health upon you, direct the messenger of salvation to you, make your sickness the expiation of your sins, and multiply your reward.


  1. Understand the following phrase attributed to Ali Abi ibn Talib, then turn it into another sentence that rhymes!


Fear Allah every morning and evening, fear your despicable and seductive lust, do not feel safe from it in all circumstances. Know, indeed, that if you do not stop your lust from most of the things you love because you fear their hate, then desire after desire will lead you to many dangers.”


III. Explain whether the following sentences are rhymed or unrhymed, and explain why! Hisham sent a letter to his brother expressing his desire to become caliph:


Amma ba’du. Information has reached me that you object to my remaining alive, and that you consider my death to be slow in coming. By my religion, indeed after me you will be the one with weak wings and leprosy on the palms of his hands. I did not fulfill your wish, as the information reached me.








  1. Tauriyah
  2. Examples


a Sirajuddin Al-Warrag said:


I preserve the skin of my face from many people. Meeting the dead according to them is something civilized. Authors according to them are hated even though the one who comes to them is a “loved one”.


b.” Nashiruddin Al-Hammami said:


Your verses are like buildings, and there is no building that cannot be enjoyed for its beauty. What is astonishing is that the lafaz “Yes It is free, but its meaning is “Iampaftipis”.


  1. Ash-Shab Azh-Zharif said:


The gum tooth smiles with the beauty of its expanse, and it faces with all its beauty that is difficult to describe. Let us look at it between cracked and delicious, for indeed the flower stalk deserves to be “cracked”.


  1. Discussion

The word ‘habiib’ in the first example has two meanings, the first being a loved one. This is the meaning that is close and easily captured by the listener’s heart because it is opposite the word “baghiidh”. The second meaning is the name of Abu Tamam the poet, Habib bin Aus. This is a distant meaning, but this is precisely the meaning that the poet intended and for this reason he very subtly covered his intention with a close meaning. The word “ragiig” in the second example also has two meanings, the first of which is the immediate and easily grasped meaning of servant. The reason this meaning is quickly grasped is the word ‘hurrun’. The second meaning is a distant meaning, which is thin, and it is this meaning that the poet intends after he has concealed it behind the close meaning.


The word “Qashfin” in the third example also has two meanings. The close meaning is to break, as the word is paired with the words “glqltushuunaz-zalvlu”. The distant meaning is to play. And this second meaning is what the poet intended after hiding it behind the near meaning. Such badi’ is called tauriyah, a discipline that was mastered by the poets of Egypt and the Levant in the seventh and eighth centuries Hijri. The poets of Egypt and Sham in the seventh and eighth centuries Hijri were able to present it in a very interesting and beautiful way, which shows the purity of their character and their ability to play with the uslububub.


3 Rules


(71) Tauriyah is the mention of a word that is mufrad, which has two meanings: first, a close and clear meaning that is not intended, second, a distant and vague meaning that is intended. ..:


  1. Exercises
  2. Explain the Tauriyah in the following examples as clearly as possible!


  1. Sirajuddin Al-Warraq said:


So much generosity cuts off the tongue and binds the neck with its strings. So remember, I am a poet who is a light. Cut out my tongue, and I will be enlightened.


2 He said:


How ashamed I am that my skin has become black, while the skin of the good is radiant. Those who revile me on the Day of Judgment will say to me: Are these the skins of the “silversmiths”?


  1. Abul-Husain Al-Jazzar said:


Why am I not grateful for slaughtering, which I have practiced all my life but without manners? With that work the dogs come to expect me, and with verse I expect “the dogs”.


  1. Badruddin Adz-Dzahabi said:


Be gentle and compassionate when giving advice. You have erased it by turning away and leaving. When someone comes to you with tears in his eyes, you immediately turn him back “into a river|with arrogance”.


  1. He said:


O one who reproaches me in this matter, tell me if it is proven how I can comfort myself? Every time he meets me and says “bitter sweet”.


  1. He said:


There are many gardens where the trees are silent and the morning breeze comes to them. The morning sun looks at its leaves after the doves have “alighted” on them.


  1. Ash-Shab Azh-Zharif said:


There was a flower war between the Sundusiyyah gardens, and all of them came to fight the Janiyyah rose garden. However, it was destroyed because the thorns of the roses were strong.


8, Nashiruddin Al-Hammami said:


Be gracious so that we may compose rhymes in praise of your greatness forever and ever. The best song of a bird is when it is “baited”.


  1. Sirajuddin Al-Warrag:


I stopped at the ruins of my beloved’s house to inquire, and my tears fell there for a while. The astonishing thing was that I was satisfied with their houses, whereas all I got when I inquired was “thirst/echo”.


  1. Ibnzh-Zhahir said:


Thanks to your earth breeze that often conveys respect to me. So it is not strange that he is able to keep his desires in check, because he is “intelligent”.


  1. Ibn Nubatah said:


The river resembles a miser, and because of that it scatters “iron filings”.


  1. The following phrases each have more than one meaning, so use each phrase in a tauriyah example.
  2. Good fortune, grandfather (paternal or maternal).
  3. Telling, quoting, comparing, pitting, confirming.
  4. Relaxed, palm, cheerfulness.
  5. Forgiving, not imprinting.
  6. Dead, severing the law.
  7. Eyelid, scabbard of a sword.


III. In what ways is tauriyah compatible with jinas tam and in what ways is it different? So make an example of tauriyah, then change it to jinas tam!


  1. Fill in the dots below with the word tauriyah!


  1. In the spring, the gardens are distressed and dry up ….


  1. The pigeon is more mature than the writer when…


  1. My heart is their companion when they are gone, and my tears are…


  1. Describe the following poem by Ibn Daniyal Thabibul-‘Uyun and explain the beauty of its tauriyah!


O one who asks about my occupation among the people, how removed I am from them, and how poor I am! What is the fate of one whose income is taken from the eyes of men?


  1. Thibaq


  1. Examples
  2. Allah Almighty says:


And you think that they are awake, but they sleep. (QS Al-Kahf: 18)


  1. The Messenger of Allah said: –


The best treasure is a spring that is constantly flowing for the one who is fast asleep.


  1. Allah says:


They hide from men, but they do not hide from Allah. (QS An-Nisa’: 108)


  1. As-Samu-al said:


And if we wish, we can deny what people say, but they cannot deny what we say when we speak.


  1. Discussion When we look at the examples above, we find that each example includes two opposite sentences. The first example includes the words “aigaazhan” and “ruguud”. The second example includes the words “saahirah” and “naa-inah”.


As for the last two examples, each of them includes two verbs from one source, one of which is positive, while the other is negative. And with the difference between positive and negative, the two words are opposites. The combination of two opposite words in a sentence, as in the examples above, is called thibag. However, the thibag in the first two examples is called ijab thibag, while in the last two examples it is called thibaq salab.


3, Rule


(72) Thibaq is the coming together of two opposite words in a sentence. Thibaq is of two kinds:


  1. Ijab thibaq, which is a thibaq in which the two opposite words do not differ in positivity and negativity.


  1. Thibag salab, which is a thibag in which the two opposing words differ in positivity and negativity.


  1. Exercises
  2. Show the places of thibag in the following examples!


  1. Allah Almighty says:


And what is the man who was dead and then We brought him back to life… (QS Al-An’am: 122)


  1. Di’bil Al-Khuza’i said:


Do not be afraid of a man, Salma. The man who has the hair of his head on his head can laugh and then cry.


  1. Another poet said:


Verily, I willingly endure the turmoil of lust, even though I can get out of it. For me lust is neither harmful nor beneficial.


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


The law has been decreed for me without my knowing the reason, whereas longing comes to me with my knowledge.


  1. Al-Muganna’ Al-Kindi said:


When I grow rich, then I give them much of my wealth: and if my wealth becomes little, then I do not demand that they help me.


  1. Allah Almighty says:


…but most people do not know. They know only what is born of the life of the world. (QS Ar-Ruum: 7)


  1. Allah says:


He will be rewarded for the good he has worked for, and he will be punished for the evil he has done. (QS Al-Baqarah: 286)


  1. As-Samual bin ‘Adiya said:


Ask people about me and about them if you do not know. So the pious are not equal to the ignorant.


9, Al-Farazdaq criticized Banu Kulaib: –


May Allah vilify the Banu Kulaib, indeed they cannot betray, but they never fulfill the rights of their neighbors.


  1. Abu Shakhr Al-Hudzali said:


Remember, by the One who makes crying and laughter, death and life, and whose commands must be obeyed, verily he (the beloved) has left me, I envy the wild animals because I am sure that two animals that are in love between them are never struck by anything frightening.


  1. Al-Humasi said:


I did not join the war in order to survive, but I did not get the life that would have been worth it if I had joined the war.


II.” Read the following article by Ibn Bathuthah about Egypt, and explain the beauty of thibag in its uslub!


It is the meeting place of those who come to it and those who leave it, the stopping place of the vehicles of the weak and the strong. There you will find the pious and the ignorant, the wise and the foolish, the serious and the playful, the lowly and the famous, the noble and the lowly, the evil and the good. It surges with its inhabitants like the waves of the sea, and is almost densely populated, even though it is vast.


III. ‘Change the ijab thibag in the following sentences into salab thibag!


  1. The enemy reveals the bad and hides the good.


2, It is not wise for you to do good to others, yet do evil to yourself.


  1. It is not proper for a good person to give to those who are far away and not to give to those who are near.


  1. Change the thibag salab in the following sentences into thibag ijab!


  1. Man can know what happened today and yesterday, but he cannot know what will happen tomorrow.


  1. The insulted person will forgive when he is helpless, but he will not forgive when he is capable.


3, I love honesty and I do not love lying.


  1. 1. Make two sentences for each of thibag ijab and thibag salab!


  1. Make two sentences with thibag ijab, then convert them into thibag salab!


  1. Make two sentences with thibag salab, then convert them into thibag ijab!


  1. Describe the following poem and explain the type of thibag!


The gray hair invades youth, it is like the night that Rebukes the day from both sides.


  1. Mugabalah


  1. Examples
  2. The Prophet said to the Ansar:


Verily, you become many when you are not expected, but you become few when you are expected.


  1. Khalid bin Shafwan characterized a man:


He has no friends in secret and no enemies in open.


  1. A caliph said:


Whoever gets a position for destroying falsehood, will be supported by the help of the noble people.


  1. Abdul-Malik bin Marwan said:


I do not praise myself for something pleasant that I started with weakness, and I do not reproach myself for something grievous that I started with careful calculation.


  1. Discussion

If we look at the first two examples, we find that the beginning of each sentence includes two meanings, and the end includes two opposite meanings. The beginning of the first example includes two attributes of the Ansar, namely much and without expectation, while the end includes two opposite attributes in an orderly manner, namely little and expectation. In the second example, Khalid compares friends and secret with enemies and open.


If we look at the last two examples, we find that the beginning of each example includes more than one meaning, and the end includes meanings that are opposite to those in the beginning in an orderly manner. Such a sentence structure is called a mugabalah.


Muqabalah in a sentence is one of the factors of its beauty and clarity of meaning, provided that such an arrangement is not forced. If it is forced, it will bind and restrain the meaning, and the sentence will no longer be beautiful and soft.


  1. Rule


(73) Mugabalah is when two or more meanings are introduced at the beginning of a sentence, then the opposite meanings are introduced in an orderly manner at the end of the sentence.


  1. Exercises
  2. Show the places of mugabalah in the following sentences!


1, ‘Aisha narrated that the Prophet said: “


Be cautious, ‘Ā’ishah, for verily caution does not reside in a thing except to adorn it, and it does not depart from a thing except to disfigure it.


  1. A scholar of balaghah said:


The murkiness of a congregation is better than the murkiness of division.


  1. Allah says:


All that is good for them, and all that is evil for them, they shall make lawful. (QS Al-A’raf: 157)


  1. Jarir said:


And he is the one who extends good to you with his right hand and withdraws evil from you with his left hand.


  1. Al-Buhturi said:


When they fight, they dishonor the noble: and when they make peace, they honor the lowly.


  1. Ash-Sharif said:


Many sights are happy when in plenty. How near something troublesome, I return in narrowness.


  1. Allah Almighty says:


So that you may not grieve for what has escaped you, and so that you may not be overjoyed for what He has given you (QS Al-Hadid: 23).


  1. Allah says:


Within it is mercy and outside of it is punishment. (QS Al-Hadid: 13)


9, An-Nabighah Al-Ja’di said:


(He is) a young man who can make his friends happy and always troubles his enemies.


  1. Abu Tamam said:


O people for whom the evil of persecution makes them angry all the time and become willing with the beauty of justice.


  1. He also said:


Sometimes Allah gives favors in the form of trials, however great, and Allah trials some people with various pleasures.


  1. Allah says:


As for the one who gives in the cause of Allah and fears, and believes in the best reward (Paradise), We will prepare for him an easy path. And as for the one who is stingy and self-sufficient, and denies the best reward, We will prepare for him a difficult path. (QS Al-Lail: 5 – 10)


  1. Al-Ma’arri said:


O time, O the one who carries out his threats and breaks his promises that he has made.


  1. Distinguish between thibag and mugabalah in the following sentences!


  1. Allah says:


So their evil will be replaced by good. (QS Al-Furgan: 70)


  1. Allah says:


And it is He who makes people laugh and cry, and it is He who gives life and death. (QS AnNajm: 43 – 44)


  1. Allah says:


Whomsoever Allah wills to guide, He will make his breast open for Islam. And whoever Allah wills to go astray, He wills to make his chest tight and narrow. (QS Al-An’am: 125)


  1. Abuth Thayyib said:


I looked at them and the darkness of the night helped and praised me, and the light of the morning encouraged me.


  1. A noble person is one who forgives a lot when the opportunity for reasoning is very limited.


  1. The anger of a foolish man is in his words, and the anger of a reasonable man is in his work.


  1. Al-Manshur said:


Do not go from the honor of obedience to the dishonor of disobedience.


8 Indeed, when it troubles you that you find me in trouble, then it pleases me that I have your attention.


  1. An-Nabighah said:


When the two of them descend easily, they emit smoke, and when they ascend with difficulty, they break rocks.


  1. Aus bin Hujar said:


We obey our Rabb, and while the people disobey Him, we feel our obedience and they feel it too.


III. ‘Bring out the comparisons of the following words and put them into sentences, some of which are for thibag and some for mugabalah!


  1. Priority e. Kindness


  1. Night f. ‘ Prevention


  1. Health g. Rich/wealthy/rich people


  1. Life


  1. 1. Make two examples of mugabalah by comparing two meanings with two other meanings!
  2. Make two examples of mugabalah by comparing three meanings with three other meanings!


  1. Describe the following poem! Do you know that this poem contains mugabalah?


For what do you seek the world when you do not intend to make your loved ones happy or to trouble the sinful.


  1. Husnut-Ta’lil (Good Reasons)
  2. Examples


  1. Al-Ma’arri said in a lament:


The black spots on the luminous full moon were not there from the beginning. Rather, there are slash marks on the face of the moon.


  1. Ibnur-Rumi said:


As for the sun, it does not turn yellow when it tends to except because it (dislikes) parting with that beautiful sight.


  1. Another poet said about the lack of rain in Egypt:


The rain does not decrease in Egypt and its surroundings because of natural factors, but because it bears much shame.


  1. Discussion

AbulAla’ lamented and exaggeratedly stated that the grief for the person being lamented covers many natural events. Therefore, he states that the dark spots seen on the moon’s surface do not appear due to natural factors, but rather as slap marks (by the moon itself) because of the grief of the one who is mourned.


In the second example, Ibnur-Rumi argues that the sun does not turn yellow when it tends to approach the place of its setting, not because of known natural factors, but because it is afraid of parting with the face of the person it praises.


In the third example, the poet denies that the cause of the lack of rain in Egypt is natural. In connection with his denial, he offers another reason, namely that the rain was ashamed to fall on an earth filled with the virtues and favors of the person being praised because he felt unable to compete with his generosity and gifts.


Thus, we have seen from the above examples that poets deny the well-known reason for an event and make up another reason that suits their purpose. This kind of phraseology is called husnut-ta’lil.


  1. Rule

(74) A husnut-ta’lil is a literary person who denies – overtly or covertly – the well-known reason for an event, and in doing so comes up with another literary and gentle reason that suits his purpose.


  1. Exercises
  2. Explain the husnut-ta’lil in the following verses!


  1. Ibn Nubatah said:


Always his mercy mistreats wealth, until gold is clothed in yellow.


  1. A poet praised someone and explained the cause of the earthquake that occurred in Egypt:


Egypt was not shaken by an earthquake because of a plot against it, but the city danced because it rejoiced in its (the praised) justice.


  1. I saw the moon in the sky one moment clearly visible, and then covered with clouds. This is because when the moon appears and sees your face, it is ashamed and disappears.


  1. The following poem is said to characterize a black horse that has white on its forehead:


The black horse is like a raven black in color, which flies with the wind, but it has no wings. Night clothed him all over. Then he turned away, and the morning kissed between his eyes.


  1. Ibn Nubatah As-Sa’di describes a black horse that is striped on its legs and has white on its forehead:


The darkness of the night borrowed the blackness of the black horse, and the morning star rose between his eyes. He walked behind the morning that flew arrogantly, and he folded all the clusters of stars behind the morning. When the morning was afraid of being outrun by the black horse, it clung to its legs and face.


  1. Al-Arrajaani said:


Your actions have revealed the negligence of the age, so the blooming of roses in spring is due to fear.


  1. A poet mourns a writer:


The writers had foreseen your loss, and the truth of that foreboding was proven a few days later. Hence all ink was blackened and pens broken in regret of your departure.


  1. Another poet states:


The roses of the garden hasten to you uninvited and before their time. They long for your kiss when they see you. So it gathers its mouth to you like one asking for a kiss.


  1. The full moon does not rise except because of its longing for you, before it can witness the beauty of your face.


10, The world used to weep with tears because it knew of your departure, so that in the past it was flooded.


  1. Justify the following statements with artful and gentle reasoning!


  1. The closeness of the clouds to the earth.

2, The burning of a house left by its owner.

3, An eclipse of the sun.

4 It rains on the day a great man dies.


III. Compose two sentences for husnut-ta’lil.


  1. Describe the following two stanzas of Abu Thayyib’s poem, and explain the husnut-ta’lil found in them!


Are you not the son of noble people who are always honored, and they do not give birth to except the intelligent? The fragrance of the garden is not genuine, but is because it is covered with the dust of their graves. E and F. Affirming Praise with Words that Resemble Reproach and Vice Versa


  1. Examples
  2. Ibnur-Rumi said:


There is no defect in him other than that the eye will not see anyone like him.


b Another poet said:


There is no blemish in their goodness, only the inability of those who are grateful to be grateful for it will appear.


  1. The Messenger of Allah said:


I am the most eloquent Arab, except that I am a Qurayshite.


  1. An-Nabighah Al-Ja’di:


He was a young man of perfect intellect, but he was so generous that there was nothing left of his wealth.


  1. Discussion

There is no doubt that all of the above examples show praise, but with an anch uslub that we have not found in previous discussions.


In the first example, Ibnur-Rumi begins by negating the defect of the person he is praising, then he brings in the letter istitsna”, siwaa, so as to give the listener the impression that there is a defect in the person being praised. Ibnur-Rumi would have the courage to explain it, and the listener would then understand that the words after the letter istitsna are complimentary, but they would be fooled by the uslub. The listener will also know that Ibnur-Rumi has tricked him. So, he did not mention the defect, but rather reinforced his praise with a sentence that gave the impression of reproach. This is also the case with the second example.


In the third example, we find that the Messenger of Allah (S) characterized himself with the attribute of praise, namely that he was the most eloquent Arab. However, when he then introduces the letter istitsna, the listener becomes confused and assumes that he is going to say something unpleasant after the letter istitsna. However, the situation normalizes as soon as he mentions his praiseworthy attribute, which is that he is Quraysh. And Quraysh are the most eloquent of the Arabs, there is no dispute about that. Thus, the introduction of the letter istitsna’ and the words that followed reinforced the praise of the first sentence, which was in a well-known manner. The same applies to the last example. This is called reinforcing the praise with a sentence that resembles a reproach.


In addition to this, there are other methods of reinforcing a reproach with a sentence that resembles a praise, such as: “The sermon was not good at all, it was just long and pointless” and “People are miserly, it is just that they are timid”.


  1. Rule

(75) Strengthening praise with a phrase that resembles a reproach is of two kinds:


  1. Excluding the nature of the praise from the nature of the reproach that is being denied.


  1. Assigning a praiseworthy quality to something, then inserting an istitsna, followed by another praiseworthy quality.


(76) Strengthening the reproach with a sentence that resembles praise is also of two kinds:


  1. Excluding the attribute of reproach from the attribute of praise that is denied.


  1. Assigning the attribute of reproach to something, then bringing in the huyuf istitsna’, followed by another attribute of reproach.


4 Exercises

  1. Explain the strengthening of the reproach with praise-like words in the following examples and explain their types!


  1. Ibn Nubatah al-Mishri said:


There is no reproach in him, only that I will see him. Then the days have forgotten me from family and country.


The faces were radiant like flowers in a garden. However, in the season of war they are like hard boulders.


  1. There is no fault with you, only that your guests grumble because they have forgotten their wives and country.


  1. They are very quick to speak, yet they are noble and great.


  1. Explain the strengthening of complimentary and reproachful sentences in the following statements!


  1. There is no virtue in a people not knowing the rights of their neighbors.


  1. The sentence is convoluted, besides its meaning is bland.


  1. There is no beauty in the house, only the dark and narrow rooms…


III. Explain the reinforcement of praise with a sentence that resembles a reproach or vice versa in the following sentences!


  1. Shafiyuddin Al-Hilli said:


There is no disgrace in them, only that the people who visit them are comforted from family, country, and anger.


  1. There is no good in that people, only that they reproach the times and they are also reproached.


  1. There is no disgrace in them towards anyone, except that the world is a reproach to them, and they are not reproached.


  1. He is a man whose tongue is filthy, but his bosom is the seat of malice.


5 My sins are said to be many by some people, whereas I have no sins except the highest and greatest.


  1. There is no honor in their company, but their neighbors are despicable people.


7 . The fool is the enemy of himself, but the friend of fools.


  1. There is no reproach in the garden except that the wind is soft and gentle.


  1. 1. Praise a book you have read, then strengthen your praise with a sentence that resembles a reproach!


  1. Praise a country that you have visited and strengthen your praise with words that resemble reproaches!


  1. Reproach a road you traveled on, and reinforce your reproach with a sentence that resembles a compliment!


  1. Describe the following two stanzas and explain the uslub of reinforcing praise with reproach-like phrases in these two stanzas!


I praise you with a praise that if I used it to praise the Sea of Hijaz, its diamonds would make me rich.


There is no reproach for me except that I am from your village. And the flute blower of a tribe is not favored by his flute.


  1. Uslub of the Wise


  1. Example
  2. Allah Almighty says:


They ask you about the crescent moon. Say: “The crescent is a sign of time for mankind and (for the pilgrimage).” (QS Al-Baqarah: 189)


  1. Ibn Hajjaj said:


He said: I have burdened you because I visit you often. I said: You burden my back with your hands. He said: I lingered. I said: You handed over gifts. He said: I am tedious. I replied: My cord of affection.


  1. Discussion


Sometimes someone talks to you or asks you a question, and it occurs to us to turn away from the subject or answer for a number of reasons, one of which is that we think that the person asking the question will not be able to understand the real answer, and we think it would be better to draw his attention to something more useful to him. Another reason is that the person speaking has an incorrect opinion, and we don’t want to surprise him by expressing our opinion. In such a case we should engage him or her as gently as possible, turning away from the subject at hand to a more appropriate and important conversation.


If we look at the first example, we find that the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (S) asked him about the state of the moon, which first became small and then large and finally became small again. This is one of the issues of astrology, which requires detailed and serious study to understand. Therefore, the Qur’ān turned them away from this issue by explaining that the moon is a sign to know the time of work and worship. This is an indication that they should ask about this benefit, and it also shows that the discussion of knowledge should be delayed a little until the atmosphere is settled and the strength of Islam is not shaken.


Ibn Hajjaj’s friend in the second example said that he was burdening him by visiting him frequently. So Ibn Hajjaj turned him away from that in an artful and gentle way, and said in another way: “You have burdened my back with the many pleasures you have given me.” The same is true in the second stanza. Such beauty of language is called uslub al-hakim (the style of the wise).


  1. Rule

(77) Uslub al-hakim is to speak to the mukhathab in a way that he does not want to be spoken to, either by leaving out the question and giving an answer that was not asked, or by diverting the conversation to a subject that he did not intend. This is a sign that the mukhathab should have asked or talked about the other matter.


  1. Exercises


  1. Explain why the following sentence is delivered with the uslub al-Hakim!


I came to my friend and asked him for a dinar for some business. He replied, “By Allah, my house does not despise gold/gems.” So I said to him, “And people too!”


  1. It was asked of one who was senile, “How old are you?” He replied:


Surely I have been blessed with health.


3) A man was asked, “What is rich?” He replied:


Generosity is when you give away what you have.


  1. A traveler was asked about his religion and faith. He replied:


I love mankind as I love myself.


  1. Asked a merchant, “How much is your capital?” Ja replied:


I am a trustworthy person, and people’s trust in me is great.


  1. Al-Hajjaj asked Al-Muhallab, “Am I taller, or are you?” He replied:


You are taller, and I am the most average in stature.


7 An officer was asked, “What kind of possessions do you keep?” Ja replied:


Nothing compares to health.


  1. Sayyid bin Anas met Al-Ma-mun, so Al-Ma-mun said, “You are a sayyid.” He replied: –


You are the sayyid, and I am the son of Anas.


  1. One day I asked him for a dirham, and he was astonished and said: “This is made of silver, not gold.”


  1. Allah says:


They ask you about what they spend. Answer: Whatever you give in charity, you should give to your parents, relatives, orphans, the poor, and those who are on a journey. (QS Al-Baqarah: 215)


  1. When Khalid bin Walid was about to set out to invade Hiyarah, there came a man who was a supporter of the area, and Khalid asked him, “In what are you (What is the need)?” He replied, “In my clothes.” Khalid asked, “On what are you?” He replied, “On the earth.” Khalid asked, “How old are you?” He replied, “Thirty-two.” Khalid said, “I asked you about something and you replied with something else.” He replied, “Indeed I answered about what you asked.”


When the one who brought the news of the death announced it, then I asked him out of fear, and my eyes poured out rain for fear of divorce. He replied, “He is dead.” I said, “He has fulfilled a sublime need.” He said, “He has passed away.” We said, “With all pride.”


  1. If you were asked about the following issues and you wanted to answer them using the uslub of al-Hakim, how would you answer?


  1. What is your father’s income?


  1. Where is your house?


  1. How much does this jewelry cost?


  1. How many years have you been in middle school?


III. Make two sentences that include uslub al-hakim!


  1. Describe the following two stanzas of poetry and explain the type of badi’ found in them!


One day my son came to me and I saw him as a comfort and a source of tranquility. He asked, “What is that?” I replied, “You are my spirit.” He asked, “What is the soul?”