Al-Mukhtashar al-lathif



In the Name of Allah, the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds. I bear witness that there is no God but Allah alone, there is no partner for Him. And I bear witness that the Prophet Muhammad is His servant and messenger. May Allah bestow peace and blessings upon the Prophet Muhammad, and upon his family and companions. Wa Ba’du:


This is a book that summarizes the things that every Muslim should know, and things like that, such as the obligatory duties of purification, prayer and so on. It is obligatory for the one who needs it to learn and teach it, whether he is a man, woman, child, adult, free person or slave.







The Fard of Ablution The Fard of ablution is six:


  1. Intention, either “intention to remove impurity”, or “intention to purify for prayer”, or “intention to perform ablution”. And the intention is made when washing the face.


  1. Wash the face completely, including both hair and skin, except the inside of the thick beard and thick sideburns.


  1. Wash both hands up to the wrist.


  1. Rubbing a part of the scalp or hair, even if it is only rubbing a part of the hair that is within the confines of the head.


  1. Washing both feet up to the ankles.


  1. Orderly. in that order.


Sunnahs of Wudhu


The Sunnahs of ablution are:

Wiping the toothbrush, Reciting the basmalah, Washing the palms of the hands, Gargling, Istinsyag (putting water into the nose). Istinsyar (taking water out of the nose), At-Tatslits (washing the parts of wudhu three times), Wiping the entire head. Wiping both ears and ear holes, Parting the thick beard, Parting the fingers on both hands.


Exceeding the washing of the face (Ghurrah), exceeding the washing of the hands and feet (Tahjil), Continuity in washing the members of wudhu (Muwalah), Not asking others to pour water, and not drying the wudhu water with a towel / cloth.


Things that invalidate ablution


There are four things that invalidate wudoo’:

  1. Anything that comes out through one of the two ways, namely the genitals and the anal opening, except semen.
  2. Loss of mind due to sleep or otherwise. The exception is the sleep of someone who is seated and whose buttocks remain on the ground (or floor).
  3. The touching of the skin of a man with the skin of a woman (without a barrier), while both are adults and bukar mahram.
  4. Touching the human genitals or anal opening with the palm or inner fingers.


Prohibitions for those who are in the state of impurity


If one’s wudoo’ is broken, it is forbidden to do it:


  1. Prayer,
  2. Tawaf,
  3. Touching the Qur’an,
  4. And carrying the Qur’an, as well as carrying a board inscribed with Qur’anic verses for study purposes. However, it is permissible for a person to carry the Qur’an written on utensils or coins. And it is permissible for a young child who is mumayyiz to carry and touch the Qur’an for the purpose of study (even without wudhu).


Adab in the Bathroom/Toilet


  1. Putting the left foot first when entering the bathroom.
  2. Exit the bathroom with your right foot first.
  3. Do not bring objects bearing the name of Allah, the name of the Prophet, or Qur’anic verses into the bathroom.
  4. Cover the head.
  5. Stay away from people (so as not to be heard and smelled).
  6. Wearing a covering (so as not to be seen).
  7. Not to urinate over stagnant water, over water that is slightly flowing, in animal holes, where the wind blows, in places used for shelter, on roads, in ditches, and under fruit-bearing trees.
  8. Not talking.

9, To finish the rest of the urine (which may be left in the private parts).

  1. When going into the bathroom, say:

“Bismillahi, Allahumma inni A’udzu bika minal khubutsi walkhaba’its”

(In the name of Allah, O Allah I seek refuge with. You from both male and female devils).”

  1. When it comes out say:

“Ghutranaka, Al-hamdu lillahil-ladzi adzhaba ‘annil-adza wa ‘afani”

(I seek Your forgiveness, all praise be to Allah Who has removed impurities from me and made me healthy).


Things that Make Bathing Obligatory


The obligation to take a big bath is caused by five things:

  1. Intercourse (entry of the head of the penis into the woman’s vagina),
  2. Cums out,
  3. Menstruation,
  4. Postpartum,
  5. Childbirth.


Fardos of ghusl What is required during ghusl are two things:


  1. Intention, that is, one should intend to remove janabah or remove major hadats or the like, when washing the first limb to be washed.


  1. Wash all the hair, both thin and thick, as well as all the skin, including washing the skin inside the foreskin (the skin on the tip of the uncircumcised penis).


Sunnahs of Bathing:

  1. Use a toothbrush,
  2. Recite the basmalah.
  3. Ablution before bathing,
  4. Pay attention to skin folds and limbs that are difficult to reach by water (such as ears. armpits, abdominal folds. etc.),
  5. Hair parting.
  6. Rubbing the limbs when washing them,
  7. Tatslits (performing each wash three times).


Conditions of Purification from Two Hadats


The requirements for purification from minor and major impurity are as follows:

  1. Islam,
  2. Tannyiz.
  3. Water that is pure and purifying.


So it is not valid to remove impurity and remove najis except by using Absolute Water, which is water that comes down from the sky (such as rain, snow, dew) or water that comes out of the earth (such as sea water, river water, well water, spring water). 


If the water has changed its taste, color, or smell, and the change is obvious, because it has been mixed with something sacred that does not need to be mixed with it, such as za’ffaron oil, usynan, white cement, chalk, or kohl, then it cannot be used for purification.


It does not matter if the water has changed due to long standing, dust, moss, or other things that occur in the place where the water stays and where it flows, then it is permissible to use it for purification.


It is also permissible to use it for purification if the water has changed its nature due to the fall of a sacred object that does not dissolve in water, such as aloes and perfume (which do not dissolve in water). It is not valid to purify oneself with water that has already been used to purify oneself from impurity.




If a person who is doing wudoo’ puts his hand into water after washing his face once, or a person who is junub after intending to do ghusl, then puts his hand into water that is less than two gulahs (216 liters) with the intention of scooping the water with his hand, there is nothing wrong with that. But if he puts his hand into the water with no intention of drawing water, then the rest of the water becomes musta’mal water.


Things that Make Water Unclean


A small amount of water (less than two gullahs), or any other liquid, even if it reaches two gullahs, becomes unclean if it is mixed with an unclean substance, whether or not the unclean substance changes the nature of the water (its color, taste or smell).


A little hair from an unclean animal is forgiven, as well as the carcass of an animal that does not have blood flowing from it, as well as the impurity that the eye cannot reach (because it is very small), and the impurity that remains in the anus of birds and rats, and a little dust from animal feces. Water that has been touched by the mouth of a cat that has eaten something unclean and then left for a while is also forgiven, in case it is possible that it licked up two qullahs or more of water while it was gone.


Ruling on water with impurities


If the water reaches two qullahs (216 liters) or more, then it falls into impurity, then it does not become impure unless it changes its taste, color, or smell: whether the change is much or little. If the change disappears by itself or is removed by adding water, then the water becomes pure. However, if the change is removed by mixing it with za’faran misik oil, chalk, or soil, then the water does not become pure again.


Unclean Objects


Unclean objects include:

  1. Peeing,
  2. Human feces,
  3. Animal feces,
  4. Pus,
  5. Blood,
  6. Vomit,
  7. Khamr (wine made from grape juice).
  8. Nabidz (wine made from pressed dates).
  9. Anything that is intoxicating (in liquid form).
  10. Dogs and pigs,
  11. Dog breeds and pig breeds.
  12. Carcasses: including hair, feces, skin, and all parts of the body (except human carcasses, fish and locusts).
  13. Madhi (the sticky clear white liquid that comes out of one’s private parts during desire, but does not squirt),
  14. Wadi (thick cloudy white liquid, which comes out when urinating after lifting heavy objects),
  15. Dog and pig semen.
  16. Milk from animals whose meat is not allowed to be eaten, except for human breast milk.


As for human carcasses, fish, and locusts, they are pure. The body parts of animals other than humans, fish and locusts are unclean, except for the hair of animals that are lawful to eat, chicken feathers, camel hair and sheep’s hair, as well as mycelic oil, bags of mycelic oil, its vapor and the skin where mycelic oil collects (in deer).


Objects that Can Become Sacred and Impure


Khamr (wine made from grape juice) becomes pure when it turns itself into vinegar, as does Nabidz (wine made from the juice of dates or raisins). Likewise, the skin of a carcass will become pure if it is tanned (smeared with something spicy, then dried in the sun).


With regard to solid objects that become unclean because they are exposed to the urine of dogs or pigs, or the offspring of both, or their saliva, feces, sweat, or wet bodies, they are purified by washing them seven times, one of which should be mixed with dust/soil that is pure and purifying. If the soil becomes unclean because of the dog, it is sufficient to wash it with pure water seven times.


If something becomes unclean because it has been exposed to the urine of a baby boy who has not eaten anything other than breast milk, then to purify it, it is sufficient to wet it with water, by sprinkling water over it with many splashes until it is evenly distributed. All things that are impure can be purified by washing them, so that the taste, color and smell of the impurity are removed. If it has been washed many times, but the color or smell is difficult to remove, there is nothing wrong with that. As for liquid objects that are impure, they cannot be purified.




It is obligatory to do tayammum to purify oneself from both minor and major impurity, if one cannot use water, either because there is no water available when one is traveling, or because one is sick and cannot use water.


If a person has a wound on his body that is dangerous for him to be exposed to water, then he should do wudoo’ by washing the healthy parts of his body, then he should do tayammum instead of washing the wounded part of his body, by doing tayammum on his face and hands. The time for tayammum is when washing around the affected limb. It is also obligatory to wipe over the bandage with water, if it is not possible to remove the bandage.


Fardos of Tayamum The fardos of Tayamum are five, namely:


  1. Picking up dust.


  1. The intention is to intend tayammum in order to be able to pray; if the prayer is a fard prayer, then he should intend tayammum in order to be able to pray the fard prayer. It is obligatory to include the intention when he puts his hands together to take the dust, then continue to present the intention until he wipes his face.


  1. Wipe the face.


  1. Wiping both hands up to the elbows.


  1. Orderly according to the sequence.


Conditions of Tayammum


  1. Deliberate in picking up dust.


  1. Using clean, pure, unmixed dust.


  1. One should take dust twice. First when wiping the face, second when wiping the hands.


  1. Tayammum must be performed after the time for prayer has come.


  1. Renew tayammum every time you want to perform an act of worship that is fard ‘ain (such as prayer, tawaaf, etc.).


  1. Seeking water before doing tayammum and after the time for prayer has come, whether in his house, his neighbor’s house, or any other place in the vicinity, by asking clearly, “Who has water!”


If a person cannot find water or dust, such as one who is on the top of a mountain, then he must offer the obligatory prayer even if he is alone, but he must repeat his prayer (when he finds water). Tayammum is also permissible in winter, so long as there is no means of warming the cold water, or it is not beneficial for him to warm his body after washing with warm water (his body remains cold despite warming with warm water), or he is unable to warm his body. If a person does tayammum because the water is very cold, and if a person does tayammum while traveling for the purpose of sin, then he has to make up his prayers.


Menstruation and postpartum bleeding and what is forbidden for them


The least period of menstruation is a day and a night, the longest is fifteen days. In general, however, menstruation lasts six or seven days.


It is haraam for a woman who is menstruating and for one who is junub for a number of reasons, namely:

  1. Prayer,
  2. Tawaf,
  3. Touching the Qur’an,
  4. Carrying the Qur’an,
  5. Silence in the mosque.
  6. Reciting the Qur’an with the intention of reading it. For women who are menstruating, it is also forbidden for them to
  7. Fasting,
  8. Passing by the mosque if one is afraid of contaminating it with his blood.
  9. Istimta’ (intercourse with her husband) between the navel and the knees (without a barrier), and intercourse with a menstruating woman is a major sin.


A menstruating woman must make up the fasts of Ramadan, but she does not have to make up the prayers that she missed during her period. When her menstrual blood stops, she may fast even if she has not done the obligatory ghusl. And it is haraam for a woman who is experiencing nifaas to do things that are haraam for menstruating women. Nifaas is the blood that comes out after childbirth.







There are five obligatory prayers. The beginning of the time of Dhuhr is when the sun slips, and the end of the time is when the length of an object’s shadow is equal to that of the object other than the shadow of Istiwa’ (when the sun is in the middle). The beginning of ‘Asr time is when the shadow of an object is the same as the bende with a little longer, while the end of time is when the sun sets.


The beginning of Maghrib is when the sun sets, while the end of Maghrib, according to the preferred view, is when the red cloud (the red hue of twilight) disappears from the horizon. The beginning of the time of ‘Isha is when the red cloud disappears from the horizon, and the end of the time is when the dawn of shadig, which is the dawn that spreads across the horizon, breaks. The beginning of Fajr is when the dawn breaks, and the end of Fajr is when the sun rises. The most important act of worship is to hasten to pray at the beginning of its time.


It is mustahabb to delay the Dhuhr prayer when it is very hot (waiting for the heat to subside) in hot climates, for those who pray in congregation in mosques that are far away. But the one who delays his prayer until part of it is out of time has transgressed. As for the one who cannot tell the time of prayer, he should make an effort to find out when the time for prayer begins by studying the signs or by habit. If he misses an obligatory prayer without any excuse, then he must make up the missed prayer as soon as possible.


Forbidden Times of Prayer


And it is forbidden to pray the five daily prayers:

  1. At sunrise until the sun rises to the level of a spear,
  2. When the time of Istiwa’ (the sun is in the middle of noon) until it slips, other than on Friday…
  3. When the sun turns yellow until sunset.
  4. After Fajr prayer until sunrise.
  5. After Asr prayer until sunset.


It is not haraam to offer voluntary prayers at these times, if the voluntary prayers have an earlier cause, such as Tahiyat al-mosque prayer or solar eclipse prayer (because entering the mosque or the appearance of the eclipse comes before the prayer), but it is haraam to offer istikhaarah prayer at these times (because the cause comes later, i.e. the istikhaarah comes after the prayer). It is also haraam to offer the Sunnah prayers after the khatib has ascended the pulpit in the Friday sermon, except for the Tahiyatul Masjid prayer.


People for whom prayer is obligatory


Prayer is obligatory for every Muslim who has reached puberty, is of sound mind, and is pure. It is obligatory for parents or guardians of children to order their children to pray when they are seven years old, and it is obligatory to beat them if their children leave prayer when they are ten years old. The ruling for girls is the same as for boys. When a child reaches puberty, or a woman becomes pure from menstruation or post-partum bleeding, or a person loses his mind and comes to his senses, if it happens before the time for prayer has elapsed for one takbeer, then they must make up that prayer.


It is also obligatory to make up the time of the previous prayer if that previous prayer was the Dhuhr or Maghrib prayer. If the time for prayer has come and the time for the obligatory prayer has passed, then a woman suddenly has menstrual or post-partum bleeding and has not prayed, or she becomes insane and has not prayed, then she must make up that prayer.


It is obligatory for fathers and mothers and slave masters to teach their children and slaves about the things that are obligatory upon them when they reach puberty, including the rituals of purification, prayer, fasting and so on. It is obligatory to tell them about the prohibition of adultery, liwath (sodomy), stealing, drinking alcohol and committing crimes, as well as the prohibition of lying, whether a little or a lot, gossiping, namimah (fighting) and the like.


They should tell their children that when a person reaches puberty, he enters the age of taklif (being required by sharee’ah to fulfill obligations and avoid prohibitions). They should also teach them the signs of puberty: when a child reaches the age of fifteen or has a wet dream, and menstrual bleeding for girls (at least nine years old). The fathers and guardians of the children are also obliged to pay the wages of those who teach or educate their children from their own wealth. If the parents or guardians do not have any money, then the obligation is borne by the one who is responsible for their maintenance. Matan:


Conditions of Prayer


The conditions of prayer are six:


  1. Knowing the times of prayer, as explained earlier.


  1. Facing the Qiblah, except in nafilah (voluntary) prayers when traveling (such as: voluntary prayers on a vehicle where it is not possible to face the Qiblah).


3, Covering the aurat.


  1. Clean from two hadats (major and minor hadats).


5, The clothes, body, and place of prayer must be pure from impurity.


  1. Know the fard and sunnahs of prayer.


Male and Female Aurat


The ‘awrah of men and slave girls (in prayer) is between the navel and the knees. As for the ‘awrah of a free woman in prayer and in the presence of men who are not her mahrams, it is all her limbs except the face and the two palms. In the presence of her mahram, it is between the navel and the knees.


Uncleanliness that is forgiven in prayer


As for the blood of animals that do not have flowing blood, fly droppings, pimple blood, a little or a lot, pus from boils or their fluid, a little ajnabi blood (someone else’s blood that gets on our body or clothes), it is forgiven, except for the blood of dogs and pigs.


Fard of prayer


There are seventeen obligatory prayers:


  1. Intention.

If the prayer is fard, then it is obligatory to intend to perform the prayer and determine what prayer to perform, and the intention is fard from a person who is pubescent. However, if the prayer is a muaqqat nafilah prayer (whose time is determined) such as Witr prayer, or a nafilah dzu sabab prayer (because of a certain cause or event) such as Kusuf prayer, then it is obligatory to intend to pray and determine what prayer to offer. If the prayer is a nafilah muthlag prayer (not dependent on a cause or time), then it is obligatory to intend to perform the prayer only.


  1. Takbiratul Ihram.

That is by saying: “Allahu Akbar” and there is nothing wrong with saying “Allahul Akbar”. It is also obligatory to include the intention in the entire takbeeratul ihram (Saying “Allahu Akbar” while intending in the heart).


  1. Standing for fard prayers if able to stand.


  1. Recite Surah Al-Fatihah.

It is obligatory to recite the verses consecutively and continuously, and it is obligatory to pay attention to the tashdid and to distinguish the words Dhad ( ) from Dzhad ( ). Al-Fatihah must be recited in every rak’ah, except for the rak’ah of a masbug (one who lags behind the imam’s recitation and is unable to recite it).


  1. Ruku’.


  1. Thuma’ninah in ruku’. That is: if all the limbs are calm and in place.


  1. Itidal.


  1. Thuma’ninah in i’tidal.


  1. Two prostrations in each rak’ah.

Minimum prostration: by placing part of the forehead on the floor, as well as the fingers and toes, and the knees. Also pressing down on the head, and lifting the buttocks so that they are higher than the head and shoulders.


  1. Thuma’ninah in prostration.


  1. Sitting between two prostrations.


  1. Thuma’ninah in sitting between two prostrations.


  1. The final tashahhud.


  1. Sitting the final tashahhud.


  1. Reciting salawat for the Prophet in the final tashahhud.


  1. Greetings, at least by saying: “Assalamu’alaikum”.


  1. Order.


Sunnahs of Prayer


There are many Sunnahs in prayer, among which are:


  1. Raising the hands during takbiratul ihram, ruku’, rising from ruku’, and standing up from the initial tashahhud.


  1. Recite the iftitah prayer.


  1. Reciting the ta’awudz, and it is recommended to recite this in every rak’ah, and the ta’awudz in the first rak’ah is more emphasized.


  1. Reciting a short surah after Surah Al-Fatihah, for those who do not hear the imam’s recitation.


  1. Reciting surahs aloud in the Fajr prayer and the first two rak’ahs of the Maghrib and ‘Isha’ prayers, both for men and women, provided there are no non-mahram men around.


  1. Place the right hand on the left wrist under the chest.


  1. Reciting takbirs other than takbiratul ihram, (i.e. takbirs for moving from one movement to another).


  1. Reciting Gunut at I’tidal in the second rak’ah of the Fajr prayer, and it is also recommended to recite Ounut at I’tidaal in the last rak’ah of each of the five daily prayers when there is a calamity (called Ounut Nazilah).


9: In ruku’, recite: “Subhana rabbiyal adzhimi wa bihamdihi” (Glory be to Allah, the Exalted, and all praise be to Him) three times.


10.When prostrating, recite: “Subhana rabbiyal ala wa bihamdihi” (Glory be to Allah, the Most High, and all praise be to Him) three times.


  1. When prostrating, the knees should be placed first, then the palms of the hands, then the forehead and nose.


12.When sitting between the two prostrations recite: “Rabbighfirli warhamni wajburni warfa’hni warzugni wahdini wa’afini wa’fu anni” (Yaa Allah forgive me, have mercy on me, suffice me, raise my status, grant me sustenance, guide me, give me health, and forgive me).


13.It is mustahabb to sit for a short rest in the first and third rak’ahs (i.e. when getting up for the second and fourth rak’ahs), apart from the Maghrib prayer.


14.It is recommended to recite the initial tashahhud and sit in the initial tashahhud,


15.Reciting salawat to the Messenger of Allah at the time of tashahhud and when reciting the gunut.


16.Sitting iftirasy on every sitting.


  1. Sitting tawarruk in the final tashahhud.


  1. It is recommended to look at the place of prostration.


  1. Khusyu’.


20.Practicing the recitation and dhikr during prayer.


21.Lengthening the first rak’ah more than the second rak’ah.


22.Performing prayers with enthusiasm and a heart empty of worldly matters.


23.Reciting prayers when prostrating.


Things that invalidate prayer A person’s prayer will be invalidated, with:


  1. Speaks a lot (two letters or one letter that has meaning).


  1. Eating a lot (or eating little on purpose).


  1. Moving a lot, such as taking three steps or moving three times in a row, moving once but exaggerating (causing the whole body to move), and jumping too much. If a person speaks a little because he forgets, or eats a little because he forgets, or adds one ruku’ or one prostration because he forgets, then his prayer is not invalid, but it is Sunnah for him to do prostration.


Sahwi prostration


Sahwi prostration is recommended, which is two prostrations before the salam if:

  1. Leaving the initial tashahhud.
  2. Not invoking the blessings of the Prophet during tashahhud.
  3. Not sitting the tashahhud.

4, Not reciting the gunut prayer in the Fajr prayer.

5: Not reciting salawat to the Messenger of Allah and his family in gunut.

  1. Speaks little because of forgetfulness.
  2. Adding a pillar of prayer because you forgot.
  3. Eat a little because you forgot.


In prostration, it is obligatory to follow the imam (even if the imam is prostrating on his own behalf due to his own forgetfulness). However, if a person prostrates himself for himself (even though the imam did not do prostration), or he does not follow the imam in prostration intentionally and he knows that not following the imam is haraam, then his prayer is invalid.


Sujud Tilawah


The prostration of recitation is recommended for those who recite the Qur’an, those who listen, and those who hear the Qur’an, which is located in fourteen verses. And the prostration of recitation is sunnah for the imam and the person praying alone (when the verse is recited in prayer). But it is not permissible for the praying person to make prostration of recitation unless the imam makes prostration of recitation. If the person prostrates himself while the imam is not prostrating, then his prayer is invalid.


It is invalid to congregate behind these people


A person’s prayer is invalid if he performs the prayers of these imams:

  1. A person with a lisp,


  1. People can’t read clearly,


  1. The person who is praying in the congregation,


  1. People who are in ghusl or junub,


  1. Unbelievers.


  1. A person whose body or clothes are unclean.


  1. One who cannot purify himself with water or dust.


  1. It is also not permissible for a man to pray behind a woman or a transvestite.


Conditions of congregational prayer


The conditions of congregational prayer are six, namely:

  1. It is not permissible for the mum to precede the imam, and it is makrooh to accompany the imam’s movements.


  1. The Imam and the congregation should gather in one mosque or open space/field, provided that the distance between them is not more than three hundred cubits (150 meters).


  1. Knowing the changes in the imam’s movements, either by seeing the imam or seeing some of the congregation, or hearing the mam or the person who conveys a sign from the imam.


  1. The intention to follow the imam, the intention of mukmum or congregation.


  1. The form of prayer should be in accordance with the prayer of the imam. So it is not valid to pray kusuf behind someone who is praying an obligatory prayer. It is also not valid to pray Fajr prayer behind the funeral prayer, nor is it valid to pray the funeral prayer behind the person who prayed Fajr.


  1. Should follow the imam’s movements. If the mum precedes the imam by two fi’li pillars (pillars that are in the form of movements) or lags behind two fi’li pillars without any excuse, then the prayer is invalid. If the mum lags behind the imam because of an excuse, such as a mum who is slow in reciting Al-fatihah, then the mum is allowed to lag behind the imam for up to three long fi’li pillars (Ruku, first prostration, and second prostration).


Making up prayers for travelers


It is permissible for a traveler who has traveled a distance of two marhalahs (about 89 kilometers) for permissible travel (not sinful travel) to shorten the Dhuhr, ‘Asr and ‘Isha prayers by two rak’ahs.


If a person misses a prayer while traveling and wants to make it up when he gets home, or vice versa (i.e., he misses a prayer while he is at home and wants to make it up when he is traveling), then he must offer a complete number of rak’ahs. Gashar requires a specific destination (i.e. which city or region to go to), so the traveler who travels but does not have a destination in mind does not have the concession of gashar.


It is not permissible for the one who has shortened his prayers to share with someone who is praying with complete rak’ahs, nor is it permissible for him to share with someone who is unsure whether the imam he is following has completed the number of rak’ahs or has shortened his prayers. He should make the intention to break the fast at the time of Takbiratul Ihram.


Making up prayers for travelers


It is permissible for the one who is on a permissible and long journey to combine the Dhuhr and ‘Asr prayers, as well as the Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers. He may do jamak tagdim (praying two prayers during the first prayer) or jamak ta’khir (praying two prayers during the second prayer).


If he is praying jamak tagdim, then he must start with the first prayer (Dhuhr or Maghrib) and intend to pray jamak tagdim in that first prayer, and the interval between the two prayers should not be long. As for jamak ta’khir, it is required to intend ta’khir before leaving Zhuhr or before leaving Maghrib.


People for whom Friday Prayer is Obligatory


Friday prayer is obligatory for every Muslim, mukallaf, male, free, mugim (not traveling), and not sick. It is permissible to leave the Friday prayer and pray in congregation when there is heavy rain, illness, caring for the sick, waiting for a relative who is close to death, fear of disturbance to himself, his property,


He is not strong enough to endure hadats (urination or defecation) even though he has free time, he is very hungry or very thirsty, very hot or very cold, strong winds at night, a very muddy road, and he is traveling with a group (it is feared that if he separates from the group he will endanger himself).


Conditions of Friday Prayer


  1. All Khutbah and Jumu’ah prayers should be performed at Dzhuhur time.


  1. The Jumatan should be held in a building located within the village or sub-district (not outside the village).


  1. No Jumu’ah prayer was previously offered in the village (i.e. there was no other Jumu’ah prayer in the village that preceded it, but if it had to be split into two different Jumu’ah prayers because the place was inadequate or too far away, then it is permissible).


  1. Carried out in congregation.


  1. The minimum number of congregants for the Friday prayer is forty men who are mukallaf, free, mustauthinin, i.e. those who (live in the area) who do not travel either in the dry season or the rainy/cold season, unless there is a need.


5, It begins with two khutbahs (before Jumu’ah prayer).


The pillars of the Friday sermon


  1. Praising Allah in both sermons (saying “Alhamdulillah” or other fragments of “Hamd”).
  2. Reciting salawat to the Messenger of Allah in both khutbahs.
  3. The exhortation to piety in both sermons.
  4. Reciting a verse of the Qur’an in the first sermon or in the second sermon.
  5. Praying for the believers, even if it is just by saying “Rahimakumullah” (may Allah have mercy on you), in the second khutbah.


Conditions of Friday Sermon

  1. His sermon was heard by forty jama’ah.
  2. Continuity between the two Friday sermons and the Friday prayer.
  3. Clean from both minor and major impurity.
  4. The body, clothes, and place of the sermon are pure from impurity.
  5. Stand up if able.
  6. Covering the aurat.
  7. Sitting between the two khutbahs with a measure of thuma’ninah.
  8. The pillars of the Khutbah are delivered in Arabic.
  9. Delivering the sermon after the sun has set (after the time of Dhuhr).


Taking care of the dead


Taking care of a corpse involves bathing it, shrouding it, praying for it and burying it. The ruling is fardhu kifayah. The minimum level of bathing a corpse is to pour pure water over the entire body of the deceased, both skin and hair after removing impurities from the body. The minimum level of shrouding a dead person is a piece of cloth that can cover his ‘awrah. However, it is preferable for a male corpse to have three layers of cloth, while for a female corpse it is five layers, namely: sarong, khimar (head scarf), robe / dress, then added with two layers of cloth.


Corpse Prayers


There are seven obligations of the funeral prayer:

  1. Intention, namely intending to pray and determining the type of prayer, namely the Jenazah prayer, and intending its obligation.
  2. Bertakbir with four Takbirs.
  3. Reciting Surah Al-Fatihah after the first takbeer or any other takbeer.
  4. Reciting salawat on the Messenger of Allah after the second takbeer.
  5. Praying for the dead after the third takbeer.
  6. Standing for those who are able.
  7. Greetings.


Procedure for Burying the Dead


With regard to burying the body, at least bury it in a hole that is sufficient to cover the odor of the deceased and protect it from wild animals. It is obligatory to face the deceased towards the qiblah. As for its perfection: the depth of the grave hole is the size of a person standing and raising his hand, which is four and a half cubits (2.2 meters).


It is also haraam to mourn the deceased by mentioning his virtues, such as “O leader, O protector.” It is also haraam (Nauh) to raise one’s voice while mourning the deceased. It is forbidden to vent one’s grief by hitting the chest, cheeks, ruffling the hair, tearing the pockets of clothes, throwing ashes on the head, and so on.




Zakat is required on assets such as camels, cows, goats, agriculture, fruits, mines, found objects, and trade. 


Zakat on Camels


For every 5 camels, the zakaah is a one-year-old sheep or a two-year-old pea goat. For 10 camels, the zakaah is 2 sheep.


For 15 camels the zakaah is 3 sheep.


For 20 camels, the zakaah is 4 sheep.


For 25 camels the zakaah is one bintu makhad, which is a year-old female camel.


For 36 camels, the zakaah is one bintu labun, which is a two-year-old female camel.


For 46 camels the zakaah is one higgah, which is a female camel that is three years old.


For 61 camels the zakaah is one jadza’ah, which is a female camel that is four years old.


For 76 camels the zakaah is 2 bintu labun.


For 91 camels, the zakaah is 2 higgahs.


For 121 camels the zakaah is 3 bintu labun.


Above that, for every multiple of 40 heads the zakaah is a bintu labun, and for every multiple of 50 heads the zakaah is a hiqqah.


Zakat on Cattle


For every thirty cows the zakaah is a tabi’ (male or female cow that is one year old). For every forty cows there is a musinnah (two-year-old heifer). For every thirty cows, a tabi’ and for every forty cows, a musinnah.


Zakat on Goats (Sheep)


For 40 goats the zakaah is one goat.

For 121 goats, the zakaah is 2 goats

For 201 goats, the zakaah is 3 goats.

For 400 goats, the zakaah is 4 goats. Then above that amount, every 100 goats, the zakaah is one goat (e.g. 500 goats, the zakaah is 5 goats).


Zakat on Agriculture and Fruits


Zakat on agriculture and fruits is not required except for those that are used as staple food in normal conditions. The zakaah is due when the fruit is ready to be eaten (harvested), or the seeds have hardened, provided that the yield reaches three hundred saa’ (825 kg). And one saa’ is four mudd.


If the irrigation costs money, then the zakaah is 596 of the crop, whereas if the irrigation does not cost money, for example using rainwater, then the zakaah is 1096 of the dry (hard seed) and pure (without straw or husk) crop. If the crops are of the same type (e.g. white rice and brown rice) and if they are harvested within one year, the zakaah should be combined with other crops to fulfill the nisaab.


Zakat on Gold


The nishab of gold is 20 mithgal (84 grams). One mithqal is 24 giraths. The nishab of silver is 200 Islamic dirhams (588 grams) made of pure silver. The Islamic dirham is 17 less 1/5, which is (16.8 qirath). Zakat is not required until gold and silver reach one haul (one year). Zakat on gold and silver is 1/40 (2.5%). The condition is if the gold and silver are not as permissible jewelry.


Zakat on Mined Goods


For gold and silver mines, the zakaah is 1/40 or 2.5% when it reaches the nishab at that time without waiting for the haul (immediately issued zakaah without waiting for a year).


Zakat on Found Goods (Rikaz)


Rikaz is the stored treasure buried by the people of the pre-Islamic era. The zakaah on it is one-fifth (20%), to be paid immediately without waiting for the due date, provided that it is gold or silver, and that it is found in no man’s land or land that he is living on.


Zakat on Trade


That is, if it reaches the nishab at the end of the year, then the zakaah is 1/40 or 2.5%.


Zakat Fitrah


Zakat al-fitr must be paid from sunset on the last day of Ramadan, for a free person. It is obligatory for him to pay zakat al-fitr on himself and those who are under his care, such as his wife, parents, children and slaves, so long as they are Muslims and he has food to pay them. It is haraam for him to delay paying zakat al-fitr until the day of Eid has passed. If he deliberately delays it (without excuse) then he is sinning and must make up for it.


Zakat al-fitr is not obligatory on the mu’sir (poor) person, i.e. the one who has nothing, or only enough food for the night of Eid and the day of Eid. And it is not obligatory for him to sell his house or slaves that he still needs in order to pay zakat. The amount of zakat al-fitr is 1 saa’ (2.8 kg). One saa’ is four mudd, and the size of a mudd at the time of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was one-third of a rithl. Therefore, zakaat al-fitr is not valid unless it is in accordance with this measurement, and it is not valid unless it is given in the form of the staple food of the country.




The beginning of the month of Ramadan is determined by completing the number of days of Sha’ban to 30 days or by sighting the new moon. The testimony of a just person is sufficient.  


Conditions for the validity of fasting

  1. Intention: If the fast is an obligatory fast, even if it is an obligatory fast because of a vow, then it is essential to make the intention at night before dawn, and to specify the type of fast, whether it is Ramadaan or a fast for a vow.


  1. Intentionally refraining from having intercourse.


  1. Refrain from Istimna’ (trying to ejaculate with his hand or his wife’s hand).


  1. Involuntary vomiting.


  1. To prevent something from entering the jauf (abdominal cavity and head), such as the inside of the ear, or the urinary tract (milk ducts) through an open hole. But there is nothing wrong with oil that is absorbed into the pores of the skin or the taste of kohl in the throat. And a person is not declared to have broken the fast if he does it (intercourse and so on) out of ignorance, forgetfulness, or force.


A person’s fast is invalidated if he ejaculates as a result of touching without a barrier, or kissing, or making out, unless the ejaculation is due to imagining or seeing (make not invalidate the fast because there is no contact).


And the conditions for the validity of fasting. also:

  1. Islam,
  2. Reasonable,
  3. Clear of menstruation and postpartum bleeding throughout the day.


It is haraam to fast the days of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, and the days of Tashreeq (11th, 12th, 13th Dhul-Hijjah). It is also haraam to fast the last fifteen days of Sha’baan unless it is for a vow, to make up a fast, to offer expiation, or for some other reason.


Conditions of Obligatory Fasting


The obligatory conditions for fasting Ramadan include:

  1. Islam,
  2. Reasonable,
  3. Baligh,
  4. Able to perform fasting.


As for boys and girls who are seven years old, they are also commanded to fast if they are able. Then they are beaten if they do not fast when they are ten years old.


A traveler on a long and permissible journey may break his fast. The same applies to a sick person who fears that fasting will harm him. It is also permissible for pregnant and breastfeeding women to refrain from fasting if they fear harm to themselves or to their unborn children.


It also applies to the one who saves an animal that he has not been commanded to kill, or saves someone who is on the verge of death. Those who break this fast must make up the fast.


With regard to the one who did not fast because he was saving an animal or a human being who was on the verge of death, he must make up the fast and pay a fidyah of one mudd (seven ounces) per day. Likewise, pregnant women and breastfeeding women who do not fast out of fear for their babies (not out of fear for themselves) must make up the fast and also offer a fidyah.


If a person delays making up his fast until the next Ramadaan without any excuse, then he must make up his fast and offer a fidyah. As for the one who breaks his fast without any excuse, he must make up his fast immediately.




The conditions for the validity of i’tikaf are the intention, silence in the mosque, Islam, reason, purity from menstruation and postpartum bleeding, and purity from janabah.  




Hajj and Umrah are obligatory for every Muslim who is an adult, sensible, free, able to perform Hajj himself, or if he is unable to do so, to perform it for someone else: either because of an illness from which there is no hope of recovery or because of old age.


Fard of Hajj


The obligatory duties of Hajj are five:

  1. Ihram, i.e. with the intention in the heart.
  2. Wukuf in Arafat.
  3. Tawaf after wukuf.
  4. Sa’i.

5, Cutting the hair or cutting it short.


Obligations of Hajj


There are six obligations of Hajj, namely:

  1. Ihram from the miqat.
  2. Staying overnight in Muzdalifah on the night of Eid al-Adha.
  3. Staying overnight on the days of Tasyrig in Mina.
  4. Stoning the Agabah Jumrah on the day of Eid al-Adha for seven strokes.
  5. Stoning the three Jamaraat on the day of Tasyrig after sunset, each with seven pebbles. It is permissible to make an early exit from Mina on the second day of Tasyrig before sunset.
  6. Tawaf Wada’.


Fard of Umrah


The obligatory duties of Umrah are four, namely:

  1. Ihram,
  2. Tawaf,
  3. Sa’i,
  4. Cutting the hair or cutting it short. The obligatory part of ‘umrah is entering ihram from the miqaat.


Fard of tawaaf


The obligations in tawaaf include:

  1. Covering the aurat. Clean from minor and major impurity.


  1. Clean from impurity, whether clothes, body, or place.


  1. Positioning the Ka’bah on his left (while continuing to walk without facing it).


  1. Circling the Ka’bah seven times outside the Ka’bah and still inside the Grand Mosque.


  1. Starting the round of tawaaf from Hajar Aswad.


Fardhu-fardhu Sa’i

  1. Starting from Shafa on the first run (from Shafa to Marwa) and starting from Marwa on the second run (from Marwa to Shafa). And so on until the completion of seven runs.


  1. Sa’i is performed after the Companion Tawaaf or the Qudum Tawaaf and does not follow them up with wukuf in ‘Arafah.




There are two exits for the pilgrim.


The first Tahallul is performed after completing two of these three actions, viz: Tawaf, shaving, and stoning the Jumrah Aqabah. As for the second exiting ihram, that is when you have completed all three of these actions. With the first exiting ihraam, all the prohibitions of ihraam become permissible except for having intercourse with one’s spouse and performing a marriage contract. With regard to exiting ihraam in ‘Umrah, this is when you have finished performing ‘Umrah.


Things that are forbidden during Ihram


There are six things that are forbidden during ihram, namely:


  1. Covering the head for men, either completely or partially, with a covering that is regarded as headgear according to custom. As for women, it is forbidden to cover their faces. It is also forbidden for men to wear cloth that has seams, while women are forbidden to wear gloves.


  1. Using perfume with any substance that is considered to be perfume, whether it is used on the body, cloth, mattress, or food.


  1. Oiling the hair and beard.


  1. Cutting hair and nails.

If he violates any of the above, then the expiation is a sheep or feeding three saa’ (8.4 kg) to six poor people so that each of them gets half a saa’ (1.4 kg), or fasting three days.


  1. Jima’ (intercourse).

If a person has intercourse during ‘umrah, his ‘umrah is invalidated, but he must complete his ‘umrah. Similarly, if a person has intercourse during Hajj before the first stage of exiting ihram, and he does so intentionally, knowing that it is prohibited, and being free to choose (not being forced), then his Hajj is invalidated.


If his Hajj is spoiled, then he must complete it and make up both Hajj and ‘Umrah immediately. In addition, he must offer expiation, which is a camel, or a cow or seven goats. If he is not able to do that, he must feed a poor person the value of a camel, and if he is not able to do that, he must fast a number of muds (each mud is a day’s fast, and if the value of a camel is one thousand muds, then he must fast one thousand days).


  1. Hunting for game animals.

It is haraam to hunt game in the Haramain (Mecca and Madinah), and it is haraam to cut down crops, whether one is in ihram or not. If a person does that, then he must offer a fidyah, except for game and trees in the land of Madinah (which do not have to be offered, but are still sinful).




(Conditions of sale and marriage)


People who want to buy and sell, get married, and so on should learn the procedures and conditions.


The conditions of buying and selling include:


  1. There is an ijab from the seller and a gabul from the buyer.


  1. The two people making the contract must be of sound mind, wise (in both worldly and ukhrawi matters), and have freedom of choice (not forced).


  1. The goods being traded are pure goods, or goods that are unclean but can be purified by washing, goods that are useful, can be handed over, are actually owned by the person selling or the person who has the wali / power of sale or the representative of the owner of the goods, and the seller and buyer should both know the shape of the goods, their size, and their characteristics.


So it is not valid to sell or buy something by saying, “I sell one of these two shirts,” or “One of these two slaves,” or “I sell this container full of food,” or “I sell this pebble’s weight in gold.” It is also not valid to sell or buy something that has not been seen.


Buying and Selling Ribawi Goods


If a person sells foodstuffs for similar foodstuffs (such as: rice for rice), or silver for silver, or gold for gold, then it is required:


  1. Hulul (cash),


  1. Taqabudh (handing over the goods) before the two separate,


  1. Mumatsalah (equal in quantity), i.e. the same measure if it is a measured item or the same weight if it is a weighed item.


But if the goods being traded are different types of foodstuffs, or selling gold for silver, then it is required:


  1. Hulul (cash)
  2. Taqabudh (handing over the goods before parting), but it is not required that they be of the same grade.


Khiyar (Choosing to Keep the contract or Cancel it)


The right to choose during the contract is stipulated in every type of sale and purchase, and it does not end until either the seller or the buyer makes the choice to conclude the contract, or until they part ways (both leave the place of the contract by turning around).


It is permissible for the two contracting parties, or one of them, to stipulate khiyar for three days or less, unless it is stipulated that the payment be made at the time of the contract (e.g. salam contract), and the sale of food for food, and the sale of gold/silver for gold/silver.


If a defect is found in the goods being traded, it should be returned immediately. And it is not permissible to sell the merchandise again until he receives it. It is forbidden for city people to sell goods that are needed by the people to rural people at a higher price. It is also forbidden to stop trade groups from buying their goods if they do not know the prices of goods in the city.

It is haraam to bid on something that one’s brother is bidding on. It is haraam to sell to another person the thing that his brother is about to buy (which is not yet fixed and is still within the khiyar period). It is also haraam to buy what one’s brother is about to buy. It is also haraam to bid for an item at a high price in order to attract others to buy it. It is also haraam to separate a slave girl from her child (for example by sale or grant) until the child reaches the age of tamyiz.