At-Tibyan Fi Adab Hamalah al-Quran

AUTHOR’S PREAMBLE

 

Abu Zakaria, Yahya Muhyiddin ibn Sharaf ibn Hizam Al-Hizami An-Nawawi (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

 

Praise be to Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Bountiful, the One of wealth, majesty and goodness, who guided us to believe and favored our religion over other religions and rewarded us by sending His most glorified creature, His beloved and khalil, His servant and messenger, Muhammad.

 

So Allah abolished idolatry with it and honored it with the Qur’an as a miracle that continues from age to age.

 

With this miracle Allah challenged men and jinn alike and silenced all those who were misguided and arrogant and made it a fertilizer of the hearts of those who have the eyes of the heart and makrifat.

 

So the Qur’an does not become obsolete despite frequent repetition and changing times. Allah makes it easy to remember so that it can be memorized by young children and guarantees its preservation from changes and events that would alter it.

 

By the praise of Allah and His bounty, the Qur’ān is preserved during the alternation of night and day and He guides those whom He chooses from the intelligent and capable to pay attention to its knowledge.

 

So they have gathered therein from every field of knowledge everything that can ease the hearts of those who have faith.

 

I praise Him for that and for countless other blessings, especially for the blessing of faith, and I ask Him to grant me and my loved ones and other Muslims the blessing of His pleasure.

 

I bear witness that there is no God but Allah alone, that there is no partner for Him, and that this witness will result in forgiveness and will save the one who bears it from the fire of Hell and will lead him or her to a place in Paradise.

 

I bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and messenger who calls to faith. May Allah shower peace and blessings upon him and his family and companions, and honor and glorify him during the alternation of night and day.

 

Amma ba’du: Allah has blessed this Ummah – may He increase it in glory – with a religion that is pleasing to Him, Islam, and sent to it Muhammad, the best of His creation. May Allah bestow upon him blessings, peace and blessings and the greatest of peace.

 

And Allah has honored this Ummah with His Book, the best of speeches, gathering all that is needed, such as the stories of the first and last people, advice, parables, manners, various rulings, convincing and clear proofs to prove His Oneness, and other things brought by His messengers. May Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them.

 

And proofs that can defeat the mulhid, the misguided and the ignorant.

 

Allah, may He be exalted, multiplies the reward for reciting it and tells us to pay attention to it and to revere it, and to observe the manners associated with it, and to do our utmost to honor it.

 

A number of prominent scholars have written about the virtues of reciting books that are well-known among students, but they have little enthusiasm for memorizing them, and even less for studying them. So no one benefited from them except a few people with understanding.

 

I see the people of our city Damascus – may Allah protect it and other Islamic lands – paying much attention to the recitation of the noble Qur’an in learning and teaching, discussion and study in groups and individuals.

 

They are keen to do that night and day – may Allah grant them great care to do that and all kinds of obedience hoping for the pleasure of Allah, the Great and Gracious.

 

So that prompted me to compile a summary of the manners of its memorizers, the characteristics of its memorizers and students,

 

Allah has enjoined advice for His Book. Included in this advice is the explanation of the manners of its memorizers and students, guiding them to it and reminding them to practice it.

 

I prioritized brevity in it and avoided going into too much detail.

 

I have limited each chapter to one of its sections, and I have assigned each of its various manners to one of its sections.

 

Hence most of what I mentioned was without mentioning the sanads. But my aim is to remind people of their origin and to hint with what I have mentioned at the sanads that I have not mentioned.

 

The reason I prefer to summarize it is that it is easier to memorize and benefit from, and it makes it easier to spread.

 

Then I explained and explained the unfamiliar names and languages in the chapters in the order in which they appear at the end of the book, in order to benefit the reader and remove any doubts from the learner.

 

There are in all of this and in its chapters a number of important rules and valuable insights. I explain the sahih and dlo’if hadiths in addition to their reliable narrators. Sometimes I do not mention that in some cases.

 

It should be noted that scholars of hadeeth and others have stated that it is permissible to act on da’eef hadeeths concerning major deeds.

 

However, I have limited myself to sahih hadith.

 

I do not mention dlo’if hadiths except in some cases. To Allah, the Most Gracious, I put my trust and reliance and surrender.

 

I ask Him to keep me on the right path and to keep me safe from those who deviate and disobey, and to keep me in that state, and to give me more good.

 

I ask Allah 4s to grant me His pleasure and make me a person who fears and fears Him with true piety and guide me with good intentions and facilitate for me all kinds of good and help me to do praiseworthy deeds and keep me in that state until I die.

 

I also ask Allah to do that for all my loved ones and the Muslims and Muslim women. Allah is our helper and He is the best of protectors, and there is no power or strength except with the help of Allah, the Most High, the Most Great.

 

The following is a list of the chapters:

 

First chapter: The various virtues of reciting the Qur’an and its memorizers.

Second chapter: The superiority of Qur’an recitation and readers over others.

Third chapter: Honoring the ahlil Gur’an and the prohibition of harassing them.

Fourth chapter: The manners of the Qur’anic teacher and the learner.

Fifth chapter: The manners of memorizing the Qur’an and its rewards.

Sixth chapter: The manners of reciting the Qur’an and that is the bulk of the book and its purpose.

Chapter Seven: Manners of all people towards the Qur’an.

Eighth chapter: Verses and Sūrahs that are recommended to be recited at certain times and in certain circumstances.

Ninth chapter: Writing the Qur’an and honoring the Mushaf.

Tenth chapter: Explanation of the words of this book.

 

 

 

FIRST CHAPTER THE VARIOUS VIRTUES OF RECITING THE QUR’AN AND MEMORIZING IT

 

Allah Almighty says:

 

“Verily, those who recite the Book of Allah, and establish prayer, and spend of that which We bestow secretly and openly, are engaged in a trade in which there is no loss. That Allah may perfect for them their reward and increase for them from His bounty. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Grateful.” Faathir: 29-30.

 

We narrated it from ‘Uthman bin Affan , who said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The best among you is the one who learns the Qur’an and teaches it.” This hadith was narrated by Abu Abdillah Muhammad bin Isma’il bin Ibrahim Al-Bukhari in his Sahih, which is the most authentic book after the Qur’an.

 

It was narrated from Aisha , she said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The one who recites the Qur’an while he is proficient in reciting it, then he is with the angels who record noble and obedient deeds. The one who recites the Qur’an and stumbles and finds it difficult to recite, he will receive two rewards.” Hadith narrated by Bukhari and Abu Husayn Muslim ibn Hajjaj ibn Muslim (Al-Ousyairi) An-Naisaburi in their Sahih.

 

It was narrated from Abi Musa Al-Ash’ari , he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The example of the believer who recites the Qur’an is like the fruit of Utrujjah which smells good and tastes good. The example of a believer who does not recite the Qur’an is like a date that has no smell and tastes sweet.

 

The example of a hypocrite who recites the Qur’an is like Raihanah, which smells good and tastes bitter. The example of a hypocrite who does not recite the Qur’an is like Handholah, which has no smell and tastes bitter. ” Hadith narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.

 

It was narrated from Umar ibnul Khaththab that the Prophet said:

 

“Verily, Allah has raised the status of some groups with this Book (Al-Our ‘an) and degraded others.” Hadith narrated by Muslim.

 

It was narrated from Abi Umamah Al-Bahili , he said: I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“Read the Qur’an, for it will come on the Day of Resurrection to provide safa’at for the reader.” Hadith narrated by Muslim.

 

It was narrated from Ibn Umar , from the Prophet , he said:

 

“It is not permissible to be envious except in two cases: A man whom Allah grants knowledge of the Qur’an, and he practices it all night and day. And a man whom Allah grants wealth, and he spends it all night and day.” Hadith narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.

 

 We also narrated from ‘Abdullāh ibn Mas’ud with the following words:

 

“There should be no envy except in two cases: A man to whom Allah has given wealth and spends it in the right way, and a man to whom Allah has given wisdom (knowledge) and decides cases with it and teaches them.

 

It was narrated from Abdullah bin Mas’ud , he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever reads one letter from the Book of Allah, then he gets one good deed, while one good deed is rewarded tenfold. I did not say Alif Laam Miim is one letter, but Alif is one letter, Laam is one letter and Miim is one letter.” Hadith narrated by Abu Isa Muhammad ibn Isa At-Tirmidhi. He said: Hadith hasan.”

 

Narrated Abi Said Al-Khudri from the Prophet , he said:

 

“Ar-Rabb says: “Whoever is so occupied with reciting the Qur’an and mentioning My name that he does not have time to ask Me, then I will give him the best that I give to those who ask, and the superiority of the words of Allah over other words is like the superiority of Allah over His creatures.” Hadith narrated by al-Tirmidhi and reported by al-Tirmidhi. ” Hadith narrated by Tirmidhi and he said: hadith hasan.”

 

It was narrated from Ibn Abbas , he said: The Messenger of Allah said: –

 

“Verily, the one in whose body nothing of the Qur’an is found is like an empty house.” Hadith narrated by Tirmidhi, and he said: hadith hasan sahih.

 

Narrated Abdullah ibn Amru ibn Ash from the Prophet , he said:

 

“It is said to the memorizer of the Qur’an: Recite it, and ascend and recite it with tartil as you used to recite it with tartil in the world. Verily, your position is at the end of the verse you recite.” Hadith narrated by Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’iy. Tirmidhi said: hadith hasan sahih.

 

It was narrated from Mu’adz bin Anas that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever recites the Qur’an and practices its contents, Allah will crown his parents on the Day of Resurrection. Its rays are brighter than the sunlight in the houses of the inhabitants of the world. So what do you think of the one who practices this?” hadith narrated by Abu Dawud.’?

 

Narrated by Ad-Darimi in Fadhaail Al-Qur’an isnadnya from Abdullah bin Mas’ud from the Prophet , he said:

 

“Recite the Qur’an, for Allah Ta’ala does not torment the heart that understands the Qur’an, and indeed the Qur’an is the Banquet of Allah. So whoever enters it is safe. And whoever loves the Qur’an, give him glad tidings.”

 

It was narrated from Abdul Hamid Al-Hamani, who said: I asked Sufyan Ats-Tsauri: Do you prefer people who fight (jihad) or recite the Qur’an? Sufyan replied: Reading the Qur’an, because the Prophet said:

 

“The best of you are those who learn the Qur’an and teach it.”

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO: THE SUPERIORITY OF THE RECITATION OF THE QUR’AN AND ITS READERS OVER OTHERS

 

Narrated from Abi Mas’ud “Ali Anshari Al-Badri from the Messenger of Allah, he said:

 

“The most worthy of leading the prayers of a crowd (of men) is the most proficient among them in reciting the Book of Allah, may He be glorified and exalted.” Hadith narrated by Muslim.

 

It was narrated from Ibn Abbas , he said: The reciters of the Qur’an who were present in the assembly of Umar and the place of his deliberation were adults and young men.

 

Hadith narrated by Bukhari in his Sahih.

 

It should be noted that the correct and preferred view, which the scholars have relied upon, is that reciting the Qur’an is preferable to tasbeeh and tahlil and other dhikr.

 

There is much evidence to support that. Wallahu a’lam.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESPECT FOR AHLIL OUR’AN AND THE PROHIBITION OF DISTURBING THEM

 

Allah, the Almighty, says:

 

“Such is the command of Allah. And whoever glorifies the signs of Allah, then indeed it arises from piety of heart.” Al-Hajj: 32.

 

Allah Ta’ala says:

 

“And humble yourselves to those who follow you, the believers.” Ash-Shw’ara”: 215).

 

“And those who harm the believers and the believers without any wrongdoing on their part, then indeed they have borne a lie and a manifest sin. ” Al-Ahzab: 38.

 

This chapter contains the hadeeth of Abi Mas’ud al-Anshari and the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbas that was mentioned in the second chapter.

 

It was narrated from Abi Musa Al-Ash’ari that he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Indeed, one of the ways to glorify Allah is to honor Muslim parents and memorizers of the Qur’an who do not go beyond the limits and do not deviate from them.

 

and honor the just ruler.” Hadeeth hasan narrated by Abu Dawud.” Narrated Aisha , who said:

 

“The Messenger of Allah told us to place people in their positions.” Hadith narrated by Abu Dawud in his Sunan and Al-Bazzar in his Musnad.

 

Abu Abdillah al-Hakim said in “Uluumil hadith”: This is a sahih hadeeth.

 

It was narrated from Jabir bin Abdillah :

 

“It was that the Prophet brought together two of the victims of the battle of Uhud and said: Which of the two had memorized more of the Qur’an? If it was pointed out to one of them, he put him in the grave first.” Hadith narrated by Bukhari.

 

Narrated Abi Hurairah from the Prophet , he said:

 

“Verily, Allah, the Almighty, says: Whoever harasses My wali, I declare war on him. ” Hadith narrated by Bukhari.

 

It is narrated in Sahihain from the Prophet that he said:

 

“Whoever prays Fajr is guaranteed by Allah. Therefore, do not let Allah charge you with anything from His guarantee.”

 

It was narrated from the two great Imams Abu Hanifah and Ash-Shafi’i – rahimahumallahu ta’ala – both of whom said: If the scholars are not waliyullah, then Allah has no wali.

 

Al-Imam Al-Hafidh Abul Qasim ibn Asakir (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Know O my brother – may Allah grant us and you the knowledge to earn His pleasure and make us among those who fear Him and fear Him with true piety – that the flesh of the scholars is poisonous and Allah’s habit of revealing the veil of those who despise them is well known. And whoever vilifies the scholars, Allah, may He be exalted, trials him before his death with the death of the heart. Allah says:

 

“So let those who disobey the apostle’s command fear a trial or a painful punishment.” An-Nur: 63.

 

 

 

FOURTH CHAPTER: MANNERS OF QUR’AN TEACHERS AND STUDENTS

 

This chapter and the two chapters that follow it are the aims of the book and are very long and extensive. I have summarized its purpose in chapters so that it will be easy to memorize and reconcile with it, in sha Allah.

 

Sincerity of intention

 

The first thing that the teacher of the Quran and the learner should do is to seek the pleasure of Allah Ta’ala by learning. Allah says:

 

“And they were not enjoined except that they should worship Allah in pure obedience to Him, and that they should establish prayer and give alms, and such is the upright religion.” Al-Bayyinah: 5.

 

Narrated in Sahihain’ from the Messenger of Allah

 

“Verily, deeds depend on intentions, and each person is rewarded for what he intends to do. ” This hadith is one of the foundations of Islam.

 

We narrate from Ibn Abbas., he said: Verily, a person is protected according to the degree of his intention.

 

And another narration: Verily, people are rewarded according to the degree of their intentions.

 

We narrate that al-Ustadz Abil Gasim al-Qusyairi (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Sincerity is aiming at Allah alone in doing an act of obedience, i.e. wanting to get closer to Allah, may He be exalted, without any other purpose such as pretending to the creatures or seeking praise among the people or wanting to be admired by people or any meaning other than getting closer to Allah, may He be exalted. He said: It may be said: Sincerity is purifying the action from the attention of the creatures.

 

Narrated Hudhayfah al-Mar”asyi (rahimahullahu ta’ala): Sincerity is the similarity of a servant’s actions inwardly and outwardly.

 

It was narrated from Dzinnun rahimahullahu ta’ala: He said: Three things are signs of sincerity: Equality of attitude in the face of praise and censure from the common people, forgetting to look at the charity among his deeds and wanting the reward of his deeds in the Hereafter. ,

 

It was narrated from Al-Fudhail bin Iyadh , he said: Abandoning charity for the sake of the people is riya” and doing charity for the sake of the people is shirk, while sincerity is when Allah saves you from both.

 

It was narrated from Sahal At-Tustari rahmahullahu ta’ala, who said: The view of the intelligent people regarding the interpretation of sincerity, and they do not find anything other than this, is that his movements and silence, whether alone or in the presence of others, are for Allah alone, and nothing interferes with them, neither desires, nor desires, nor the world.

 

It was narrated from As-Sariyyu As-Saqthi (may Allah have mercy on him) that he said: Do not do something because of the people and do not leave something because of them, do not cover something because of them and do not uncover something because of them.

 

It was narrated from Al-Ousyairi, who said: The most important truth is the similarity between being alone and in the presence of others.

 

It was narrated from al-Harith al-Muhasibi (may Allah have mercy on him) that he said: The righteous person is the one who does not care, even if ja comes out of all that is determined in people’s hearts against him for the sake of his good heart and does not like people to know the goodness of his deeds at all and does not hate people when they know his bad deeds.

 

Because his hatred of it is evidence that he favors addition among them and this is not the character of those who are shiddig.

 

Narrated another: If you ask Allah Ta’ala correctly, then Allah gives you a mirror in which you can see all the wonders of this world and the Hereafter.

 

There are many opinions of the salaf regarding this. I hinted at these letters from him to remind the addressee. I have mentioned a number of things from him, along with his commentary, at the beginning of “Sharhil al-Muhadhdzab” and have included in it the manners of the teacher and the learner, the jurist and the student of jurisprudence, which the learner needs. Wallahu a’alam.

 

Explanation of intent

 

The learner should not aim with it to achieve worldly goals such as wealth or leadership or position or superiority over rivals or praise from people or attracting people’s attention to him and the like.

 

The teacher should not expect anything from the learner in return for his teaching, be it wealth or service, even if it is a small amount, even if it is a gift that the learner would not have given him had he not learned from him.

 

Allah Ta’ala says:

 

“And whoever desires gain in the world, We give him a portion of the pleasures of the world and there is no portion for him in the Hereafter.” Ash-Shuura: 20.

 

Allah Ta’ala says:

 

“Whoever desires the present (worldly) life, We hasten for him in that world what We will for whom We will.” Al-Isra”: 18.

 

It was narrated from Abi Hurairah , he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever learns knowledge that should be for the pleasure of Allah, but he does not learn it except for the pleasure of this world, then he will not smell the smell of Paradise on the Day of Resurrection.” Hadith narrated by Abu Dawud with a valid isnad.”

 

It was narrated from Anas and Hudhayfah and Ka’ab bin Malik. that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever seeks knowledge in order to debate the ignorant or to boast of the scholars or to draw people’s attention to him, then let him take his place in hell.”

 

Hadith narrated by Tirmidhi from Ka’b ibn Malik and he said: (so Allah put him in hell).

 

Knowledge must be accompanied by charity

 

He should avoid aiming to force a large number of students or people to come to him, and should not resent his students who study with others to benefit from him. This is the calamity that befalls some ignorant teachers. It is clear evidence of the culprit’s bad intentions and corrupt mind.

 

Rather it is a convincing proof that he does not seek the pleasure of Allah, the Most Gracious, with his teaching. If he had sought the pleasure of Allah, the Most Gracious, with his teaching, he would not have hated it.

 

He should have said to himself: I wanted obedience with his teaching and it was achieved and he learned from others with the aim of gaining knowledge. Then he should not be blamed.

 

We have narrated in Musnad Al-Imam, which is agreed upon for its memorization and leadership, Abi Muhammad Ad-Darimi (may Allah have mercy on him) from ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib that he said: O men of knowledge! Practice your knowledge! Verily the pious one is the one who practices what he knows and his knowledge corresponds to his deeds.

 

There will be people who have knowledge, but not beyond their throats. Their deeds contradict their knowledge. Their hearts contradict their bodies.

 

They sat in circles. Some of them boast about others to the extent that someone gets angry with his seatmate for sitting facing someone else and leaves him. These are the people who do not raise their deeds in these assemblies to Allah.

 

It has been reported that the Imam Ash-Shafi’i (may Allah have mercy on him) said: I would like people to learn this knowledge – which is knowledge and its books – but do not attribute to me a single letter of it.

 

Morals of Qur’an Teachers

 

The teacher must have good manners as stipulated by Shara’, praiseworthy behavior and good qualities recommended by Allah, such as being zuhud towards the pleasures of the world and taking a little from it, not caring about the world and its lovers, being generous and charitable, noble character, a radiant face without leading to moral ugliness, compassion, patience, avoiding bad income, being wara’ and khushu’, calm, authoritative, humble and submissive, avoiding laughing and not joking much.

 

He should always do shar’iyyah practices such as removing dirt and hair that the Shariah has enjoined him to remove such as clipping the hair, trimming the nails and combing the beard, removing bad odors and bad clothing. Avoid spite, jealousy, arrogance and belittling others, even if they are inferior to him.

 

He should follow the hadeeths that have been narrated about tasbeeh and tahlil and other such dhikr and supplications.

 

He should always pay attention to Allah when he is alone or in the company of others and maintain this attitude and rely on Allah in all his affairs. Being gentle with students

 

The teacher should be gentle with the student, welcome him, and be kind to him according to his circumstances.

 

We have narrated from Abi Harun Al-Abdi, who said: We came to Abi Said Al-Khudri and he said: Welcome, the will of the Messenger of Allah: Verily the Prophet said:

 

“Indeed, people follow you and there are those who come to you to learn religious knowledge. When they come to you, treat them well.” Hadith narrated by Tirmidhi, ibn Majah and others.

 

We narrated it like that in Musnad Ad-Darimi from Abi Darda’ Advice for students

 

Article: The teacher should advise them, for the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Religion is advice for Allah and His Book and His messenger and the leaders of the Muslims and their laity.” Hadith narrated by Muslim.”

 

Advice for Allah and His Book includes respecting the reader and the learner, guiding him towards its benefits, being gentle with him, helping him to learn it according to his ability, persuading the learner’s heart, being easy when teaching him with gentleness, being kind to him and encouraging him to learn.

 

The teacher should remind the student of the virtue of this, so that he can increase his activity and increase his willpower, make him avoid the pleasures of this world and keep him from being attracted to them, and prevent him from being deceived by them.

 

He should remind him of the virtue of occupying himself with al-Ouryan and other shar’i sciences.

 

It is the way of the wise sages and the righteous servants of Allah and the level of the prophets peace be upon them.

 

The teacher should love the student and care for his welfare as he cares for the welfare of himself and his children. He should treat the learner as he treats his child in terms of affection for him, concern for his rudeness and bad manners and forgive him sometimes for his poor manners. This is because human beings are not free from shortcomings, especially when they are young.

 

The teacher should like the good in the student as he likes it in himself and dislike the bad in him as he dislikes the bad in himself absolutely.

 

It is narrated in Sahihain from the Messenger of Allah that he said:

 

“None of you has faith until he likes in his brother what he likes in himself.”

 

It was narrated from ibnu Abbas , he said: The most honorable person by my side is my seatmate who steps over people to sit before me. If I could prevent a fly from landing on his face, I would do so.

 

In one narration: Indeed, I was disturbed when a fly landed on it.

 

Article: Teachers should not boast to students, but be gentle and humble with them. Many things are told about humble people.

 

So what about these people who are like his own children in addition to their busy Qur’anic studies and their rights as students and their repeated visits to him.

 

It was narrated from the Prophet that he said:

 

“Be lenient with the students you teach and the teachers you learn from.”

 

It was narrated that Ayyub As-Sakhtiyani (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The pious person should put earth on his head as a form of tawadhu’ towards Allah, may He be glorified and exalted.

 

Article: The learner should be educated gradually with good manners and good conduct and train himself with small and complex matters.

 

The teacher should make it a habit for him to observe himself in all hidden and overt matters and encourage him by his repeated words and actions to show sincerity, honesty and good intentions and to pay attention to Allah in all his moments.

 

The teacher should tell him that in this way the light of realization is opened to him, his chest is expanded and the hidden sources of wisdom and knowledge emanate from his heart.

 

Allah will bless him in his knowledge and state and guide him in his actions and words.

 

Article: Teaching students is fardhu kifayah. If none but one person is qualified, then he is obliged to do so. If there are a number of people, then it is sufficient that some of them teach.

 

If they all refuse, then they all sin. If some of them teach, then the responsibility of the others disappears.

 

If one of them is asked and refuses, then the more correct of the two opinions is that he does not sin. But that is not preferable for him, if he has no excuse,

 

Article: It is advisable for the teacher to have a great desire to teach students by giving priority to it over his own worldly interests that are not urgent needs and emptying his heart when sitting to teach them from all distracting causes.

 

The teacher should be eager to make them understand and give each one of them his due share. So do not give much to a student who cannot take much and do not give little to a student who can take more.

 

He tells them to repeat what they have memorized and praises the bright students as long as there is no fear of slander causing pride or anything else.

 

And whoever is not paying attention, let him reprimand him gently so long as there is no fear that he will run away,

 

Do not envy one of them for having outstanding intelligence and do not consider the many blessings that Allah has given him, because envy of others is forbidden. So what about the student who is considered like his son. His intelligence is due to the merit of his teacher, so he will be rewarded with much in the Hereafter and good praise in this world.

 

Only Allah can provide guidance.

 

Article: When his disciples are full, he gives precedence to the first, then the second when teaching them. If the first is willing for him to give precedence to others, he gives precedence to him.

 

The teacher should show a happy and cheerful face to them, check on their condition and ask who is absent among them.

 

Article: The scholars said: The teacher should not refuse to teach someone because he does not have the right intention.

 

Sufyan and others said: Learning knowledge by them is the intention.

 

The scholars said: We seek knowledge for other than Allah, but knowledge refuses, except for Allah.

 

This means that knowledge ultimately becomes for Allah Ta’ala. The manners of the teacher

 

The teacher should keep his hands from playing with them while teaching and his eyes from looking elsewhere unnecessarily.

 

He should sit in a state of ablution, facing the qiblah, and sit quietly, wearing clean white clothes. When he reaches his seat, he should pray two raka’ahs before sitting down, whether it is in the mosque or otherwise. If it is in the mosque, that is preferable, because it is makrooh to sit there before prayer.

 

He may sit cross-legged or not. It was narrated by Abu Bakr ibn Abi Dawud As-Sijistani with his isnad from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud that he used to teach people in the mosque while sitting on his knees.

 

Article: One of the most important and noteworthy manners is not to degrade knowledge by going to a student’s place to learn from him, even if the student is a caliph or lower. Rather he should guard against that, just as the salaf (early generations) guarded against it. Their stories about this are many and well known.

 

Article: He should provide a spacious assembly so that the students can sit in it. It is mentioned in the hadith of the Prophet :

 

“The best of assemblies is the most spacious.” Hadith narrated by Abu Dawud in his Sunan” with a sahih isnad from Abi Said AlKhudri in the beginning of the book of Al-Adaab.

 

Article: On the manners of students

 

All that we have mentioned about the manners of the teacher also applies to the student. One of his manners is to abstain from things that distract him from his studies, except for things that he has to do for a specific reason.

 

He should cleanse his heart from impurities so that it is fit to receive the Qur’an and memorize and utilize it.

 

It was narrated from the Messenger of Allah that he said:

 

“Be aware that there is a lump of flesh in the body. If the flesh is good, the whole body is good. And when it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt. Know that it is the heart. “

 

A wise man said: The heart becomes good for receiving knowledge just as the soil becomes good for planting.

 

The learner should humble himself to his teacher and be polite to him, even if he is younger in age, less famous, inferior in lineage and goodness and so on.

 

He should humble himself to knowledge, for by humbling himself to knowledge he will gain it.

 

The poet said:

 

Knowledge cannot reach the young man with a high heart, just as a flood cannot reach the high places.

 

The learner should obey his teacher and consult him in all his affairs. He should accept his words as a sick person with good sense accepts the words of a doctor who advises and is intelligent. This is better.

 

Choosing a teacher

 

He should not learn except from someone who is well-versed in his field of expertise, who is well-versed in his religion, who is well-versed in his knowledge, and who is known for his cleanliness. Muhammad ibn Sirin and Malik ibn Anas and other salaf scholars said: This knowledge is religion, so see from whom you take your religion.

 

He should look at his teacher with respect and believe in his expertise and superiority over others of his level, because that is closer to benefiting from him.

 

One of the early scholars, when he went to his teacher, would give something in charity and say: O Allah, cover my teacher’s disgrace from me and do not take away the blessings of his knowledge from me.

 

Said Ar-Rabi’ the friend of Ash-Shafi’i (may Allah have mercy on him): I dare not drink water while Ash-Shafi’i is looking at me, because I am reluctant towards him.

 

We narrate from Amirul mukminin Ali ibn Abi Talib , he said: The right of the pious to you is that you greet the people in general and honor them in particular without them.

 

You sit in front of him, do not gesture with your hand near him and do not blink your eyes. You do not say: So-and-so said something other than what you said.

 

Do not backbite a person in his presence, do not converse with your seatmate in his assembly and do not grab his shirt when he stands up. Do not push him if he is lazy and bored because of his long association with him.

 

The learner should practice adab in the manner indicated by ‘Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) and refuse to speak ill of his teacher if he is able to do so. If he is unable to do so, he should leave the gathering.

 

Learner traits

 

The learner should go to his teacher possessing the qualities of perfection, i.e. cleansing himself with what we mentioned about the learner, purifying himself with the miswak, and emptying his heart of distractions. He should not enter without asking permission if the teacher is in a place where he needs to ask permission.

 

He should greet those present when he enters and pay special homage to him and greet him and them when he leaves as he came.

 

It is mentioned in the hadith: (The first greeting is not more appropriate than the second).

 

He should not step over people’s shoulders, but sit where he can reach in the assembly, unless the teacher allows him to go forward or he knows from their situation that they prefer it.

 

Do not order someone to stand up from his place. If someone else gives precedence to him, he should not accept because he is following the example of ibn Umar . If someone else gives him precedence, let him not accept, following the example of ibn Umar, unless there is a benefit for the audience or the teacher tells him to do so.

 

He should not sit in the middle of the halagah (assembly) unless there is an urgent need. He should not sit between two friends without their permission. If they make room for him, he may sit down and draw close to them.

 

Article: The student should also be courteous to his friends and to those present in the Sheikh’s assembly, for this is the same as being courteous to the Sheikh and to protect his assembly.

 

He should sit in front of the shaykh as a student, not as a teacher.

 

He should not raise his voice unnecessarily loud and should not laugh.

 

Do not talk needlessly and do not play with your hands or anything else. Do not turn your head needlessly to the right or left, but face the teacher and listen to his/her conversation.

 

Manners of students towards teachers

 

It should be noted that the learner should not learn from the teacher when his heart is busy, bored, afraid, sad, happy, hungry, thirsty, sleepy and restless, and so on that burden him or prevent him from perfecting the presence of the heart and activity.

 

Part of his manners is to be patient with his teacher’s harshness and bad manners. This should not prevent him from learning from him and believing in his excellence. He should interpret his seemingly bad actions and words with correct interpretations. No one fails to do that except someone who has little or no guidance. If the teacher scolds him, he should apologize to the teacher and declare that he was the one who sinned and was to blame. This will be more beneficial for him in this world and the next, and will cleanse the teacher’s heart.

 

The scholars said: Whoever is impatient when he experiences humiliation during his studies will remain in ignorance for the rest of his life. And whoever is patient with that will be honored in the Hereafter and in this world. Regarding this, a well-known atsar was narrated from ibn Abbas &: I felt humiliated when I was studying, then I became noble because I became a teacher.

 

The poet said:

 

Whoever does not feel the humiliation of a moment spends the whole age in a state of humiliation

 

Great willingness and diligent study in time

 

One of the most important manners of the learner is to be strong-willed and diligent in his study during all the time that he has available to him, and not to be satisfied with a little while he can learn a lot. He should not force himself to do something that he cannot do, lest he become bored and lose what he has gained.

 

This varies according to the people and their circumstances. If he arrives at the teacher’s office and does not find him, he should wait for him and stay at his door. He should not leave his duties unless he fears that his teacher will dislike it, knowing that he teaches at some times and not at others.

 

If he finds the teacher sleeping or doing something important, he should not ask permission to enter, but wait until he wakes up or finishes his work. Patience is better, as Ibn ‘Abbas and others did.

 

He should encourage himself to strive for knowledge in his spare time, in a state of vigor and strength, with a bright mind and little else to do, before the symptoms of incapacity appear and before he reaches a high position.

 

Amirul mukminin Umar ibnul Khaththab. said: Learn religious knowledge before you are appointed as a leader.

 

Meaning: Jurisprudence to the best of your ability when you are a follower before you become a leader, because if you become a leader who is followed, you will not want to learn because of your high position and your many activities.

 

This is the meaning of the words of Imam Ash-Shafi’i: Learn religious knowledge before you become a leader. If you become a leader, there is no way to learn knowledge.

 

General manners The learner should learn from the teacher at the beginning of the day, in accordance with the Prophet’s hadeeth

 

“O Allah, bless my people at the beginning of time.”

 

The student should take care of his memorization, and he should not give preference to others when it is his turn, because giving preference to others in acts of worship is makrooh, unlike giving preference to others in worldly affairs, which is favored.

 

If the shaykh thinks that there is a benefit in favoring someone else at some time for reasons of shar’i meaning, and orders him to do so, then he should obey his orders.

 

Among the things that are obligatory upon him and that he must do is not to envy a friend or another for a virtue that Allah has bestowed upon him and not to boast about his achievements. We have explained this in the Shaykh’s manners, and the way to get rid of pride is to remind himself that he did not achieve this by his own power and strength, but by the grace of Allah.

 

So he should not be proud of something that he did not create, but that Allah, may He be exalted, ordained for him.

 

The way to get rid of envy is to know that the wisdom of Allah Ta’ala wants this virtue in this person. So he should not deny it and not hate the wisdom that Allah Ta’ala wills and does not hate.

 

 

 

 

FIFTH CHAPTER: MANNERS OF THE MEMORIZERS OF AL-OURAN

 

Some of them have been mentioned in the previous chapter. Among the manners of the memorizer of the Qur’an are: He should be in the most perfect state and the noblest behavior and abstain from everything that the Qur’ān prohibits for the sake of glorifying the Qur’ān.

 

He should be above arrogant rulers and evil lovers of the world, humbled by the pious and lovers of good and the poor. He should be austere, calm and dignified.

 

It has been narrated from Umar ibn Khaththab that he said: “O reciters of the Qur’an, raise your heads. The way is clear for you and compete in doing good and do not rely on others.

 

It was narrated from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud , who said: “Let the memorizer of the Qur’an wake up at night reciting the Qur’an when people are asleep and fast during the day when people are not fasting.

 

Let him be sad when people are happy and weep when people laugh, be silent when people speak and show his solemnity when people boast,

 

It was narrated from Al-Hasan (Al-Bashri) that he said: Verily, those before you considered Al Ouvan letters from their Lord. So they meditated on them at night and practiced them during the day.

 

Narrated al-Fudhail ibn Lyadh (may Allah have mercy on him): The reciter of the Qur’an has no need of any of the khulafa’ and those below them.

 

It was also narrated from Al-Fudhail. he said: The memorizer of the Qur’an is the flag bearer of Islam. He should not play with those who play and forget with those who forget, nor should he speak in vain with his friends for the sake of glorifying the Qur’an.

 

Not making a living from reciting the Qur’an

 

The most important of what is enjoined upon the memorizer of the Qur’ān is to be careful not to use the Qur’ān as a source of livelihood in his livelihood.

 

It was narrated from Abdurrahman bin Shibil , he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Recite the Qur’an and do not use it for food and do not avoid it and do not overstep your bounds regarding it.

 

Narrated Jabir from the Prophet:

 

“Read the Qur’an before there comes a people who set it up as if they were setting up arrows in haste and they do not expect any future results.”

 

Hadeeth narrated by Abu Dawood with its interpretation from Sahal ibn Sa’d.

 

In other words, they expect to be rewarded with money or fame or something like that.

 

Narrated Fudhail bin Amru: Two companions of the Messenger of Allah entered the mosque. When the imam greeted them, a man stood up and recited a few verses from the Qur’an. Then ja asked for a fee. So one of them said: Innaa lillahi wa innaa ilaihi raaji’uun. I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“There will come a people who will ask for payment for reciting the Qur’an. So whoever asks for a reward for reciting the Qur’an, do not give it to him.”

 

This isnaad is broken, because Al-Fudhail bin Amru did not hear from the Prophet’s companions.

 

As for taking payment for teaching the Qur’an, the scholars differed on this.

 

Al-Imam Abu Sulaiman Al-Khaththabi narrated the prohibition of taking wages for teaching the Qur’an from a number of scholars, among them Az-Zuhri and Abu Hanifah.

 

It was narrated from a number of scholars that it is permissible to take a wage if one does not stipulate it. This is the view of al-Hasan al-Bashri, ash-Shafi and ibn Sirin.

 

Atha’. Maalik, Ash-Shafi’i and other scholars were of the view that it is permissible to take the wage if it is stipulated, and to give the wage in a valid contract of hire, and many sahih hadeeths have been narrated which indicate that it is permissible.

 

The scholars who forbade it cited the hadeeth of Ubadah ibn Shamit that he taught the Qur’an to a resident of Shutfah, who gave him a bow as a gift. So the Prophet said to him: “If you want to be garlanded with a necklace of fire with that gift, then accept the bow.”

 

This is a well-known hadeeth narrated by Abu Dawood and others.” And they also rely on many ahaadeeth from the salaf.

 

The scholars who allowed it answered the hadeeth of Ubadah with two answers:

 

First: There is a problem with the isnad. Second: He contributed with his teaching so he was not entitled to any reward. Then he was given a gift in return. It is not permissible for him to take it. This is different from the one who entered into a rental contract before teaching. Wallahu a’lam.

 

The memorizer of the Qur’an should keep reciting it and do it a lot. The scholars of the salaf (peace be upon them) had different customs regarding the rate of recitation.

 

It was narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud from some of the salaf that they would complete the Qur’an once every two months. Some of them completed it once a month. Some of them completed it once every eight nights.

 

Many people complete it in every seventh night. Some of them complete it every six nights. Some of them complete it every five nights. Some of them complete it every four nights. Many people complete it every three nights. Some of them complete it every two nights and some of them complete it once a day and night.

 

Some of them recite it twice a day and night, and some of them recite it three times. Some of them recite it eight times, four times at night and four times during the day.

 

Among those who recited it once a day and night were: ‘Uthman ibn Affan, Tamim ad-Daariy, Said ibn Jubayr, Mujahid, Ash-Shafi’i and others.

 

Among those who recited it three times were Sulaim bin Itrin Qadhi of Egypt during the caliphate of Mu’awiyah , Abu Bakr bin Abi Dawud reported that he recited it three times each night.

 

Abu Umar Al-Kindi narrates in his book on the Qadhis of Egypt that he completed four khatams in one night.

 

Ash-Shaykh Ash-Salih Abu Abdurrahman As-Sulami said: I heard Asv-Sheikh Aba Uthman Al-Maghribi say: Ibnul Kaatib recited four times during the day and four times at night. This is the most Vanga has reached us in a day and night.

 

It was narrated by the noble As-Sayyid Ahmad Ad-Dauragi with his isnad from Manshur ibn Zaadzran from the scholars of worship of the tabi’een that he completed the Qur’an between Dhuhr and ‘Asr and completed it between Maghrib and ‘Isha’ in Ramadan twice more or less.

 

They used to delay ‘Isha’ in Ramadan until a quarter of the night. Abu Dawud narrated with a valid isnad that Mujahid completed the Qur’an in Ramadan between Maghrib and ‘Isha’ on every night of the month.

 

Mansur reported: Ali Al-Azadi completed the Qur’an between Maghrib and Isha’ every night of Ramadan.

 

Ibrahim ibn Sa’d reported: My father sat with his turban wrapped around his body and legs and did not take it off until he had finished reciting the Qur’an.

 

There are countless people who recite the Qur’an in one rak’ah. Among the earliest people were ‘Uthman ibn Affan, Tamim ad-Daariy and Said ibn Jubayr, who completed each raka’at at the Ka’bah.

 

There are many people who complete the Qur’an in a week. It was narrated from ‘Uthman ibn Affan, ‘Abd Allah ibn Mas’ud, Zayd ibn Tsabit, Ubay ibn Ka’b (may Allah be pleased with him) and from a number of tabi’een such as ‘Abdur-Rahman ibn Yazid, Algamah and Ibrahim (may Allah have mercy on them).

 

The preferred view is that it varies according to the people. Whoever wants to contemplate and study carefully, should limit it to the level that will lead to a perfect understanding of what he reads.

 

Similarly, if a person is busy spreading knowledge or doing other religious duties and the general interests of the Muslims, he should limit it to a certain level so that it does not interfere with what he is obliged to do.

 

If he is not one of these people, it is permissible for him to recite as much as he is able, without getting bored and not too fast.

 

A number of early scholars disliked reciting the Qur’an in one day and one night. This is indicated by the authentic hadeeth of ‘Abdullah ibn Amru ibn Ash. he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“He who recites the Qur’an in less than three days will not be understood.” Hadith narrated

 

Abu Dawud. Tirmidhi. Nasa’iy and others. Tirmidhi said: Hadith hasan sahih. Wallahu a’lam.

 

As for the time of beginning and completing the recitation for those who complete the Qur’an in a week, it has been narrated by Abu Dawud with his isnad that ‘Uthman ibn Affan began the recitation of the Qur’an on Friday night and completed it on Thursday night.

 

Al-Imam Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali rahimahullahu ta’ala said in Al-lhya’: What is better is to recite it once at night and once during the day, and to make the recitation during the day on Monday two rak’ahs of Fajr or later.

 

And making the night recitation on Friday night in two raka’ahs of Maghrib or afterward so that the beginning of the day is opposite to its end.

 

It was narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud from Umar ibn Murrah AtTabi’iy, who said: They used to recite the Qur’an from the beginning of the night or the beginning of the day.

 

It was narrated that the noble Talhah bin Musharrif At-Tabi’iy said: Whoever completes the Qur’an at any time of the day, the angels will pray for him until evening. And whoever completes the Qur’an at any time of the night, the angels will pray for him until morning. It was narrated from Mujahid like that. Ad-Darimi narrated in his Musnad with his isnad from Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqash who said:

 

“If the recitation of Al-Our ‘an coincides with the beginning of the night, the angels pray for him until the morning. And if his recitation coincides with the end of the night, the angels pray for him until evening.”

 

Ad-Darimi said: This is a hasan hadeeth from Sa’d.

 

It was narrated from Habib ibn Abi Tsabit At-Tabi’iy: that he completed the Qur’an before bowing.

 

Ibn Abi Dawud said: Ahmad ibn Hanbal (may Allah have mercy on him) said the same.

 

This article contains remnants that will be mentioned in the next chapter.

 

Article: On maintaining the recitation of the Qur’an at night

 

Qur’an memorizers should pay more attention to reciting the Qur’an at night and praying at night.

 

Allah Ta’ala says:

 

“Among the People of the Book there are those who are upright, and they recite the verses of Allah at certain times of the night, while they prostrate themselves (in prayer).

 

They believe in Allah and the Last Day, they enjoin what is right and forbid what is evil, and they hasten to do good, and they are of the righteous.” Ali Imran: 113-114.

 

It is narrated in Sahihain from the Messenger of Allah that he said:

 

(The best of people is Abdullah (bin Umar) if he performs the night prayer.

 

It is mentioned in another hadith in the Sahih that the Prophet said:

 

“O Abdullah, do not be like Fulan. He used to perform the night prayer, then abandoned it.”

 

Narrated by Thabarani and others from Sahal bin Sa’d from the Messenger of Allah. he said:  (The glory of the believer is the night prayer).

 

Many hadeeths and atsar have been narrated about this. It was narrated from Abil Ahwash al-Jusyami who said: There was a man who knocked 86 times in the tent, that is, at night, and heard from the occupants a sound like the sound of bees.

 

He said: So why do these people feel safe from what they fear?

 

It was narrated from Ibrahim An-Nakha’iy, who said: Recite the Qur’an at night, even if it is after milking the goats.

 

Yazid ar-Raqqashi reported that he said: When I sleep, then I wake up, then I sleep, then my two eyes cannot sleep.

 

I said: The night prayer and recitation of the Qur’an at that time are highly recommended, because they are more likely to unite the heart and keep it away from the things that distract and distract it, and they are more likely to keep it away from riya’ and other vain things.

 

In addition, it is stipulated by the Shariah that there are good things at night. The Prophet’s journey of Isra’ took place at night. And the Prophet said:

 

“Your Lord descends every night to the heavens of the world at the halfway point of the night. Then He says: Does anyone pray that I may answer his prayer?”

 

It is narrated in the Sahih that the Prophet said:

 

“There is a time in the night when Allah answers every night’s prayer.”

 

It was narrated by the author of “Bahjatul asraar” with his isnad from Sulaiman al-Anmaathiy, who said: I saw Ali ibn Abi Talib in a dream saying:

 

Were it not for those who pray at night and others who fast during the day, your earth would be shaken from under you, for you are a bad and disobedient people.

 

You should know that the virtue of the night prayer and the recitation of it is achieved by both a little and a lot. The more it is, the more virtuous it is. Unless one spends the whole night, then it is not preferable to keep doing it. That is because it will harm him.

 

What shows that the virtue is achieved with a little practice is the hadeeth of Abdullah ibn Amru ibnul Ash , he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever performs the night prayer reciting ten verses is not written among the wandering ones. And whoever performs the night prayer reciting a hundred verses, he is also written among the obedient. And whoever prays a thousand verses, he will be numbered among those who do justice.” Hadith narrated by Abu Dawud” and others.

 

Narrated Ats-Tsa’labah from Ibn ‘Abbas , he said: “Whoever prays at night, spends the night prostrate and standing before Allah.”

 

Article: A command to preserve the Qur’an and a warning not to forget it.

 

Narrated Abi Musa Al-Ash’ari from the Prophet , he said:

 

“Preserve this Al-Our ‘an. By God in Whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, it is easier to escape than a camel in its tether. ” Hadith narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.”

 

It was narrated from Ibn Umar that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Verily, the example of the memorizer of the Qur’an is like a tied camel. If he keeps it, he keeps it; if he lets it go, it runs away.” Hadith narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.”

 

Anas bin Malik reported that he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“I was shown the merits of my Ummah down to the dung that people throw out of the mosque. And the sins of my Ummah were shown to me. I did not see a greater sin than a sura or verse from the Qur’an that a person memorizes and then forgets.” Hadith narrated by Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi. ” Hadith narrated by Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi. This hadith is questionable.

 

Sa’d ibn Ubadah reported that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever recites (memorizes) the Qur’an and then forgets it, then he will meet Allah on the Day of Resurrection with a stump. ” Hadith narrated by Abu Dawud and Ad-Darimi.”

 

Article: Who sleeps until he leaves his prayer narrated from Umar ibn Khaththab , he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever sleeps and has not recited his hizib during the night or part of it, and then recites it between the Fajr and Dhuhr prayers, it will be written for him as if he had recited it during the night.” Hadith narrated by Muslim.

 

It was narrated from Sulaiman bin Yasar, who said: Abu Usaid said: Last night I slept and did not recite my prayer until the morning. When morning came I said the words istirja’ (Innaa lillahi wa innaa ilaihi raaji’ un). My wirid was surah al-Baqarah. Then I dreamt that a cow gored me.

 

Hadith narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud.

 

It was narrated by Ibn Abi Dunya from a memorizer of the Qur’an that he fell asleep one night and had not recited his hizib. Then he dreamt as if someone said to him:

 

I wonder about a healthy body

and the young man who sleeps until dawn

whereas death is unavoidable in the darkness of the night when it comes.

 

 

 

CHAPTER SIX: ADAB-ADAB OF RECITING AL-QUR’AN

 

This chapter is the purpose of this book and it is widely spread. I have hinted at some of its objectives to avoid lengthy discussions for fear of boring the reader.

 

The first is that the reader must be sincere, as we have stated, and observe the manners of the Qur’an. He should make it clear to himself that he is seeking Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, and that he is reading in the state of one who sees Allah, may He be glorified and exalted. If he cannot see him, then indeed Allah sees him.

 

Article: When one intends to read, he should clean his mouth with a miswak or something else. The preferred method of tooth-stick is to use Arak wood, but it is permissible to use other woods and anything that cleans, such as a coarse cloth or other.

 

With regard to the permissibility of using rough fingers, there are three opinions among the followers of Ash-Shafi’i (may Allah have mercy on him): The most common is that the Sunnah does not materialize. The second is that it does, and the third is that it does if there is nothing else, and it does not happen if there is something else.

 

He should start with the tooth-stick on the right side of his mouth and intend to follow the Sunnah. One of the scholars said:

 

He should say:   (O Allah, bless me with this siwak, O Lord, the Most Merciful of the Merciful).

 

Al-Maw ardi, a follower of Ash-Shafi’i, said: It is recommended to use the tooth-stick on the outside of the teeth and the inside of the teeth and to rub the tooth-stick on the tips of the teeth and the bottoms of the molars and the tops gently.

 

They said: The tooth-stick should be of medium wood, neither very dry nor very wet. If it is very dry, then soften it with water.

 

There is nothing wrong with using someone else’s tooth-stick with his permission. If his mouth is unclean because of blood or something else, it is makrooh for him to recite Qur’an before washing it.

 

Is it haraam?” Ar-Ruyani, a follower of Ash-Shafi’i, said this from his father. This has two possible opinions. The more correct opinion is that it is not haraam.

 

It is recommended to read the Qur’an when the reader is in a state of purity (wudhu). If he recites it while he has wudoo’, then it is permissible according to the consensus of the Muslims.

 

The hadiths about it are many and well known. Imamul Haramain said: It is not said that he did something that is makrooh, but he left something that is better.

 

If she cannot find water, she may perform tayammum. If a woman experiences istihaadah during a period of purity, her ruling is that of a man who has wudoo’.

 

As for the person who is junub and the woman who is menstruating, both of them are forbidden to recite the Qur’an, whether it is one verse or less than that. It is permissible for them to recite the Qur’an in their hearts without saying it, and it is permissible for them to look at the Mushaf and recite it in their hearts.

 

The Muslims are unanimously agreed on the permissibility of reciting tasbih, tahlil, tahmid and takbir, as well as salutations to the Messenger of Allah and other dhikr for the junub and menstruating woman.

 

Our friends said: When he said to someone:   (O Yahya, take the Book (of the Torah) in earnest). Maryam: 12, and he does not intend to recite the Qur’an, it is permissible. The same applies to anything similar.

 

It is permissible for the junub and the menstruating woman to say:    (Al-Baqarah: 156), if they do not intend to recite the Qur’an.

 

Our friends the scholars of Khurasan said: It is permissible for the two men to say when riding a riding animal:

 

(Glory be to Him who has subjected all this for us, while we were not able to master it before). Az-Zukhruf: 12.

 

and when praying: (O our Lord, grant us good in this world and good in the Hereafter and protect us from the punishment of hell). (Al-Baqarah: 201) when not intending to recite the Qur’an.

 

Imamul Haramain said: If a junub person says: Bismillah wal hamdu lillah, if he intends to recite the Qur’an, then he has disobeyed. If he intends to recite dhikr or does not intend anything, then he has not sinned.

 

both of them may recite the verse that has been deleted,       

 

Article: If a junub person or a menstruating woman cannot find water, he may do tayammum, and it is permissible for him to recite the Qur’an and offer prayers and other things, but if he becomes impregnated, it is haraam for him to offer prayers and it is not haraam for him to recite the Qur’an and sit in the mosque and other things that are not haraam for a person who is impregnated as if he had taken a bath and then became impregnated.

 

This is something that is questionable and considered strange.

 

Then the answer is: It is not permissible for a junub person to pray, and it is not permissible for him to read Qur’an or sit in the mosque unnecessarily. What is the form? This is what it looks like.

 

Then there is no difference in what we have mentioned between the tayammum of a junub person where he lives and when he is traveling.

 

One of the scholars of ash-Shafi’i said that if a person does tayammum in his house, he may pray, but he may not recite Qur’an afterwards or sit in the mosque. The correct view is that it is permissible to do so, as we have stated.

 

If he does tayammum and prays and recites Qur’aan, then he sees water, then he should use it, because it is haraam for him to recite Qur’aan at that time and all that is haraam for a junub person until he takes a bath.

 

If he does tayammum and prays and recites Qur’aan, then he wants to do tayammum because of wudoo’, or to perform some other obligatory prayer, or something else, then it is not haraam for him to recite according to the correct and preferred madhhab,

 

There is one view among some of the followers of Ash-Shafi’i that it is not permissible. The most popular is the first one.

 

If the junub person cannot find water or earth, then he should pray in honor of the time according to his situation, and it is haraam for him to read the Qur’an outside of prayer.

 

As for prayer, it is haraam for him to recite more than al-Fatihah. Is it haraam for him to recite Al-Fatihah?

 

There are two opinions concerning this. The correct and preferred view is that it is not haraam, rather it is obligatory. Because the prayer is not valid except by reciting Al-Fatihah. And just as it is permissible to pray in a state of janaabah, it is also permissible to recite al-Fatihah in that state.

 

The second opinion: It is not permissible, but it is permissible to recite the dhikr recited by one who has not memorized a verse from the Qur’an, because this person is incapable according to sharee’ah, so he is like one who is incapable according to reality. The correct view is the first opinion.

 

These branches that we mentioned are necessary. That is why I have mentioned them in the most concise way possible. If you want more details, then there are many proofs and further information that can be found in the books of fiqh. Wallahu a’lam,

 

Article: It is recommended to recite the Qur’an in a clean and selected place. For this reason, some scholars recommend reciting it in the mosque, because it involves the cleanliness and honor of the place and results in another virtue, namely i’tikaf.

 

Anyone who sits in the mosque should intend to do i’tikaaf, whether he sits for a long time or a short time. Even when he enters the mosque, he should intend to do i’tikaaf.

 

The etiquette of imi is worth noting and broadcasting and making known to young children and the common people, because it is often neglected.

 

With regard to reciting the Qur’an in a bathhouse, the salaf scholars differed as to whether it is haraam. Our companions said: It is not ruled makrooh.

 

Abu Bakr ibn al-Mundzir narrated it in Al-Ashraaf from Ibrahim An-Nakha’iy and Malik, and the opinion of ‘Atha’.

 

Many scholars have ruled it makrooh. Among them was ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, who narrated it from Ibn Abi Dawud. Ibn al-Mundzir narrated it from a number of tabi’in.

 

Among them were Abu Wa’il Shaygig ibn Salamah, Ashshaybi, Hasan al-Bashri, Makhul and Gabishah ibn Dhu’aib. We also narrated it from Ibrahim An-Nakha’1y and our companions narrated it from Abi Hanifah. May Allah be pleased with them all.

 

Ash-Shafi’bi said: It is makrooh to recite the Qur’an in three places: the bathing place, the toilet and the grain mill.

 

It was narrated from Abi Maisarah that he said: It is not proper to mention Allah except in a good place. Wallahu a’lam.

 

As for reciting the Qur’an on the road, the preferred view is that it is permissible and not makrooh if the reciter is not negligent. If the reciter is negligent, then the ruling is makrooh, just as the Prophet disliked the recitation of the Qur’an by a sleepy person for fear of making mistakes.

 

It was narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud from Abi Darda’ that he recited the Qur’an on the road.

 

It was narrated from ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul Aziz (may Allah have mercy on him) that he wanted to recite the Qur’an on the road.

 

Ibn Abi Dawud said: Narrated to me by Abu Ar-Rabi. he said: Narrated to us by Ibn Wahab, he said: I asked Malik about the man who prays at the end of the night, then goes out to the mosque and there is still a little bit left of the surah he recited.

 

Malik replied: I am not aware of any recitation of the Qur’an on the road.

 

He did not like that. This is a sahih isnad from Maalik (may Allah have mercy on him).

 

Article: It is recommended for the reader of the Qur’an outside of prayer to face the qiblah. It is mentioned in the hadith:

 

“The best of assemblies are those in which the seat faces the qiblah.”

 

He should sit solemnly and quietly with his head bowed, and he should sit alone with good manners and be submissive as if he were sitting in the presence of his teacher. This is the one who is more perfect. If he recites while standing or lying down or in his bed or in any other state, that is permissible and he will be rewarded, but it is less than the first. Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):

 

“Surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day are signs for those who have understanding.

 

(Those who remember Allah while standing or sitting or lying down and they think about the creation of the heavens and the earth.” Ali Imran: 190-191.

 

It is narrated in the Saheeh books from ‘Aa’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) who said:

 

“The Messenger of Allah leaned on my lap when I was menstruating and he recited Al-Our ‘an.” Hadith narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.

 

In one narration: “He recited the Qur’an and his head was on my lap.”

 

It was narrated from Abi Musa Al-Ash’ari , he said: I recite the Qur’an in my prayer and I recite it on my bed.

 

It was narrated from ‘Aisha , who said: I recite my hizib while lying on my bed.

 

When he begins to recite the Qur’an, he recites isti’adzah and says: A’udzu billahi min ash-shaithaanir rajiim (I seek refuge with Allah from the evil of the accursed shaitan).

 

This is what the majority of scholars said.

 

Some of the salaf scholars said: He says ta’awwudz after reciting. Allah Ta’ala says:

 

“When you recite the Qur’an, seek refuge with Allah from the accursed shaitan.” An-Nahl: 98.

 

The meaning of this verse according to the majority of scholars is: When you are about to recite the Qur’an, seek refuge with Allah. Then, the nature of the ta’awwudz is as we mentioned.

 

A number of salaf scholars said: A’udzu billahi as-sami’il “aliim min ash-shithaanir rajiim (I seek refuge with Allah, the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing, from the accursed shaitan).

 

There is no problem with saying this. However, the first form of ta’awwudz is preferred.

 

Then actually ta’awwudz is recommended, not obligatory. It is recommended for every reader, whether in prayer or otherwise.

 

It is recommended to recite it in every raka’at of the prayer according to the more correct of the two opinions among our companions.

 

According to the second opinion, it is recommended in the first rak’ah. If he omits it in the first rak’ah, he should recite it in the second rak’ah.

 

It is recommended to recite ta’awwudz in the first takbeer of the funeral prayer according to the more correct of the two opinions. Article: Students should keep reciting Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahiim at the beginning of every surah, except Baro-ah, because the majority of scholars are of the view that it is a verse, because it is written in the Mushaf.

 

Basmalah is written at the beginning of the surahs, except Baro-ah. If he recites it, he is confirming the recitation of the khatam or surah. If he does not recite the Basmalah, he has left out a part of the Qur’an according to most scholars.

 

If the recitation is in the course of a task that is required of him as a hired and paid person, then attention to the recitation of the basmalah is emphasized to ensure the recitation of the khataman.

 

If he omits it, then he is not entitled to a share of the wagaf, for those who say that the basmalah is one of the verses at the beginning of the surah.

 

This is a meticulous explanation that is valuable and is emphasized for attention and broadcast.

 

Article: When starting to recite the Qur’an, one should be in a state of solemnity and contemplate while reciting. The proofs for this are too numerous to be limited and are too well known and clear to be mentioned. That is what is aimed at and asked for and by which the chest is expanded and the heart is enlightened.

 

Allah Almighty says: (So do they not contemplate the Qur’an?). An-Nisa”: 82.

 

Allah Ta’ala says:

 

“This is a Book which We have sent down to you full of blessings, that they may reflect upon its verses. ” Shad: 29.

 

There are many hadeeths about that and well-known opinions of the salaf concerning it.

 

A group of salaf scholars recited a verse at night and pondered and repeated it until morning.

 

A group of salaf scholars fainted while reciting the Qur’an and many of them died while reciting the Qur’an.

 

We narrate from Bahzin ibn Hakim that Zurarah ibn Aufa the great Taabi’i (may Allah be pleased with him) led the Fajr prayer, then recited until he reached:

 

“When the trumpet is blown. Then it will be the time of a difficult day.” Al-Muddatstsir: 8-9.

 

So ja fell down and died. Bahzin said: I was among those who carried him.

 

Ahmad ibn Abil Hawaariy – who was called the perfume of the Levant by Abul Qasim Al-Junaid (may Allah have mercy on him) – when the Qur’an was recited near him, he would scream and fall unconscious.

 

Ibn Abi Dawud said: Al-Qasim ibn ‘Uthman al-Ju’iy (may Allah have mercy on him) blamed Ibn Abil Hawaariy for that.

 

Al-Ju’iy was a prominent hadith scholar from Damascus and was favored over Ibn Abil Hawaariy.

 

He said: Ibn Abil Hawaariy was also blamed by Abul Jauza’ and Qais ibn Habtar and others.

 

I say: The truth is that there is no need to blame except for those who do it out of pretense. And Allah knows best.

 

The noble As-Sayyid and the possessor of many virtues and makrifat. Ibrahim Al-Khawwaash said: The medicine of the heart is five things: Reading the Qur’an and meditating on it, an empty stomach, the night prayer, praying fervently in the early hours of the morning, and sitting with the righteous.

 

Article: Encouragement to repeat verses in order to contemplate them We have mentioned in the previous chapter the encouragement to contemplate verses, the explanation of their influence and the influence of the salaf scholars. We narrated from Abi Dharr , who said: The Prophet repeated the recitation of one verse until morning, namely the verse:

 

(If You torture them, they are indeed Your servants). Al-Maidah: 78.

 

Hadeeth narrated by Nasa’iy and Ibn Majah. ) It was narrated from Tamim ad-Daariy that he repeated this verse until morning:

 

“Do those who do evil think that We will make them like those who believe and do righteous deeds?” Al-jaatsiyah: 21.

 

It was narrated from Abbad bin Hamzah, who said: I entered upon Asma’ who was reciting (So Allah bountifully granted us and protected us from the punishment of Hell). Ath-Thur: 27.

 

Then he stopped at it and kept repeating it and praying. So I waited for a long time. Then I went to the market and finished my business. Then I came back and he was still repeating it and praying. And we narrated this story from ‘Aa’ishah 

 

Ibn Mas’ud repeated the verse:   (And guard yourselves against the punishment of the Day on which you will all be returned to Allah). Al-Baqarah: 281.

 

And also repeating the verse:

 

“Later they will know. When shackles and chains are put on their necks, and they are dragged away.” Ghafir: (AlMu’min): 70-71.

 

And also repeated:   (What has deceived you (to disobey) your Most Gracious Lord). Al-Infithar: 6.

 

Adh-Dhahhak repeated until the early hours of the morning the words of Allah Ta’ala:

 

“For them are layers of fire above them and layers (of fire) below them.” Az-Zumar: 16.

 

Article: Crying while reciting the Qur’an

 

In the last two chapters, we have mentioned the reason why people weep when reciting the Qur’an, and it is a trait of the wise and righteous servants of Allah.

 

Allah Ta’ala says:

 

“And they fell on their faces weeping and they grew more solemn.” Al-Isra’: 109.

 

Many hadeeths and atsar have been narrated from the salaf regarding this. Among them is the saying of the Prophet:

 

“Recite the Qur’an and weep. If you cannot cry, then try to cry.”

 

It was narrated from Umar ibn Khaththab that he led the congregation in the Fajr prayer and recited Surah Yusuf. Then he wept until his tears flowed and hit his shoulder bone.

 

In one narration: He led the ‘Isha’ prayer, which indicates that he repeated it from that time.

 

In one narration: She cried until they heard her crying from behind the rows.

 

It was narrated from Abi Raja”, who said: I saw Ibn Abbas and under his eyes were tear marks like the straps of a worn-out sandal.

 

It was narrated from Abi Shaleh, who said: People from the people of Yemen came to Abu Bakr Ash-Shiddig & They started reciting the Qur’an and crying. So Abu Bakr Ash-Shiddig & said: Thus we used to do.

 

It was narrated from Hisham, who said: Sometimes I would hear Muhammad ibn Sirin crying at night while he was in prayer.

 

Many atsar have been narrated about this and it is impossible to count them. What we have mentioned and shown has been

 

enough. And Allah knows best.

 

Al-lmam Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali said: Crying is recommended when reciting the Qur’an. He said: The way to produce it is by bringing sorrow to his heart, i.e. by contemplating the threats and severe warnings and promises, then contemplating his carelessness in that regard.

 

If there is no sadness and weeping as in the case of the wise, then he should weep over his failure, for it is one of the greatest calamities. The recommendation to read with tartil

 

He should recite the Qur’an in tartil.

 

The scholars have agreed on the recommendation to read in tartil. Allah Ta’ala says:

 

“And recite the Qur’an slowly.” Al. Muzzammil: 4.

 

It was narrated from Umm Salamah “that she described the Prophet’s recitation as clear letter by letter.” Hadith narrated by Abu Dawud, Nasa’iy and Tirmidhi. Tirmidhi said: The hadith is sahih.

 

It was narrated from Mu’awiyah bin Qurrah from Abdullah bin Mughaffal , he said:

 

“I saw the Messenger of Allah on the day of the conquest of Makkah on his camel reciting surah al-Fath and repeating in his recitation.” Hadith narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.

 

It was narrated from Ibn Abbas. he said: I would rather recite a surah in tartil than recite the whole Qur’an.

 

It was narrated from Mujahid that he was asked about two men. One recites Al-Baqarah and ‘Ali Imran and the other recites Al-Baqarah only, while the timing of both, bowing, prostrating and sitting are the same?

 

Ibn Abbas replied: The one who recites Al-Baqarah alone is better.

 

It is forbidden to read too fast. It was narrated from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud that a man said to him: I recited surah Al-Mufashshal in one raka’at.

 

So Abdullah ibn Mas’ud said: This is like cutting hair (because of its speed). Indeed there are those who recite the Qur’an and it does not go beyond their throats. But if it enters the heart and becomes firm, then it is beneficial.

 

Hadith narrated by Bukhari and Muslim. This is Muslim’s wording in one of his reports.

 

The scholars said: Tartil is recommended for contemplation and for others. They said: It is recommended to read in tartil for non-Arabs who do not understand the meaning, because it is closer to reverence and respect and has more effect on the heart.

 

Manners of reciting the Qur’an in prayer and beyond

 

It is recommended that when passing through a verse of mercy to ask for Allah’s bounty. And when passing by a verse that mentions punishment, to seek refuge with Allah from evil and punishment. Or say: “O Allah, I ask you for health or

 

safety from every disaster.”

 

If he passes by a verse that mentions the purification of Allah, then he purifies Allah by saying: Subhanallahi wa Ta’ala or Tabaroka wa Ta’ala (Glory be to Allah and Most High) or Jallat adhamatu Rabbinaa (Great is the greatness of our Lord).

 

A sahih hadeeth has been narrated from Hudhayfah ibn Yaman , who said: “One night I prayed with the Prophet. He began with surah al-Baqarah.

 

So I said (to myself): He bowed when he reached one hundred verses. But he continued to recite. So I said: He prayed by reciting it in one raka’at. It turned out that he continued reciting it. Then he started surah An-Nisa’ and recited it.

 

So I said: He will bow afterward. Then he began surah Ahi Imran and recited it slowly. When he passed the verse that mentioned tasbeeh, he would say tasbeeh. When he passes the verse that mentions supplication, he supplicates. And when he passes the ta’awwudz, he seeks refuge. Hadith narrated by Muslim in his Saheeh.”

 

It is that surah An-Nisa’ at that time came before ‘Ali Imran.

 

Our companions (may Allah have mercy on them) said: This supplication, seeking refuge and glorification is mustahabb for every reader of the Qur’an in prayer or outside of it.

 

They said: It is mustahabb in the prayer of the Imam and the congregation and the one praying alone, because it is a supplication, so it is the same for them as saying Amen after Al-Fanhah.

 

This is what we have mentioned about it being mustahabb to ask for something and seek refuge according to the Ash-Shafi’i school of thought and the majority of scholars.

 

Abu Haneefah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: This practice is not mustahabb, rather it is makrooh in prayer.

 

The correct view is that of the majority of scholars, as we have stated.

 

Article: The most important thing to note and emphasize is to respect the Qur’an by avoiding the things that are sometimes overlooked by negligent people and reading it together.

 

Among these are avoiding laughter and noise and speaking in the middle of reading, except for what needs to be said.

 

He should obey the words of Allah Ta’ala:

 

“And when the Qur’an is recited, then listen attentively, and pay attention quietly so that you may receive mercy.” Al-A’raf: 204.

 

He should follow the practice narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud from Ibn Umar – that when reciting the Qur’an ja does not speak until it is finished.

 

This hadith was also narrated by al-Bukhari in his Saheeh and he said: He did not speak until he finished.

 

He mentions it in the book of At-Tafsir regarding the words of Allah Ta’ala: (Your wives are a field for you) AlBagarah: 223.

 

Among the prohibited actions is playing with the hands and so on. Verily, he is seeking his Lord Allah, so he should not play with his hands.

 

This includes looking at something that distracts and divides the mind.

 

Worse than this is looking at something that should not be looked at, such as a man with a smooth face and so on. Looking at a man who is smooth and handsome without need is haraam, whether with lust or without lust, whether he is safe from temptation or not.

 

This is the correct and chosen madhhab according to the scholars.

 

Al-Lmam Ash-Shafi’i has mentioned its prohibition, as have countless scholars. The evidence for this is the words

 

Allah Ta ala:

 

“Say to the believing men: ‘Let them restrain their gaze’.” An-Nur: 30.

 

And because a smooth, handsome man is not the same as a woman. In fact, it is possible that some or many of them are better than many women and more likely to do evil to them and more easily than women. So his prohibition is more important.

 

The opinions of the salaf that warn against them are numerous.

 

The scholars called them rotten people because they cause disgust according to sharee’ah.

 

As for looking at her when buying and selling, taking and giving, treating and teaching, and so on, it is permissible because of an emergency. But his gaze should be limited to what is necessary, and he should not continue looking without need.

 

Similarly, it is only permissible for the teacher to look at what he needs, and it is forbidden for all of them to look with lust in all cases.

 

This is not specific to men with smooth faces; rather it is forbidden for every mukallaf to look with lust at anyone, whether male or female. It does not matter whether the woman is his mahram or not, except for his wife or a slave girl whom he can enjoy.

 

Even our companions said: It is haraam to look with lust at one’s mahram, such as a daughter and her mother. And Allah knows best.

 

Those who attend Qur’anic recitation gatherings, if they see any of these and other evils, should prevent them to the best of their ability with their hands, if they are able, and with their tongues, if they are not able. Otherwise, he should deny it with his heart. And Allah knows best.

 

Article: It is not permissible to recite the Qur’an in anything other than Arabic, whether one knows Arabic or not. It is the same whether it is in the prayer or outside of it. If he recites in anything other than Arabic, then his prayer is not valid. This is our madhhab and the madhhab of Maalik, Ahmad, Dawud and Abu Bakr ibn al-Mundzir.

 

Abu Hanifah said: It is permissible to recite it in a non-Arabic language and the prayer is valid.

 

Abu Yusuf and Muhammad said: It is permissible to read it to one who does not know how to pronounce Arabic and not permissible to one who does not know how to pronounce Arabic.

 

It is permissible to recite the Qur’an with seven recitations

 

It is permissible to recite the Qur’ān using the seven agreed-upon recitations, and it is not permissible to recite anything other than the seven recitations, nor to recite any of the strange narrations (shadzdzah) that have been quoted from the seven reciters of the Qur’ān.

 

In sha Allah, in the seventh chapter we will explain the consensus of the fuqaha’ concerning the command to repent to the one who recites strange recitations when he recites them.

 

Our companions and others said: If he recites a shadhdzah in prayer, his prayer is invalidated if he knows.

 

If he does not know, then his prayer is not invalidated and the recitation does not count for him.

 

Al-Imam Abu Amr ibn Abdul Barr al-Hafidh has quoted the consensus of the Muslims that it is not permissible to recite a strange recitation and it is not permissible to pray behind an imam who recites it.

 

The scholars said: Whoever recites a Shaadz, if he does not know about it or is unaware of its prohibition, then he should be informed about it.

 

If he repeats it or finds out about it, then he is punished severely until he stops doing it. It is obligatory upon everyone who is able to reprimand him and prevent him to reprimand him and prevent him.

 

Article: When starting with the recitation of one of the reciters of the Qur’an, he should continue to recite with that recitation for as long as the kalam is related to it. When the connection ends, he may recite the recitation of another of the seven reciters.

 

What is preferable is to continue reading with the first recitation in this assembly.

 

Article: The scholars said: The one who is chosen is to read according to the order of the Mushaf. So he recites Al-Fatihah. then Al-Baqarah, then ‘Ali Imran. then the next in order. It is the same whether he recites in prayer or elsewhere.

 

One of our companions said: When he recites in the first raka’at the Sūrah of Qul A’udzu bi Rabbin Naas, then he recites in the second raka’at the following Al-Fatihah from the Sūrah.

 

One of our companions said: It is mustahabb when reciting a surah to recite the next surah. The evidence for this is that the order of the Mushaf was made this way because of a wisdom. So it is appropriate to maintain that wisdom, except for what is exempted by sharee’ah, such as the Fajr prayer on Friday. In the first raka’at, Sūrat As-Sajdah is recited, and in the second raka’at, Sūrat Qaaf is recited in the first raka’at and in the second raka’at, and in the two raka’ats of the Fajr Sunnah, Sūrat As-Sajdah is recited in the first raka’at and in the second raka’at.

 

The Witr prayer recites and in the second raka’at in the third raka’at and and ( ).  If you do not recite them consecutively so that you do not recite the next surah, or if you break the order and recite one surah and then recite the previous one, that is permissible.

 

Many atsar have been narrated about the permissibility of doing so. Umar ibn Khaththab had recited in the first raka’at of the Fajr prayer surah Al-Kahf and in the second raka’at surah Yusuf. Some scholars dislike violating the order of the Mushaf.

 

It was narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud from Al-Hasan that he did not like to violate the order of the Mushaf.

 

He narrated with a sahih isnad from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud: that someone said to him: Is so-and-so reciting the Qur’an backwards? He replied: That man has turned his heart upside down.

 

With regard to reciting a sūrah from its end to its beginning, this is strictly forbidden, because it takes away some of the I’jaaz and the wisdom of the order of the verses.

 

Narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud from Ibrahim An-Nakha’iy the noble Tabi’iy Imam and Imam Malik bin Anas that

 

” both of them disliked that. Malik reproached him and said: This is a grave sin.

 

As for teaching young children from the end of the Mushaf to the beginning, that is good and is not included in this chapter. Indeed, it is recited on different days, and it makes it easier for them to memorize it. And Allah knows best.

 

Article: Reciting the Qur’an from the Mushaf is better than reciting it by rote, because looking at the Mushaf is an act of worship that requires both recitation and sight.

 

This is what al-Gadhi Huseen said from our companions and Abu Hamid al-Ghazali and some of the salaf.

 

Al-Ghazali narrates in al-Ihya’ that many of the Prophet’s Companions would read from the Mushaf and would not go a day without looking at it.

 

It was narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud in the Mushaf from many of the salaf and I do not see any difference in it.

 

If it were said: It varies according to the differences of the people. So the recitation in the Mushaf is preferred for those who are equally devoted and contemplative in the two situations of reciting in the Mushaf and memorizing.

 

It is preferable to recite it by rote for the one who is not able to focus on it and reflect on it, and it is preferable to recite it from the Mushaf when he is able to focus on it and reflect on it. This is the best opinion.

 

What is clear is that the words of the salaf and their actions are interpreted according to these details.

 

Article: On the recommendation of reciting the Qur’an together by the jam’aah and the virtue of the readers over the congregation and the listeners, as well as explaining the virtue of the one who gathers them, encourages them and encourages them to do so.

 

You should know that reciting the Qur’an in congregation is mustahabb according to clear evidence and the clear actions of the salaf and khalaf scholars.

 

It has been authenticated from the Prophet on the authority of Abu Hurairah and Abi Said Al-Khudri that he said:

 

“No people mention Allah together, but they are surrounded by angels and are overwhelmed with mercy and tranquility descends upon them and Allah calls them among the angels in His sight. ” Tirmdizi said: Hadith hasan sahih.”

 

It was narrated from Abi Hurairah from Nayb that he said:

 

There are many ahadith about this.

 

It was narrated by Ad-Darimi with his isnad from Ibn ‘Abbas who said:

 

“Whoever listens to a verse from the Book of Allah, it becomes a light for him.”

 

It was narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud that Abu Darda’ &l held tadarus with some people who recited the Qur’an together.

 

The virtue of tadaarus is narrated together from a number of prominent salaf and khalaf scholars and gadhi of the previous generation.

 

It was narrated from Hassan ibn Athiyyah and Al-Auza’iy that they both said: The first to hold tadaarus in the Damascus mosque was Hisham ibn Isma’il when he came to Abdul Malik.

 

As for what Ibn Abi Dawud narrated from AdhDhahhak ibn Abdur-Rahman ibn Arzab, he denied this tadaarus and said: I have neither seen nor heard.

 

I have found the companions of the Messenger of Allah, that is, I have never seen anyone do it.

 

It was narrated from Wahab, who said: I said to Malik:

 

Have you ever seen people gathered to recite a surah together until they finish it? So Malik denied that and denounced it.

 

He said: That is not what people do. But someone reads it to someone else.

 

The denials of these two men contradict the practice of the salaf and khalaf and the evidence that supports it.

 

So that opinion is to be abandoned and the previous opinion that recommended it is to be relied upon.

 

But the recitation of the Qur’an in a gathering has conditions that we have pointed out and are worthy of attention. And Allah knows best.

 

As for the virtue of the one who gathers them to recite the Qur’an, there are many texts about it such as the saying of the Prophet -:

 

“The one who shows kindness is like the one who does it. “

 

And the words of the Prophet 

 

“The guidance that Allah gives to someone through you is better for you than a red camel.”

 

There are many well-known hadeeths about that.

 

Allah Ta’ala says:

 

“And help one another in righteousness and piety.” Al-Maidah: 2.

 

There is no doubt as to the magnitude of the reward of those who strive for it.

 

Article: Reciting the Qur’an in shifts The method is for a group of people to gather.

 

One of them reads ten verses or a juz or other than that, then he is silent and the other continues reading, then the other reads. This is permissible and good. Malik (may Allah have mercy on him) was asked and he replied: “There is no problem with that.”

 

Article: Reading aloud This is an important article to note.

 

It should be noted that there are many hadeeths in the Saheeh and other books that indicate the recommendation to read aloud, and there are atsar that indicate the recommendation to read softly.

 

We will mention a few of them by hinting at their sources, insha’Allah: Allah.

 

Al-Imam Al-Ghazali and other scholars said: The way in which the various reports and reports on this matter are reconciled is that reciting in a low voice is more likely to prevent ‘riya’, so it is better for the one who fears ‘riya’.”

 

If he does not fear that he may be imitating others by raising his voice when reciting the Qur’an, then reciting aloud is better, because there is more charity in it and the benefit extends to others, and a benefit that extends is better than one that affects oneself.

 

And because reading aloud stirs the heart of the reader and unites his desire to think about it and directs his gaze to it, drives away sleep, increases activity and awakens others who are sleeping and those who are inattentive and activates them.

 

They said: If some of these intentions are present in him, then raising the voice is better. If these intentions are gathered, then the reward is doubled.

 

Al-Ghazali said: Because of this we say: Reading from the Mushaf is better. This is the ruling on the matter.

 

The reports that have been narrated are many and I will refer to some of them. It was narrated in the Saheeh from Abi Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) who said:

 

I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“Allah does not listen to anything like what He hears from a Prophet with a good voice reciting the Qur’an and raising his voice.” Hadith narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.

 

The word: hearing is a sign of pleasure and acceptance.

 

It was narrated from Abi Musa Al-Ash’ari that the Messenger of Allah said to him:

 

“You have been given a flute from the flutes of the family of Dawud. ” Hadith narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.

 

It means to be given a beautiful voice (pen.).

 

In a Muslim narration it is mentioned that the Messenger of Allah said to him:

 

“I dreamt of listening to your recitation last night.” Hadith narrated by Muslim from Barid ibn Al-Hushaib.

 

It was narrated from Fudhalah bin Ubaid , he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Indeed, Allah listens more to the one who recites Al. Our ‘an than the owner of a slave girl who listens to the singing of his slave girl.”

 

It was also narrated from Abi Musa, who said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Indeed I recognize the voices of the Ash’ariyyin at night when they enter and I know their places from their voices when reciting the Qur’an at night, although I do not see their places when they stop during the day.” Hadith narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.

 

Al-Bara’ ibn Azib reported: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Recite the Qur’an with your voice.” Hadith narrated by Abu Dawud, Nasa’iy and others.”

 

It was narrated from Ibn Abi Dawud from ‘Ali that he heard the noise of people reciting the Qur’an in the mosque. So he said: Fortunate are these people. They are the ones most loved by the Messenger of Allah.

 

Many hadiths have been narrated about reciting the Qur’an aloud. As for the reports of what the Companions and Taabi’een said and did, they are countless and well known.

 

All this concerns the one who is not afraid of riya’ and is not afraid of pride and other bad deeds, and does not disturb the congregation by disrupting the prayer and confusing them.

 

It has been narrated from a number of salaf scholars that they preferred to read in a low voice because of their fear of what we have mentioned.

 

Al-A’masy reported that he said: I entered Ibrahim who was reading in the Mushaf. Then a man asked permission to enter him.

 

So he covered his Mushaf and said: Do not let this man see that I am reading it all the time.

 

Abil Aaliyah reported: I was sitting with the companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him). Then one of them said: Last night I read this.

 

So they said: This is your share of it.

 

The evidence for this is the hadeeth of Ugbah bin Amir , who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah say:

 

“The one who recites aloud is like one who gives alms openly and the one who recites the Qur’an softly is like one who gives alms secretly.” Hadith narrated by Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’iy.

 

Tirmidhi said: The hadith is hasan. Tirmidhi said: The meaning of this hadeeth is that the one who recites the Qur’an softly is better than the one who recites it loudly. Because giving charity secretly is better according to ularna than giving charity openly.

 

He said: The meaning of the hadeeth according to the scholars is that one should be safe from pride, because the one who does good deeds secretly does not fear that pride will arise in him, as it does if he does good deeds openly.

 

I say: All of this is in accordance with what was explained earlier in the first part of this chapter, that if he fears something that he will not like if he raises his voice, then he should not raise his voice. And if he does not fear anything, it is recommended that he reads aloud.

 

If the recitation of the Qur’an is done by a number of people who are gathered together, then it is advisable to make the recitation louder for the reasons we have mentioned and because it is beneficial for others. And Allah knows best. Article: The recommendation to recite the Qur’an in a good voice

 

The salaf and khalaf scholars of the Companions and Taabi’een (may Allah be pleased with them) and the scholars of Amshor (the cities of Madinah, Baghdad and Bashrah), and the Muslim Imams after them, are unanimously agreed that it is mustahabb to raise the voice when reciting the Qur’an. Their words and deeds are so well known that we do not need to quote them one by one. These proofs from the hadeeths of the Prophet are well known to leading scholars and laymen alike, such as the hadeeth: (Glorify the Qur’an with your voice) and the hadeeth: and the hadeeth: and the hadeeth:   All of which have been mentioned in the previous chapter.

 

It has been stated about the virtue of tartil in the hadeeth of Abdullah bin Mughaffal that the Prophet repeated the recitation as well as the hadeeth of Sa’d bin Abi Waqqash and the hadeeth of Abi Lubabah that the Prophet said:

 

“Whoever does not recite the Qur’an is not one of you.” Abu Dawud narrated both hadeeths with two good isnads.”

 

Regarding the isnad of Sa’ad, there are unobtrusive differences.

 

The majority of scholars said: Not reciting the Qur’ān means not raising one’s voice.

 

And the hadeeth of Al-Bara’, he said: I heard the Messenger of Allah reciting in the ‘Isha’ prayer:   I did not hear anyone with a better voice than his Hadith narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim.

 

The scholars (may Allah have mercy on them) said: It is mustahabb to recite the Qur’an with a good voice and in an orderly manner, so long as one does not go too far. If one goes too far and adds or omits a letter, then it is haraam.

 

As for reciting with lahn, Ash-Shafi’i (may Allah have mercy on him) said in one opinion: “I dislike it, and in another place he said: I do not regard it as makrooh.

 

Our companions said that these are not two opinions, but there are details in them.

 

If he goes beyond the limit when prolonging the recitation so that it goes beyond the limit, that is what is disliked. If he does not go beyond the limit, that is what is not regarded as makrooh.

 

The Qadhil Qudhaat (Al-Mawardi) said in his book al-Haawi: Reciting the Qur’an with an artificial rhythm, if it takes the words of the Qur’an out of their form by inserting a few harakat in them or taking a few harakat out of them or shortening the long ones or lengthening the short ones or lengthening the recitation so as to spoil some of the words and obscure their meaning, then it is haraam and the reciter is sinful, and the listener is sinful, because he is diverting from the straight path to a crooked path. Allah, may He be exalted, says (It is the Qur’an in Arabic, in which there is no crookedness. That they may fear). Az-Zumar: 28.

 

If the rhythm does not take him away from reciting the words and reciting them tartil, then it is permissible for him to recite them, because he is adding to their virtue by the rhythm. This is the statement of Qadhil Qudhaat.

 

As for the first type of recitation with this haraam rhythm, it is the sin that afflicts some ignorant and foolish laypeople who recite for funerals and in some gatherings.

 

This is a haraam and clear innovation and anyone who listens to it is sinning, as the Qadhil qudhaat said.

 

Anyone who is able to eliminate it or prohibit it, but does not do so, is sinning.

 

I have done my best to do so and I hope by the grace of Allah, the Most Gracious, that He will guide me to remove it from the one who deserves it and bring him to salvation.

 

Ash-Shafi’i said in al-Muzani’s Mukhtasor: He makes his voice better by any means. He said: “The best is to read slowly and in a soft voice.”

 

It was narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud with his isnad from Abi Hurayrah that he recited: (At-Takwir: 1) in a soft voice like wailing. Narrated in Sunan Abi Dawud: It was said to Ibn Abi Mulaikah: What do you think if he does not have a good voice? Ibn Abi Mulaikah replied: He improves his voice as much as possible.

 

Article: Recommendation to seek good reading from someone with a good voice

 

It should be noted that many of the salaf scholars asked readers with good voices to recite the Qur’ān while they listened.

 

It is agreed that this is good, and it is the custom of the good people and the worshipers and righteous servants of Allah, and it is the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

 

A sahih hadith has been narrated from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud who said: The Messenger of Allah said to me: Recite the Qur’an to me.

 

I said: O Rasulallah, do I deserve to recite it to you, while the Qur’ān was revealed to you?

 

The Prophet replied: I want to hear it from someone else.

 

So I recited to him surah An-Nisa’ until I reached this verse:

 

“So how will it be (with the disbelievers), when We bring a witness (apostle) from every nation and We bring you (Muhammad) as a witness against them (as your nation).” An-Nisa’: 41.

 

He said: It is enough for you now. Then I turned to him.

 

She had tears in her eyes.

 

Hadith narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.”

 

Narrated by Ad-Darimi and others with their sanads from Umar ibnul Khaththab & that he said to Abi Musa Al-Ash’ari: Remind us of our Lord. So he recited the Qur’an near him.

 

The reports on this are many and well-known.

 

Many righteous people have died because of the recitation of those whom they asked to recite the Qur’an. And Allah knows best.

 

Some scholars have recommended starting the assembly of the Prophetic hadith and ending it with the recitation of the Qur’an by a reader with a good voice.

 

Then, the reader in these places should recite the verses that are appropriate to the gathering.

 

He should recite verses that evoke hope and inspire fear, contain exhortations, cause worldliness, cause fondness for the Hereafter and preparation for it, are short-sighted and of noble character.

 

Article: If the reader starts in the middle of a sūrah or stops at a place other than its end, he should start at the beginning of the related sūrahs and stop at the related sūrahs and not be bound by the tithes and parts, because they may occur in the middle of the related sūrahs, such as the part found in the words of Allah Ta’ala:

 

“And (it is also forbidden for you to marry) women who are married. ” An-Nisa’: 24.

 

And the words of Allah Ta’ala:

 (And I did not exempt myself (from blame). Yusuf! 53.

 

And the words of Allah Ta’ala:

 (Then none other than his people answered ……). An-Nami: 56.

 

And the words of Allah Ta’ala:

(And whoever among you (the prophet’s wives) remains obedient to Allah and His messenger). Al-Ahzab: 31.

 

And the words of Allah Ta’ala:

“And We did not send down to his people after him any army from the sky.” Yasin: 28.

 

And the words of Allah Ta’ala:

 (To Him is returned the knowledge of the Day of Resurrection). Fushshilat: 47.

 

And the words of Allah Ta’ala:

(And it will be clear to them the evil consequences of what they have done). AzZumar: 48.

 

And the words of Allah Ta’ala:

“Ibrahim asked: What is your business, O messengers?” Adz-Dzaariyaat: 31.

 

This is also what Allah Ta’ala says:

“And remember (Allah) on some of the days that are numbered.” Al-Baqarah: 203.

 

And the words of Allah Ta’ala:

“Say: “Shall I tell you what is better than that?” Ali Imran: 15.

 

All this and the like should not be started with it and the reader should not stop with it, as it is related to the previous one.

 

Let him not be deceived by the many ignorant people among the readers who do not pay attention to these manners and do not think about these meanings.

 

He should abide by the words narrated by Al-Hakim Abu Abdillah with his isnad from As-Sayyid Al-Jalil AlFudhait bin Iyadh, who said: Do not feel lonely in the paths of righteousness because there are few followers, and do not be deceived because of the number of those who perish, and it will not harm you that there are few who take the path of righteousness. The scholars said regarding this meaning: The recitation of a short surah in full is better than reciting part of a long surah as much as the short one. This is because some people do not recognize the connection in some situations.

 

It has been narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud with his isnad from ‘Abdullah ibn Abi All-Hudzail the famous Taabi’i -&: He said: They do not like to recite some verses and leave out others.

 

Article: It is makrooh to recite the Qur’an in some circumstances

 

Know: that reciting the Qur’an is absolutely preferable, except in certain circumstances in which it is prohibited by sharee’ah to recite it at that time. I will now mention what I remember of it in brief, omitting the evidence because it is well known. It is makrooh to recite the Qur’an during bowing, prostration, tashahhud and other states of prayer, except standing. It is makrooh to recite more than al-Fatihah for the mum in the jahriyah prayer if he hears the imam reciting, and it is makrooh to recite while sitting on the toilet and when one is sleepy.

 

Similarly, it is makrooh to recite it when it is difficult to recite the Qur’an, and it is also makrooh to recite it during the khutbah for those who hear it, and it is not makrooh for those who do not hear it; rather it is recommended. This is the preferred and correct view.

 

It was narrated from Thawus that it is haraam.

 

It was narrated from Ibrahim that there is no impurity. It is permissible to combine these two opinions with what we have said, as mentioned by our companions. Reciting the Qur’an during tawaaf is not makrooh.

 

This is our madhhab and the view of the majority of scholars.

 

Ibn al-Mundhir narrated it from Atha’, Mujahid, Ibn al-Mubarak, Abi Tsaur and Ashhaabur ra’yi.

 

It was narrated from Hasan al-Bashri, Urwah ibn Zubayr and Maalik that it is not permissible to recite the Qur’an during tawaaf. The correct view is the first one.

 

We have already mentioned the difference of opinion regarding reciting the Qur’an in the bathhouse and on the road, and regarding the person whose mouth is unclean.

 

Article: A prohibited innovation in the recitation of the Qur’an is what the ignorant people who lead the Tarawih prayer do, which is to recite Sūrat al-An’aam in the last raka’at on the seventh night, believing that this is Sunnah.

 

So they put together a number of things that are wrong, including believing that it is mustahabb (Sunnah) and misunderstanding it among the common people, and lengthening the second rak’ah more than the first. What is Sunnah is to lengthen the first rak’ah.

 

Among these are equalizing the prayers of the congregation and reciting the Qur’an very quickly.

 

One of the innovations that resemble this is that some ignorant people recite the Sajdah in the Fajr prayer on Friday, but it is not the Sajdah (Alif Laam Miim Tanzil).

 

The Sunnah is to recite Alif Laam Miim Tanzil in the first raka’at and “Hal Ataa” in the second raka’at.

 

Article: About term issues that need to be known

 

Among them: If, while reading the Qur’an, the wind suddenly comes out, he should stop reading until it comes out, then he should resume reading. This is what Ibn Abi Dawud and others narrated from ‘Atha’, and it is good manners.

 

Among them: When a person yawns (drowsiness), he stops reading until he finishes yawning, then continues reading. Mujahid said: “That is good.”

 

The evidence for this is the hadith narrated from Abi Saiq Al-Khudri , he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“When one of you yawns (sleepily), let him cover his mouth with his hand, because the shaitan enters.” Hadith narrated by Muslim.

 

Among them is when reciting the words of Allah, may He be glorified and exalted:

 

“The Jews say: Uzair the son of Allah and the Christians say: “The Messiah is the son of Allah.” At-Taubah: 30.

 

“And the Jews said: Allah’s hands are shackled.” Al-Maidah: 64.

 

“And they said: The Merciful Lord has taken (a child).” Maryam: 88.

 

And other such verses. Then he should lower his voice. This is what Ibrahim An-Nakha’iy did.

 

Among these is the hadeeth narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud with a dlo’if isnad from Ash-Shay’bi that it was said to him: When people read: does he say peace upon the Prophet Ash-Shafi’bi replied: Yes.

 

Among these is saying the words narrated by Abu Hurairah from the Prophet that he said: Whoever recites: then he recites let him recite:

 

This hadith was narrated by Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi with a dlo’if isnad from a man from a hamlet from Abi Hurairah 

 

Tirmidhi said: This hadeeth was narrated with this isnad from a hillbilly from Abi Hurayrah.

 

He said: That person is not named.

 

Narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud and others in this hadith in addition to the narration of Abi Dawud and Tirmidhi: Whoever recites the end of the surah should say:  And whoever recites: let him say:  

 

It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas and Ibn Zubayr and Abi Musa al-Ash’ari (may Allah be pleased with him) that when one of them recited the verse, he said:    And it was narrated from ‘Umar ibn Khaththab that he said when he recited the verse: three times.

 

It was narrated from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud that he prayed and recited the end of Sūrat Bani Israel. Then he said:

 

One of our companions has mentioned that it is recommended to say in prayer what we have mentioned and in the hadeeth of Abi Hurayrah concerning these three suras. It is also recommended to recite the others that we have mentioned and that are similar in meaning. And Allah knows best.

 

Article: The recitation of the Qur’ān is meant to be the speech of man.

 

Ibn Abi Dawud mentioned that there is some disagreement about this. It was narrated from Ibrahim An-Nakha’iy (may Allah have mercy on him) that he disliked interpreting the Qur’an for the purpose of worldly affairs.

 

It was narrated from Umar ibn Khaththab that he recited in the Maghrib prayer in Makkah: and raised his voice and said .

 

It was narrated from Hukaim ibn Sa’d that a man from Al-Muhakhamiyah came to Ali who was performing the Fajr prayer. Then he said:   If you associate partners (with God), your deeds will be blotted out). A-Rum: 65.

 

So Ali answered him in prayer:

 

“So be patient, surely the promise of Allah is true, and let not those who do not believe distress you.” Az-Zumar: 60.

 

Our companions were of the opinion: When a person asks permission to enter to the one who is praying, and the one who is praying says:    (Enter therein in peace and security) Al-Hijr: 46, then if he means the recitation of Qur’an or recitation and notification, his prayer is not invalidated.

 

If he intends to tell and does not intend to recite the Qur’an, his prayer is void.

 

Manners of reading while walking

 

Article: If a person recites the Qur’an while walking and passes a group of people, it is recommended for him to interrupt his recitation and greet them, then return and continue.

 

If he repeats the ta’awwudz, then that is better. If he is reciting while sitting, and someone passes in front of him, Al-Imam Abul Hasan Al-Wahidi said: “What is better is not to greet the reader of the Qur’an, because he is busy reading.”

 

And he said: “If someone greets him, it is sufficient that he responds with a gesture.”

 

He also said: If he wants to answer with the greeting of peace, he may do so, then start reciting isti’adzah and continue reciting.

 

What he says is weak. What is clear is that it is obligatory to answer with speech.

 

Our companions said: If a person enters with the greeting of peace on Friday while the imam is giving the sermon, and we say that silence is Sunnah, then it is obligatory for him to answer the greeting according to the more correct of the two opinions.

 

If they say: This is in the case of a sermon, and there is a dispute about the obligation of silence and the prohibition of speaking, then in the case of reciting the Qur’an, where it is not forbidden to speak, according to consensus, it is preferable, and the ruling on answering the greeting is obligatory. And Allah knows best.

 

If he sneezes while reciting, it is recommended to say: “Alhamdulillah” as well as in prayer.

 

If someone sneezes while he is reciting the Qur’an outside of prayer and he says: “Alhamdulillah,” it is mustahabb for the reader to pray for him by saying: “Yarhamukallahu (May Allah have mercy on you).”

 

If the reader of the Qur’an hears the call to prayer, he should stop reciting and respond by following him in reciting the words of the call to prayer and the igamat, then he should resume reciting. This was agreed upon by our companions.

 

If someone has a need for him and ja is reciting the Qur’ān, and it is possible for him to answer the questioner with a sign that he can understand, and he is sure that this will not upset him or disturb the relationship between the two, then he should answer him with a sign and not stop reciting.

 

If he stops it, then it is permissible. And Allah knows best.

 

Stand in the middle of reading

 

If the reader of the Qur’an comes to a person who is knowledgeable or honorable, or an elderly person who is respected or has the honor of being a leader or otherwise, there is nothing wrong with the reader standing up to honor and glorify him, not for the sake of jealousy or boasting. In fact, it is mustahabb (sunnah). Standing up out of respect is what the Prophet and his Companions did in his presence and by his command, and what the tabi’een and righteous scholars did after them.

 

I have compiled a section on standing, and I have mentioned in it the hadeeths and ahaadeeth narrated about its being mustahabb and the opinion that it is not.

 

I explain all of this in praise of Allah, may He be exalted. So whoever has doubts about something in his hadeeths, let him study them, and he will find information that will remove his doubts, in sha Allaah.

 

Rulings relating to the recitation of the Qur’an in prayer

 

I am presenting this discussion very briefly, because it is quite well known in the books of jurisprudence.

 

Among them is the obligation to recite the Qur’an in the obligatory prayers based on scholarly consensus.

 

Malik, Imam Ash-Shafi’i, Ahmad and the majority of scholars were of the view that it is obligatory to recite al-Fatihah in every raka’at. Abu Hanifah and the Jama’ah were of the view: “It is not obligatory to recite al-Fatihah forever.” He said: It is not obligatory to recite al-Fatihah in the last two raka’ats.

 

The correct view is the first view. There is much evidence from the Sunnah to support this view.

 

Sufficient for him is the Prophet’s statement in a sahih hadith:

 

“A prayer in which Al-Fatihah is not recited is not valid.”

 

They are agreed that it is mustahabb to recite the surah after al-Fatihah in the first two raka’ahs of Fajr and the first two raka’ahs of other prayers, but they disagree about whether it is mustahabb in the third and fourth raka’ahs.

 

Ash-Shafi’i has two opinions about that. According to the new opinion, it is Sunnah, while according to the old opinion it is not Sunnah.

 

Our companions said: If we say that it is mustahabb to recite the surahs in the last two rak’ahs, then there is no dispute that it is mustahabb to recite less than the recitation in the first two rak’ahs.

 

They said: The recitation of the surahs in the third and fourth raka’at is the same.

 

Is the recitation in the first raka’at longer than the second raka’at?

 

There are two opinions regarding this. The more correct view according to the majority of our companions is that it should not be lengthened.

 

The second opinion, which is the most correct according to the scholars, is that the recitation should be prolonged. This is the preferred view based on the saheeh hadeeth:

 

“The Messenger of Allah lengthened the recitation in the first rak’ah more than the second.”

 

Ash-Shafi’i said: When a masbug finds the last two raka’ahs of Dhuhr or other prayers with the Imam, and then wants to do the remaining two raka’ahs, it is recommended that he recite a surah.

 

The majority of our companions said: This is based on two opinions.

 

Some of them said: This is according to the view that recommends reciting the surah in the last two rak’ahs. But according to others, it is not recommended.

 

The correct view is the first one, so that the prayer is not empty of surahs. And Allah knows better.

 

This is the ruling on the Imam and the one praying alone. As for the praying person, if he is praying slowly, it is obligatory for him to recite Al-Fatihah and it is recommended for him to recite the surah.

 

If the prayer is recited aloud, and he hears the imam’s recitation, it is not preferable for him to recite the surah.

 

There are two opinions concerning the obligation to recite al-Fatihah: The more correct opinion is that it is obligatory and the second opinion is that it is not obligatory.

 

If he does not hear the imam reciting, then the correct view is that reciting al-Fatihah is obligatory and reciting the surah is recommended. Some say it is obligatory to recite al-Fatihah and it is not recommended to recite the surah. And Allah knows better.

 

It is obligatory to recite al-Fatihah after the first takbeer of the funeral prayer. As for reciting Al-Fatihah in the Naafilah prayer, it is obligatory.

 

Our companions disputed over his naming the prayer.

 

Al-Qufal said: His name is obligatory. His companion Al-Qadhi Husein said: It is a condition. Others said: It is a pillar and that is more appropriate. And Allah knows better.

 

If a person is unable to recite Al-Fatihah in any of these cases, he should substitute it with something else and recite the equivalent verses from the Qur’ān. If he is unable to do so, he should replace it with equivalent dhikr such as tasbih, tahlil and the like.

 

If he is unable to recite anything, he stands for just the length of the recitation of Al-Fatihah, then bow. And Allah knows better. Reciting two surahs in one raka’at

 

There is nothing wrong with reciting two surahs in one raka’at. It is narrated in Sahihain from the hadeeth of ‘Abdullah ibn Mas’ud , who said: “I have known the surahs with which the Messenger of Allah combined them. He mentioned twenty suras from al-Mufashshol, each two suras in one raka’at. We have narrated from the salaf the recitation of the khatam in one rak’ah.

 

Reading aloud in some prayers

 

The Muslims are unanimously agreed that it is Sunnah to recite aloud in Fajr, Jumu’ah, the two Eids, the first two raka’ahs of the Maghrib and Isha’ prayers, and the Tarawih and Witr prayers afterwards. It is Sunnah for the Imam and the one praying alone.

 

As for the mum, she should not read aloud, according to scholarly consensus. It is mustahabb to recite aloud in the lunar eclipse prayer and not to recite aloud in the solar eclipse prayer.

 

It is mustahabb to read aloud in the Istisga’ prayer, but it is not mustahabb to read aloud in the funeral prayer if it is offered during the day. The same applies at night, according to the correct and preferred madhhab.

 

There is no recitation in the voluntary daytime prayers other than the two Eids and Istisqa’ that we have mentioned.

 

Our companions differed concerning praying nawaafil at night. The more correct view is not to read aloud and the second view is to read aloud.

 

The third and more correct opinion, which is the choice of Al-Qadhi Husein and Al-Baghawi, is to read in a voice that is between loud and soft.

 

If a person misses a prayer at night and offers it during the day, or misses it during the day and offers it during the night, does the time missed or the time spent praying out loud count?

 

Our companions had two opinions about this: The more correct of the two is to take into account the time of making up the fast.

 

If he reads aloud where he is supposed to read softly or reads softly where he is supposed to read loudly, then his prayer is valid, but he has done something makrooh and does not have to prostrate himself.

 

It should be noted that to recite Sūrahs, Takbirs and other dhikr slowly is to say them so that one can hear them. He should say them so that he can hear them if his hearing is sound and there is nothing preventing him from doing so. If he cannot hear, then his recitation is invalid, and so are the other dhikr without any dispute. Places of silence in the recitation in the jahriyah prayer

 

Our companions said: It is mustahabb for the Imam in the jahriyah prayer to be silent four times while standing.

 

First: After the takbiratul ihram to recite the tawajjuh prayer (iftitah) and the congregation recites takbir.

 

Second: After reciting Al-Fatihah, there should be very little silence between Al-Fatihah and Aamiin so that there is no misunderstanding that Aamiin is included in Al-Fatihah.

 

Third: A long silence after Aamiin so that the congregation can recite Al-Fatihah.

 

Fourth: After finishing the recitation of the surah pause between the recitation of the surah and the takbir to go down to bow. It is recommended to say “Aamiin” after Al-Fatihah.

 

It is mustahabb for every reader in prayer or in his place of prayer when he finishes reciting Al-Fatihah to say: Aamiin.

 

The hadiths concerning this are many and well known. We have stated in the previous chapter that it is recommended to separate the end of al-Fatihah and Aameen with a short silence.

 

Aameen means: “O Allah, grant me.”

 

Some say: “So it is, and so it is.”

 

Some say: Go for it.

 

Some say: No one can do this except You. Some say it means: Do not waste our hope.

 

Some say: Secure us with goodness.

 

Some say: He is the protector of Allah for His servants by warding off calamities from them.

 

Some say: It is the degree in heaven prepared for whoever utters it.

 

Some say: It is a name among the names of Allah Ta’ala.

 

Researchers and the majority of scholars reject this opinion.

 

Some say: It is an un-Arabized Hebrew name.

 

Abu Bakr Al-Warraq said: It is the power of prayer and the request for mercy.

 

Some say other than that. There are several ways of saying Amen. The scholars said: The most eloquent is Aamin by lengthening the hamzah and shortening the Mim. The second way is by shortening it.

 

Both of these opinions are well known. The third method is imalah with madd.

 

Al-Wahidi narrated it from Hamzah and Al-Kisa’iy.

 

The fourth method is with tashdid in the miim accompanied by madd. Al-Wahidi narrated this from al-Hasan and al-Husein ibn Fudhail. He said: This is confirmed by the narration of Ja’far Ash-Shadig -&, who said: The meaning is that we are heading towards You and You are gracious so that You do not waste the one who is heading. This is the statement of al-Wahidi. This fourth method is very strange.

 

Most linguists consider it to be a misspeaking of the laity.

 

A group of our companions were of the opinion: Whoever says it (the fourth method), his prayer is invalidated. The linguists said: The Arabic word for it is wagaf (stop), because it is like a sound.

 

When it is connected, the letter Nuun is given the fathah harakat because of the meeting of two sukuns, just as it is given the fathah harakat in Aina and Kaifa, and it is not given the kasrah harakat because of the heaviness of the kasrah after Yaa”. This is a summary of what is related to the word Aameen.

 

I have explained this with additional evidence and opinions in the book “Tahdziib al asma’ wal lughaat.”

 

The scholars said: It is mustahabb to say Aameen in prayer for the Imam and the people praying with him and the one praying alone. The Imam and the person praying alone recite Aameen aloud in prayers where the recitation is loud.

 

They disagreed about the mum saying Aameen aloud. The correct view is that he recites it out loud.

 

The second opinion is not to say it out loud.

 

The third opinion is to read aloud if there are many people. Otherwise, there is no need to say it aloud.

 

Saying Aameen by the mum at the same time as saying Aameen by the Imam, not before and not after, according to the Prophet’s words in a sahih hadith:

 

“When the Imam says: Wa ladhdhaalliin, say Aameen, because whoever says Aameen coincides with the Aameen of the angels, Allah forgives his previous sins.”

 

As the Prophet said in a sahih hadith: (When the Imam says Aameen, then say: Aameen). Meaning: When you want to say Aamiin.

 

Our companions said: There is no place in the prayer where it is recommended that the mum’s speech should be heard at the same time as the imam’s, except in the saying of Aameen.

 

As for the other utterances, the makmun utterance comes later.

 

Sujud Tilawah

 

The scholars have agreed on the command to perform prostration of forgetfulness. They disagree as to whether it is Sunnah or obligatory.

 

The majority of scholars are of the view that it is not obligatory, but mustahabb (sunnah). This was the view of ‘Umar ibn Khaththab, Ibn ‘Abbas, Imran ibn Hushain, Maalik, Al-Auza’iy, Ash-Shafi’i, Ahmad, Ishag, Abu Tsaur, Dawud and others.

 

Abu Hanifah (may Allah have mercy on him) said: The ruling is obligatory. He quoted Allah, may He be exalted, as saying:

 

“Why do they not believe? And when the Qur’an is recited to them, they do not prostrate themselves.” Al-Inshiqaq: 20-21.

 

The majority of scholars rely on the sahih hadeeth of ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab: “He recited on the pulpit Sūrat An-Nam until he reached the verse of Sajdah, then he descended and prostrated himself and the people prostrated themselves.

 

On the following Friday, he recited it until when he reached the verse of sajdah, he said: “O people, we have come to the place of prostration, so whoever prostrates has done right. And whoever does not prostrate has not sinned,” and Umar did not prostrate. Hadith narrated by Bukhari.

 

Umar’s actions and words in this assembly are clear evidence.

 

As for the answer to the verse that Abi Haneefah uses as evidence, it is clear that what is meant is that he is reproaching them for not prostrating themselves, because they are lying to Allah, as Allah, may He be exalted, says afterwards:

 

“(Even the disbelievers deny).” Al-Inshiqaq: 22.

 

It is narrated in Ash-Shahihain” from Zaid bin Tsabit that he recited to the Prophet : “Wan Najmi” and did not prostrate.

 

It is narrated in Sahihai that the Prophet prostrated on the verse of sajdah in Sūrat An-Najm. So that shows that prostration is not obligatory.

 

Explanation of the number of prostrations and their places

 

As for the number, the one chosen by Ash-Shafi’i (may Allah have mercy on him) and the majority of scholars is fourteen sajdahs, namely in Sūrat Al-A’raf, Ar-Ra’ad, An-Nahl, and Subhaan (Al-Isra’), Maryam, and two sajdahs in Sūrat Al-Hajj, in Sūrat Al-Furgan, An-Naml, Alif Laam Miim, and Haa Miim As-Sajdah, Wan Najmi, Al-Inshiqaq and Al-‘Alaq.

 

As for the sajdah in Sūrat Shaad, it is a sunnah, not a highly recommended prostration, i.e. not a sunnah muakkadah.

 

It is narrated in Sahih Bukhari from Ibn Abbas who said: “The prostration in Sūrat Shaad is not the prostration that is emphasized and I saw the Prophet prostrate in that verse.” This is the view of Ash-Shafi’i and the scholars who are of his opinion.

 

Abu Hanifah said: There are fourteen sajdahs, but the second sajdah of Sūrat al-Hajj is omitted and the sajdah of Sūrat Shaad is added, making it the sajdah for which prostration is required.

 

There are two narrations from Ahmad: The first is the view of Ash-Shafi’i and the second is fifteen sajdahs with the addition of Shaad.

 

This is the view of Abil ‘Abbas ibn Shuraih and Abi Ishag al-Maruzi from the Ash-Shafi’i followers.

 

From Malik there are two narrations: The first is like Ash-Shafi’i and the most well-known of the two is that it is eleven sajdahs. He omitted the sajdahs in Sūrat An-Najm, Al-Inshiqaq and Al-‘Alag.

 

This is the slang of the old school of ash-Shafi’i. What is saheeh is what we have mentioned and the saheeh hadeeths indicate that.

 

The place of prostration is at the end of Sūrat al-A’raf. And Sūrat Ar-Ra’ad, which is after the words of Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, in the morning and in the evening.” Ar-Ra’ad: 15. In surah An Nahl:

 

“…… and did what was commanded them” An-Nahl: 50

 

In surah Al-Isra’:

“….. and they increased in solemnity.” Al-Isra”: 199.

 

In surah Maryam:

“…. then they fell prostrate and wept.” Maryam: 58.

 

In the first sajdah of surah Al-Hajj, viz:

“Verily Allah does what He wills.” AlHajj: 18.

 

And the second sajdah:

“….. do good so that you may gain victory.” Al-Hajj: 27.

 

In surah Al-Furgan:

 

“….. (and the command to prostrate themselves) increased their distance (from faith). Al-Furgan: 60.

 

In surah An-Nami:

“…the Lord of the great Throne.” An. Naml: 26.

 

In surah Alif Laam Miim Tanzil:

“…..And they do not boast.” AsSajdah: 15.

 

In surah Haa Miim (Fushshilat):

“…. and they do not grow weary.” Fushshilat: 38.

 

End of surah An-Najm:

“So prostrate yourself to Allah and worship Him.” An Najm: 62.

 

In surah Al-Inshiqaq:

“….. They do not prostrate themselves.” Al-Inshiqaq: 21.

 

And at the end of surah Al-‘Alag: 19.

 

There is no significant dispute about its place, except for the one in surah (Haa Miim). The scholars disagreed about it. Ash-Shafi’i and his followers are of the opinion that its place is after . This is the view of Said ibn al-Musayyab. Muhammad ibn Sirin, Abi Waail Shagig ibn Salamah, Sufyan AtsTsauri, Abi Hanifah, Ahmad and Ishag ibn Rahawaih.

 

Other scholars are of the view that its place is after the words of Allah:

 

Ibn Mundzir narrated it from ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, Hasan al-Bashri and the followers of ‘Abdillah ibn Mas’ud, Ibrahim An-Nakha’iy, Abu Saleh, Talhah ibn Musharrif, Zubair ibn al-Harith, Malik ibn Anas, Al-Laits ibn Sa’ad. This is the opinion of some of the followers of Ash-Shafi’i. Al-Baghawi narrated it in At-Tahdzib.

 

With regard to what Abul Hasan ‘Ali ibn Said al-Abdi, one of our companions, said in his book al-Kifayah concerning the dispute among us about the sajdah in Sūrat An-Namil, verse 25, which refers to the words of Allah, may He be exalted, said: This is the view of most of the fuqaha.

 

Malik said: The Sajdah is found in the words of Allah Ta’ala: (An-Nami: 26).

 

This is what he quoted from our madhhab.

 

The madhhab of the majority of fuqaha is not recognized and not accepted, but it is a clear error.

 

These are the books of our companions explaining that sajdah .

 

It is found in the words of Allah Ta’ala:   And Allah knows better. Ruling on prostration of recitation

 

The ruling on prostration is the same as the ruling on nafilah prayer in that it requires purity from impurity and impurity, facing the qiblah and covering the ‘awrah. So prostration is forbidden to anyone who has unforgivable impurity on his body or clothes.

 

And it is forbidden for the one who has wudoo’ to do so unless he does tayammum in a place where it is permissible for him to do so.

 

And it is haraam to face any direction other than the qiblah, except when traveling, because it is permissible to pray nafilah facing any direction other than the qiblah. All this is agreed upon by the scholars.

 

Article: When reciting the sajdah (of Sūrat Shaad), those scholars who are of the view that there is a stipulation for prostration in this sūrah are of the view that it is It is permissible to prostrate when reciting it in prayer or outside of it, like other sajdahs.

 

As for Ash-Shafi’i and others who think that the sajdah is not one of the designated places, they say: If he recites it outside of prayer, it is mustahabb for him to prostrate, because the Prophet prostrated on the sajdah, as we have stated,

 

If he recites it in prayer, he does not have to prostrate. If he prostrates out of ignorance or forgetfulness, then his prayer is not invalidated, but he should do prostration of forgetfulness. If he knows, then the correct view is that his prayer is invalid, because he is adding to his prayer something that is not part of it, so it is invalid.

 

The same applies if he makes a prostration of gratitude in prayer. Then his prayer is invalidated without any dispute.

 

Second opinion: It is not invalid, because it is connected to the prayer. If the imam prostrates himself in the “Shaad” sajdah because he believes it to be the place where prostration is prescribed, and the mum does not believe that, then she should not follow him.

 

When waiting for him, does he do prostration?

 

There are two opinions about this: The more correct one: no prostration. Article: About whom it is recommended to prostrate in recitation

 

Note that it is mustahabb for the reader to purify himself with water or earth when it is permissible, whether in prayer or outside of it.

 

It is also mustahabb for the one who listens and the one who hears unintentionally.

 

But al-Imam Ash-Shafi’I said: I do not emphasize for him what I emphasize for the listener. This is the correct opinion.

 

Our friend Imamul Haramain said: The listener does not need to prostrate. The most popular view is the first opinion. Whether the reciter is in prayer or outside of prayer, it is mustahabb for both the hearer and the listener to prostrate. Whether the reciter prostrates or not. This is the correct opinion according to the followers of Ash-Shafi’i.

 

The author of the book “Al-Bayaan”, a follower of Ash-Shafi’i, said: The one who listens to the recitation of the reciter in prayer does not need to prostrate.

 

Ash-Shaidalani, a follower of Ash-Shafi’i, said: It is not mustahabb to prostrate unless the reader prostrates. The correct view is the first opinion.

 

It makes no difference whether the reader is a male Muslim who has reached puberty and purified himself or a disbeliever or a child or a woman.

 

This is the correct view according to us, and it is also the view of Abu Haneefah.

 

One of our companions said: There is no need to prostrate when hearing the recitation of a disbeliever, a child, a person who is impaired and a drunk.

 

A number of salaf scholars were of the opinion: There is no need to prostrate when hearing a woman recite. Ibn al-Mundhir narrated this from Qatadah, Maalik and Ishaq.

 

The truth is what we say.

 

Summarizing the prostration of recitation

 

This means reciting one verse or two verses, then prostrating.

 

Ibn al-Mundhir narrated from Ash-Shafi’bi, Hasan al-Basiri, Muhammad ibn Sirin, An-Nakha, Ahmad and Ishaq that they disliked that.

 

It was narrated from Abi Haneefah, Muhammad ibn Hasan and Abi Tsaur that there is nothing wrong with that. This is in accordance with our madhhab.

 

The manners of prostration

 

If he is praying alone, he may prostrate for his own recitation. If ja leaves the prostration of recitation and bowing, then wants to prostrate for recitation afterwards, it is not permissible.

 

If he has laid down to bow, but has not yet reached the point of bowing, then he may make prostration of forgetfulness. If he does so knowing this, his prayer is invalidated.

 

If he had fallen down for prostration, then remembered and stood up again, that is permissible.

 

If the one who is praying alone listens to a reader reciting in prayer or otherwise, it is not permissible for him to prostrate himself because of that. If he prostrates while knowing it, his prayer is invalidated.

 

With regard to one who prays in congregation, if he is the imam, he is like one who prays alone. If the imam makes prostration of forgetfulness because of his own recitation, it is obligatory for the people to prostrate with him. If he does not, his prayer is invalidated.

 

If the imam does not prostrate, then the mum should not prostrate. If the person prostrates, his prayer is invalidated.

 

However, it is recommended for him to prostrate when he finishes praying and it is not emphasized.

 

If the imam prostrated and the mum did not know about it until the imam raised his head from prostration, then he is forgiven for missing it and he should not prostrate.

 

If he finds out that the imam is prostrating, he must also prostrate.

 

If he lies down to prostrate himself, and the imam raises his head while he is moving to prostrate himself, then he should return to standing with him and should not prostrate himself. Similarly, the weak person who prostrated with the imam, if the imam rises from prostration before the weak person reaches the place of prostration because of the imam’s speed and the weak person’s slowness, then he should return with him and should not continue prostrating.

 

But if the one who is praying is a mum, then he should not prostrate himself because of his own recitation or because of the recitation of someone other than the imam. If he prostrates, his prayer is invalidated. It is makrooh for him to recite the Sajdah and it is makrooh for him to listen to anyone other than the imam. Time of prostration

 

The scholars said: The prostration of recitation should be done after the verse of sajdah that he read or heard. If he delays it and the interval is not long, he may prostrate. If the interval is long, then the prostration should be skipped.

 

He does not have to make it up according to the correct scholarly view, just as it is not permissible to make up the eclipse prayer.

 

One of our companions said: There is a weak opinion that it is permissible to make up the prostration, just as it is permissible to make up the prayers of the sunnah raatibah, such as the sunnah of Fajr and Dhuhr and so on.

 

If the reader or listener breaks his wudoo’ while reciting the sajdah, then he purifies himself within a short time, he may prostrate. If he is slow in purifying himself, and there is a long interval, then the correct and preferred view, which was adopted by the majority of scholars, is that he should not prostrate.

 

Some say that he may prostrate. This is the view of our friend al-Baghawi. It is also permissible for Ja to answer the muadzdzin (the one who calls to prayer) after he has finished praying.

 

What counts for the length of the interval is according to custom as the chosen school of thought. And Allah knows better.

 

If he recites all the verses of the sajdah or some of them in one sitting, then he may prostrate for each one without any disagreement. If he repeats one verse in several assemblies, then he may prostrate for each time without any dispute.

 

If he repeats it in one assembly. then it is seen. If he does not prostrate for the first time. one prostration is sufficient for all of them. If he prostrates for the first time. then there are three opinions concerning it.

 

The most correct view is that he prostrates himself for each sajdah, because the reason is repeated after fulfilling the ruling of the first sajdah.

 

Second opinion: The first prostration is sufficient for all of them. This is the view of Ibn Suraij and the view of Abu Haneefah (may Allah have mercy on him). The author of Al-Uddah our friend said: This is what is legislated. Ash-Shaykh Nashr al-Magdisi az-Zahid our friend preferred this view.

 

The third opinion: If the interval is long, he may prostrate. Otherwise, the first sajdah is sufficient. But if he repeats one verse of the prayer in one raka’at, then that raka’at is like one assembly. So all three opinions apply to him.

 

If the repetition of the verse occurs in two raka’ats, it is like two assemblies, so he must repeat the prostration without any dispute.

 

If he recites the sajdah while riding a vehicle on a journey, then he prostrates by gesturing.

 

This is our madhhab and the madhhab of Maalik, Abu Haneefah, Abu Yusuf, Muhammad, Ahmad, Zufar, Dawud and others.

 

Some followers of Abi Hanifah were of the opinion: He does not need to prostrate.

 

The correct view is that of the majority.

 

As for the rider in the place of residence, he may prostrate by gesturing.

 

Reciting sajdah before Al-Fatihah

 

If a person recites a verse of sajdah in prayer before al-Fatihah, he may prostrate. But if he recites it while bowing or prostrating, then he cannot prostrate, because standing is the place for recitation.

 

If he recites the verse of Sajdah, then he gets up and prostrates himself, then he doubts whether he has recited the Fatihah, then he may do prostration of forgetfulness. Then he should stand up again and recite al-Fatihah, because prostration should not be delayed.

 

If a person recites a verse of sajdah in Persian, then we do not think he needs to prostrate as he would if he were interpreting a verse of sajdah.

 

Abu Hanifah is of the opinion: He may prostrate.

 

If the listener of the sajdah verse prostrates with the reader, he is not bound by it and does not need to intend to follow it. He may rise from his previous prostration.

 

It is not makrooh for the imam to recite the verse of sajdah according to our view, whether he is reciting it softly or loudly, and it is permissible for him to prostrate when he recites it.

 

Malik was of the opinion: Prostration is absolutely makrooh.

 

Abu Hanifah said: Prostration is makrooh in prayers where the recitation is slow, not where the recitation is loud.

 

Prostration of recitation at makrooh times

 

We do not think that it is makrooh to prostrate during the times when prayer is forbidden. This was also the view of Ash-Shaw’bi, al-Hasan al-Bashri, Salim ibn ‘Abdullāh, al-Qasim, Atha’, Ikrimah and Abu Haneefah, ashaabur ra’yi and Maalik in one of two opinions.

 

A group of scholars did not like that. Among them were ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar, Said ibn Musayyab, Malik in another narration, Ishag ibn Rahawaih and Abu Tsaur.

 

Rukuk cannot replace the prostration of recitation.

 

Rukuk cannot replace prostration of recitation in a state of effort. This is our view and the view of the majority of scholars from the salaf and khalaf.

 

Abu Hanifah was of the view: Rukuk can replace the prostration of recitation.

 

The evidence of the majority is that they associate it with prostration in prayer.

 

As for the one who is unable to prostrate, he may gesture for prostration of forgetfulness just as he gestures for prostration in prayer.

 

Article: On the Nature of Prostration”

 

You should know that the person who performs prostration of recitation has two states. The first is outside the prayer and the second is inside the prayer.

 

As for the first, when he is about to prostrate, he intends to prostrate and raises his hands to the level of his shoulders as he does in takbiratul ihram for prayer. Then he says takbir again for prostration without raising his hands.

 

The second takbeer is mustahabb, not a condition like the takbeer for prostration in prayer. With regard to the first takbeer, which is the takbeer of ihraam, there are three opinions among our companions concerning it:

 

The most correct view, which is that of most of them, is that the takbir is a pillar, and prostration is not valid except for it.

 

The second opinion: Takbir is mustahabb (Sunnah) and if it is omitted, the prostration is valid. This is the view of Ash-Sheikh Abi Muhammad al-Juwaini.

 

The third opinion is that it is not mustahabb. And Allah knows better.

 

Then, if the one who wants to prostrate himself is standing, he should say takbiratul ihram, then say takbirat for prostration when he lies down.

 

If he is sitting, then the majority of our companions are of the view that it is mustahabb for him to stand up and say takbiratul ihram while standing, then prostrate himself in the same way as he did at the beginning while standing: It is mustahabb for him to stand up, say takbeeratul ihram while standing, and then fall down to prostrate himself, as he did at the beginning while standing.

 

The evidence for this is that it is similar to the takbiratul ihram and prostration in prayer.

 

Those who mentioned this and established it among the imams of our companions were Ash-Sheikh Abu Muhammad al-Juwaini and al-Oadhi Husein and his two companions, the author of At-Tatimmah and At-Tahdzib and al-Muhaggig Abul Qasim ar-Rafi’i.

 

Imamul Haramain narrated it from his father Ash-Shaykh Abi Muhammad, then denied it. He said: I see no basis or reason for this.

 

What this Imamul Haramain said is correct.

 

There is no saheeh report on this from the Prophet, nor from the salaf scholars who can be relied upon. None of our companions discussed it. Wallahu a’lam.

 

Then at the time of prostration he must observe the manners of prostration in hai-at and tasbih.

 

With regard to the hai-at, he puts his hands on the ground at the level of his shoulders and closes his fingers and extends them from his sleeves and prostrates himself with them as one who prays.

 

He keeps his elbows away from his sides and raises his belly from his thighs if he is a man. If he is a woman or a transvestite, then he does not keep them away.

 

The one who prostrates raises his lower part above his head and presses his forehead and nose against the mushalla (prayer mat) and is calm in prostration.

 

With regard to glorifying in prostration, our companions were of the view: He says tasbeeh in the same way as he says tasbeeh in prostration in prayer. He says three times: Subhana Rabbiyal A’laa.

 

Then he said:

 

“O Allah, to You I bow down, to You I believe and to You I surrender. My face bows down to the Lord who created it and shaped its appearance, made its hearing and sight by His power and might. So pure is Allah, the best of creators.”

 

And he said:

 

(Glory be to the Lord of the angels and spirits).

 

All this is said by the praying person in prostration.

 

Our companions also said: He is recommended to read:

 

“O Allah, write for me with this prostration a reward in Your sight, and make it for me a deposit in Your sight, erase sin from me and accept this prostration from me as You accepted it from Dawud (peace be upon him).” This supplication is specific to this prostration, so it should always be recited.

 

Al-Ustadz Isma’il Adh-Dharir said in his book “AtTafsir” that the choice of Ash-Shafi’i regarding the prayer of prostration of recitation is to say:

 

“Glory be to our Lord, surely the promise of our Lord shall be fulfilled.” Al-Isra”: 108.

 

This narration from Ash-Shafi’i is very strange and it is good.

 

This is because the Qur’anic text calls for praise to be uttered in prostration by the worshipper. So it is mustahabb to combine these dhikr and supplication for the affairs of the Hereafter and the world that one desires.

 

If he restricts himself to some of them, the recitation of tasbih is sufficient. If he does not say tasbeeh with anything, his prostration is like the prostration in prayer.

 

Then, when he has finished his glorifying and praying, he raises his head and says Takbir.

 

Does the prostration of recitation require salam? There are two opinions concerning this from Ash-Shafi’i that are well known.

 

The more correct of the two, according to the majority of scholars from his followers, is that it requires the salam, because it requires takbiratul ihram and is like the funeral prayer.

 

This opinion is supported by the hadeeth narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud with a valid isnad from Abdullah ibn Mas’ud that when reciting the verse of sajdah, he prostrated, then gave salam.

 

Second opinion: The prostration of recitation does not require a salam like the prostration of recitation in prayer and because it was not narrated from the Prophet. 

 

Based on the first opinion, does the prostration of recitation require tashahhud?

 

There are two opinions and the most correct of them is that it does not require tashahhud just as it does not require standing.

 

One of our companions conflated the two issues. He said concerning tashahhud and salam that there are three opinions.

 

The most correct view is that the salam should be said without tashahhud.

 

Second opinion: He does not need either of them.

 

The third opinion is that you should do both.

 

Among the salaf scholars who were of the opinion: the greeting of talah must be said: Muhammad ibn Sirin. Abu Abdurrahman As-Sulami, Abul Ahwash. Abu Qulabah and Ishag ibn Rahawaih.

 

Those who say that it is not necessary to say the greeting are Hasan al-Bashri. Said ibn Jubayr. Ibrahim An-Nakha’iy, Yahya bin Warsisab and Ahmad.

 

All of this is in the first case, which is prostration outside of prayer.

 

The second situation is prostrating in prayer. Then there is no need for the ra to make khakbir for ihram.

 

It is recommended to say Takbir for prostration and not to raise his hands, and to say Takbir for rising from prostration. This is the correct view, which is the view of the majority of scholars.

 

Our Companion Abu ‘Ali ibn Abi Hurairah said: There is no need to say Takbir for prostration or rising from prostration.

 

The famous one is the first opinion.

 

With regard to the manners of prostrating and saying tasbeeh in the prostration of recitation, they are the same as in the previous prostrations outside prayer, except that if the one prostrating is the imam, then he should not prolong the tasbeeh, unless he knows from the situation of the congregation that they prefer to prolong it.

 

Then, when he rose from prostration, he stood up and did not sit down to rest without any dispute. This is an odd matter. Rarely does anyone mention it. Among the scholars who did mention it were al-Oadhi Husein, al-Baghawi and al-Rafi’i.

 

This is different from the prostration of prayer.

 

The correct view, which was mentioned by Ash-Shafi’i and was chosen from the sahih hadeeths narrated by Bukhari and others, is that it is recommended to rest after the second prostration of the first raka’ata in every prayer and the third raka’at in prayers that have four raka’ats.

 

Then. when rising from the prostration of recitation. then he should stand up straight.

 

It is mustahabb when standing upright to recite something, then bow. If you stand up straight and bow without reciting anything, then it is permissible.

 

Selected times to recite the Qur’an

 

You should know that the best recitation of the Qur’an is in prayer. The view of Ash-Shafi’i and others is that prolonged standing in prayer is better than prolonged prostration.

 

As for reciting the Qur’an outside of prayer, the best thing to do is to recite it at night. The last half of the night is better than the first.

 

Recitation of the Qur’an between Maghrib and ‘Isha’ is favored. “As for reciting the Qur’an during the day, it is best after the Fajr prayer, and there is no disgrace in reciting the Qur’an at any time because it contains meaning.

 

As for what Ibn Abi Dawud narrated from Ma’an ibn Rifa’ah from his teachers that they disliked reciting the Qur’an after ‘Asr and said that it was the study time of the Jews, this assumption is unacceptable and unfounded.

 

The selected days are Friday, Monday, Thursday and the day of Arafat. And the ten selected days are the last ten days of Ramadan and the first ten days of Dhul Hijjah and the most important month is Ramadan.

 

If the reader is confused and does not know the place after the verse he has recited, then ask someone else. He should follow the tradition of ‘Abdullāh ibn Mas’ud, Ibrahim An-Nakha’iy, and Bashir ibn Abi Mas’ud (may Allah be pleased with him).

 

They said: When one of you asks his brother about a verse, he should recite the previous verse, then keep quiet and not say: How come such and such, because that would confuse him.

 

If he wants to argue with a verse, he may say: Allah Ta’ala has said so, and he may say: Allah Ta’ala said so.

 

There is nothing improper about any of this. This is the correct and preferred view, which was adopted by the salaf and khalaf.

 

It was narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud from Mutharrif ibn Abdillah ibn Shikhkhir, a well-known tabi’iy, who said: Do not say: Innallaha Ta’ala yaguulu (Verily Allah says), but say: Innallaha Ta’ala gaala (Verily Allah Ta’ala has spoken).

 

What Mutharrif (may Allah have mercy on him) denies is contrary to what is mentioned in the Qur’an and Sunnah, and what the Companions and those who came after them did, may Allah be pleased with them. Allah Ta’ala says:

 

 “And Allah tells the truth and He shows the (right) way. ” Al-Ahzab: 4.

 

Narrated in Sahih Muslim from Abi Dharr he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever does a good deed will be rewarded tenfold.” Al-An’am: 160.

 

Narrated in Sahih Bukhari in the chapter of Tafsir:

 

So Abu Talhah said:

 

“Ya Rasulallah, verily Allah says: “You will not attain (complete) goodness until you spend some of the wealth that you love.” Ali Imran: 92.

 

This is what Abi Talhah said in the presence of the Prophet.

 

It was narrated in a sahih hadeeth from Masruq, who said: I said to ‘Aa’ishah:

 

“Does not Allah say: “And verily Muhammad saw God on the clear horizon.” At-Takwir: 23.

 

So ‘Aisha replied:

 

“Have you not heard that Allah, the Exalted, says: “He is beyond the sight of the eye, but He is all-seeing.” Al-An’am: 103.

 

Have you not heard that Allah says: “And there is not for any man that Allah speaks with him, except by means of a wahvu or behind a veil.” Ash-Shuura: 51.

 

Then ‘Ā’ishah said in this hadeeth:

 

“And Allah says: “O Messenger, convey what has been sent down to you from your Lord.” Al-Maidah: 67.

 

Then Aisha said:

 

And Allah says: “Say: There is no one in the heavens and the earth who knows the unseen except Allah.” An-Nami: 65.

 

There are countless examples of this in the discussions of the salaf and khalaf. And Allah knows better. The manners of reciting the Qur’an and all that goes with it

 

There are several problems with this article:

 

The first issue concerns the timing: It has been explained that it is mustahabb to recite the Qur’ān in prayer alone.

 

Some say: It is recommended that this recitation be done in two rak’ahs of the Sunnah of Fajr and two rak’ahs of the Sunnah of Maghrib, but two rak’ahs of the Sunnah of Fajr is preferable.

 

It is recommended to complete one khatam at the beginning of the afternoon on one occasion and complete another khatam at the end of the afternoon on another occasion.

 

With regard to those who recite it outside of prayer and those who recite it together, it is recommended that they recite it at the beginning of the day and at the beginning of the night, as has been explained, and the beginning of the day is preferable according to some scholars.

 

The second issue: It is recommended to fast on the day of the blessing, unless it coincides with a day on which it is forbidden in sharee’ah to fast.

 

Ibn Abi Dawud narrated that Talhah ibn Mutharrif, Habib ibn Abi Tsabit and Al-Musayyab ibn Rafi’ from among the Kufa tabi’in (may Allah be pleased with them) fasted on the day when they completed the Qur’an.

 

The third issue: It is strongly recommended to attend Qur’anic recitation gatherings.

 

Narrated in Sahihain:

 

“That the Messenger of Allah ordered menstruating women to come out on the day of Eid to witness the kindness and prayers of the Muslims.”

 

It was narrated by Ad-Darimi and Ibn Abi Dawud with their isnads from Ibn Abbas that he appointed a man to watch over a man who was reciting the Qur’an. When he was about to recite it, he informed Ibn ‘Abbas, so he attended.

 

Narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud with two sahih isnads from Oatadah the noble tabi’iy companion of Anas , he said: When Anas ibn Malik was about to recite the Qur’an, he gathered his family and prayed.

 

And he narrated with a valid chain of transmission from Al-Hakam bin Utaibah a noble tabi’iy, who said: Mujahid and Abdah bin Lubabah sent someone to me. We sent them to you, because we wanted to recite the Qur’an, and supplication is mustajab when reciting the Qur’an.

 

In another authentic narration, it is mentioned that mercy descends when completing the Qur’an.

 

Ibn Abi Dawud narrated with a valid isnad from Mujahid, who said: They used to gather when reciting the Qur’an. They said: mercy descends.

 

Fourth issue: It is strongly recommended to pray after completing the Qur’ān according to what we mentioned in the previous issue.

 

Narrated by Ad-Darimi with his isnad from Humaid AlA’raj, he said: Whoever recites (completes) the Qur’an, and then prays, his prayer will be answered by 4000 angels.

 

He should be earnest in his supplications and pray for the important things and make more of them for the good of the Muslims, their leaders, and their officials.

 

It was narrated by al-Hakim Abu Abdillah An-Naisaburi with his isnad that when Abdullah ibn Mubarak completed the Qur’an, most of his supplications were for the good of the Muslims, believers and believers.

 

He also said that. So let the one who prays choose comprehensive prayers, such as:

 

“O Allah, mend our hearts, remove our evil, guide us in the best way, adorn us with piety, gather for us the good of this world and the Hereafter and grant us obedience to You as long as You keep us alive.”

 

“O Allah, make it easy for us and keep us away from hardship, protect us from the evil of ourselves and our bad deeds, protect us from the punishment of hell and the punishment of the grave, the fimah in life and after death and the fitnah of the Messiah ad-Dajjal.”

 

“O Allah, we ask You for guidance, piety, purity and sufficiency.”

 

“O Allah, we entrust to You our religion, our bodies and the end of our deeds, ourselves, our families and loved ones, other Muslims and all the affairs of the Hereafter and this world that You have bestowed upon us and them.”

 

“O Allah, we ask You for forgiveness and salvation in religion, here and Hereafter, and gather us and our loved ones in the land of Your glory with Your mercy and grace.”

 

“O Allah, reform the Muslim leaders and make them just to their people, kind to them, compassionate and gentle to them and consider their interests. Make them love their people and they will be loved by their people; make them follow Your straight path and fulfill the duties of Your straight religion.”

 

“O Allah, be kind to Your servant our ruler and make him mindful of the interests of this world and the hereafter, make him love his people and make him loved by the people.”

 

He then recited other prayers about leaders and added the following:

 

“O Allah have mercy on him and his country, protect his followers and his army, help him to face the enemies of the religion and other opponents, make him act to eliminate various evils and reveal goodness and various kinds of virtues. Make Islam more widespread by its cause, glorify him and his people with brilliant glory.”

 

“O Allah, improve the condition of the Muslims and lower their prices, secure them in their lands, pay off their debts, heal the sick among them, help their troops, save their departure, free the captives, heal their hearts, Make faith and wisdom in their hearts, establish them on the religion of your messenger (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), inspire them to fulfill your promise that you gave them, help them against your enemies and their enemies, O Lord of the Righteous, and make us of their number.”

 

“O Allah, make them enjoin what is right and forbid what is evil and avoid it, maintain Your boundaries, obey You, do good to one another and advise one another.”

 

“O Allah, guard them in their words and deeds, and bless them in all their circumstances.” The one who prays should begin and end his prayer with his words:

 

“Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, with praise that is sufficient for His favors and commensurate with His additions. O Allah, bestow peace and blessings upon Muhammad and his family just as You bestowed peace and blessings upon Abraham and his family.

 

Bless Muhammad and the family of Muhammad as you blessed Abraham and the family of Abraham. In all the worlds, You are indeed the Most Praiseworthy, the Most Glorious.”

 

Fifth issue: It is recommended that when one finishes reciting the Qur’an, it is recommended to start reciting the Qur’an again afterwards. The scholars of the salaf and khalaf have recommended this. They quoted the hadeeth of Anas, in which the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“The best of deeds is al-hallu from Ar-Rihlah. He was asked: What are these two?

 

The Prophet replied: Start the recitation of the Qur’an and complete it.”

 

SEVENTH CHAPTER: MANNERS OF ALL PEOPLE TOWARDS THE QUR’AN

 

Narrated in Sahih Muslim from Tamim Ad-Daariy -, he said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Religion is advice. We said: To whom? The Prophet replied: To Allah, His book, His messenger, the leaders of the Muslims and their common people.” The scholars (may Allah have mercy on them) said: The advice for the book of Allah is: Believing that it is the words of Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, and that there is nothing like it in the words of the creation, and none of the creation can make it like it.

 

Then glorify it and recite it truthfully and in the best way possible. Then venerate it and recite it truthfully and with the best of intentions, such as reading its letters correctly, defending it from the misinterpretation of those who distort it and the harassment of those who transgress, confirming its contents, implementing its rulings, understanding its knowledge and parables, paying attention to its advice, Thinking of its wonders and practicing its muhkam (clear) verses and accepting its mutasyabih (obscure) verses, investigating its generality and specificity, naasikh and mansukh, broadcasting its knowledge, calling to it and to its advice that we have mentioned.

 

The obligation to glorify the Qur’an

 

The Muslims are unanimously agreed that it is obligatory to venerate the Noble Qur’an, purify it and protect it. And they are agreed that whoever denies one letter of it that has been agreed upon or adds a letter that no one has recited and he knows it, then he is a disbeliever.

 

Al-Ilmam Al-Hafidh Abul Fadhli Al-Gadhi Iyadh (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “You should know that whoever belittles the Qur’an or a part of it, or abuses it, or denies a letter of it, or denies a ruling or a report that is confirmed in it, or confirms something that is denied, or denies something that is established, while he knows about it, or doubts something of it, has disbelieved according to the consensus of the Muslims.

 

Similarly, if he denies the Torah and Gospel or the books of Allah that were revealed or disbelieves in them or abuses them or belittles them, then he has disbelieved.

 

He said: The Muslim scholars are unanimously agreed that the Qur’ān that is recited in various countries and written in the Mushaf that is in the hands of Muslims and collected between the two covers from Alhamdulillahi Rabbil “aalamiin (Al-Fatihah) to the end of Qul A’udzu birabbin naasi is the Kalamullah and His revelation that was revealed to His Prophet Muhammad.

 

And they agreed that everything in it is true and whoever reduces it intentionally or replaces one letter with another letter or adds a letter to it that is not included in the agreed Mushaf and declares intentionally that it is not included in the Qur’an, then he is also a disbeliever.

 

Abu Uthman ibnul Haddad said: “All the monotheists are agreed that denying one letter of the Qur’an is kufr.”

 

The Fugaha of Baghdad had agreed to order the repentance of Ibn Shahbudz al-Mugri, a leading Qur’ānic reciter, along with Ibn Mujahid, for reading and teaching recitations with odd letters not found in the Mushaf.

 

They made him make a declaration to stop and repent with their testimony in the assembly of Al-Vizier Ubay bin Maqlah in 323 AH.

 

Muhammad ibn Abi Zayd gave a fatwa on a man who said to a child: “May Allah curse your teacher and what he taught you?”

 

He said: “I meant bad manners and I did not mean the Qur’an.”

 

 

So Muhammad said: “The one who says that is punished.”

 

As for the one who curses the Mushaf, then he may be killed. This is the end of what al-Oadhi Iyadh (may Allah have mercy on him) said. Interpreting the Qur’an without knowledge

 

It is haraam to interpret the Qur’an without knowledge and to speak about its meanings to those who are not experts. There are many hadeeths concerning that, and consensus prevails concerning it.

 

As for its interpretation by the scholars, it is permissible and good. Ijma’ has established that. So whoever is skilled in interpretation and has the necessary tools to find out what it means and is correct in his assumption of what it means, he may also interpret it if he can find out by ijtihaad.

 

Such as clear and obscure meanings and rulings, generality and specificity, i’raab and so on.

 

If the meaning cannot be determined by ijtihaad, such as cases where the method is to quote and interpret words according to the language, then it is not permissible to speak about them. It is not permissible to speak about them except by means of valid narrations by reliable scholars.

 

As for the one who is not an expert because he does not have the tools, it is haraam for him to interpret the meaning. But it is permissible for him to quote the interpretation from a reliable expert.

 

Then, there are those who interpret their opinions without any valid evidence:

 

Some of them would use a verse to justify their own school of thought, even if they did not think that this was what the verse meant. He just wants to outdo his opponent.

 

Some of them want to call to goodness and argue with a verse without knowing the guidance for what they are saying.

 

Some of them interpreted the Arabic words without understanding their meanings from the experts, even though this cannot be done except by hearing from the experts in Arabic language and tafseer. Such as explaining the meaning of the word and its i’rab, hadhaf, summary, idhmaar, essence and majaz, generality and specificity, ijmal and bayan, introduction and ending and so on from things that are different from what they appear to be.

 

In addition, it is not enough to know the Arabic language, but one must know what the commentators say about it. Sometimes they agree to leave the original meaning, or to emphasize the specificity or idhmaar, or something else that contradicts the original meaning.

 

For example, if the word has several meanings, then he finds out somewhere that it means one of them, then he interprets it with all the meanings it contains. This is tafseer bir ra’yi, and it is haraam. And Allah knows better.

 

Article: It is forbidden to argue about the Qur’an without a valid reason. It is forbidden to argue about the Qur’an without a valid reason, such as if a person sees something in a verse that contradicts his own school of thought and is likely to be weak in accordance with his school of thought, then he interprets it according to his school of thought and defends it, even if it is contrary to what he says. As for the one who does not know that, he may be excused.

 

It was narrated from the Messenger of Allah 4 that he said:

 

“Debating about the Qur’an is kufr. Al-Khaththabi said: What is meant by al-miraa’ is doubt. Some say: A debate that raises doubts about the Qur’an.

 

Some say: It is a debate by the followers of a cult about the verses of predestination and the like.

 

If someone wants to ask about the introduction of a verse before another verse in the Mushaf or the suitability of this verse in this place and the like, he should say: What is the wisdom in this?

 

It is makrooh for one to say: I forgot this verse. But he says: I was made to forget it or I omitted it.

 

It was narrated in Sahihain from Abdullah ibn Ma’sud who said: The Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Let not one of you say: I forgot such-and-such a verse. Rather it is something that is made to forget.”

 

Narrated in Sahihain?” as well:

 

“How terrible is the one of you who says: I forgot such-and-such a verse, but it is something forgotten.”

 

It is also narrated in Sahihain from ‘Aisha that the Prophet heard a man reciting a verse. Then he said:

 

May Allah have mercy on so-and-so, he has reminded me of a verse that I had overlooked.  .

 

In a narration in the book of Ash-Shahih it is said that he forgot about it).

 

Ibn Abi Dawud narrated from Abu Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami, a noble tabi’i, that he said: Do not say: I omit this verse, but say: “I was distracted”, then that contradicts what is narrated in the sahih hadith.

 

So what is relied upon is the hadeeth that states that it is permissible to say: “I aborted it” and there is no karohah on that.

 

Naming the suras

 

Sūrat al-Baqarah, Sūrat al-Imran, Sūrat al-Nisa’, Sūrat al-Maidah, Sūrat al-An’am may be mentioned. As for the other surahs, there is no karohah on that.

 

Some of the earlier scholars disliked this and said: It should be said: The surah called Al-Baqarah in it, the surah called ‘Ali Imran in it, the surah called AnNisa’ in it. The same applies to the other surahs.

 

The correct opinion is the first opinion.

 

It has been narrated in Sahihain from the Messenger of Allah that he mentioned Sūrat al-Baqarah, Sūrat al-Kahf and countless others. It was also narrated from the Companions (radhiyallahu anhum).

 

Tonu Mas’ud said: “This is the place where surah Al-Baqarah was revealed.”

 

It was narrated from Ibn Mas’ud in Sahihain, “I recited to the Messenger of Allah surah An-Nisa’.”

 

There are many hadiths and sayings of the salaf concerning this.

 

Regarding the word “surah” there are two kinds of readings, with the hamzah and without the hamzah, while without the hamzah is more fluent. That is the one that appears in the Qur’ān. Among those who mention the two readings is Ibn Qutaibah in Gharibil hadith.

 

It is not makrooh to say: This is the reading of Abu Amr or the reading of Naafi’ or Hamzah or Al-Kisa’iy or others. This is the preferred view of the salaf and khalaf scholars, and there is no denial of it.

 

It was narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud from Ibrahim An-Nakhar’iy that he said: They do not like to say: “So-and-so’s Sunnah and so-and-so’s recitation”. The truth is what we have stated. Ruling on listening to the Qur’an by a disbeliever

 

Disbelievers are not prohibited from listening to the Qur’ān based on Allah’s words:

 

“And if one of the polytheists asks you for protection, then protect him so that he may hear the word of Allah.” At-Taubah: 6.

 

What is forbidden is touching the Mushaf. Is it permissible to teach him the Qur’an?

 

Our companions were of the opinion: If there is no hope that he will become Muslim, then there are two opinions. The more correct view is that it is permissible, because it is hoped that he will become Muslim.

 

The second view is that it is not permissible, just as it is not permissible to sell the Mus-haf to him, even if he is expected to become Muslim. If we see him learning, is it prohibited? There are two opinions concerning that.

 

Article: The scholars disagreed about writing the Qur’an in a vessel, then washing it and drinking the water from it for the sick. Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Abu Qulabah and Al-Auza’1y disliked it.

 

Al-Oadhi Husein, al-Baghawi and our companions said: If the Qur’an were written on halwa (a type of food) and other food, there would be no problem in eating it.

 

Al-Oadhi said: If the Qur’ān were written on a piece of wood, it would not be desirable to burn it.

 

Our school of thought is to dislike writing the Qur’an and the names of Allah on walls and clothes. Atha’ said: “There is nothing wrong with writing the Qur’an in the qiblah of the mosque.” As for writing the letters of the Qur’an, Malik was of the opinion: There is no problem with it if it is written on a piece of bamboo or leather and wrapped.

 

Some of our companions were of the view: If the verses of the Qur’ān are written in a container with other things, it is not haraam, but it is better to leave it out, because it is carried in a state of impurity.

 

This is the view of Ash-Shaykh Abu Amru ibn Ash.

 

Shalah rahimahullahu.

 

Article: About blowing with recitation of the Qur’an as ruqyah

 

It was narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud from Abu Juhayfah, a companion of the Prophet, and his name was Wahab ibn ‘Abdullah or something else, from Hasan al-Bashri and Ibrahim An-Nakha’iy that they disliked that.

 

The preferred view is that it is not makrooh, rather it is a recommended Sunnah.

 

It has been narrated from Aisha  

 

“When the Prophet went to sleep every night, he would put his palms together and blow into them, then recite Qul Huwallahu Ahad, Qul A’udzu birabbil Jalag and Qul A’udzu birabbin naas.

 

Then he rubbed them on his body as much as possible, starting with his head and face and any part of his body that he could reach. He did this three times.”

 

Hadith narrated by Bukhari and Muslim in their Sahih books.

 

In some narrations in Sahihain there is more than this. In some of them ‘Aa’ishah – said:

 

“When the Prophet was sick, he told me to do it that way.”

 

In some narrations it is mentioned:

 

“The Prophet blew on himself during the illness that caused his death by reciting Al-Mu’awwidaat.”

 

‘Aisha said: “When he was feeling poorly, it was I who blew on him by reciting Al-Mu’awwidzaat and rubbing his hand myself to take its blessing.”

 

In part: “The Nab when sick recites to himself Al-Mu’awwidzaat and blows”

 

The linguists say: An-Nafats is a light blowing without spitting. Wallahu a’lam.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER EIGHT: VERSES AND SŪRAHS THAT ARE RECOMMENDED TO BE RECITED AT CERTAIN TIMES AND IN CERTAIN CIRCUMSTANCES 

 

It should be noted that this chapter is vast and cannot be limited due to its many contents. Rather, we have referred to a large part of it, or a lot of it, with brief expressions. Most of what we have mentioned is well known to scholars and laypeople alike. That is why I have not mentioned the evidence for most of them.

 

Part of the Sunnah is to pay much attention to the recitation of the Qur’an in Ramadaan, and even more so in the last ten days of Ramadaan and on the odd nights thereof.

 

The Sunnah includes reciting the Qur’an on the first ten days of Dhul-Hijjah, the day of ‘Arafah, Friday, after Fajr and at night.

 

He should often recite surah Yasin. Al-Wagi’ah and surah Tabarak (Al-Mulk).

 

Recitation of the Qur’an in Fajr prayer

 

It is mustahabb to recite in the Fajr prayer on Fridays after Al-Fatihah in the first raka’at the entire surah Alif Laam Miim Tanzil and the        entire second raka’at           .

 

He should not do what many mosque imams do, which is to recite only a few verses from each surah and lengthen the recitation. Rather, he should recite both suras in full and recite them slowly in tartil.

 

It is mustahabb to recite in the Jumu’ah prayer in the first raka’at the complete surah Al-Jumu ‘ah and in the second raka’at the complete surah Al-Munafigun. If he wishes, he may recite Sūrat al-A’laa in the first raka’at and Sūrat al-Ghaashiyah in the second raka’at. Both are sahih from the Messenger of Allah.

 

He should not limit himself to reciting part of the surah, and he should do as we have stated.

 

It is recommended in the led prayer to recite Sūrat Oaaf in the first raka’at and to recite Sūrat Al-Oamar in full in the second raka’at. If he wishes, he may recite surah Al-A’laa and Al-Ghaashiyah. Both are authentic reports from the Prophet and he should not limit himself to any of them.

 

Surahs recited in the Fajr (Fajr) voluntary prayer

 

It is recited in two raka’ahs of the Sunnah of Fajr after the first al-Fatihah: and in the second raka’ah if he wishes. He may recite it in the first raka’ah and so on. And in the second raka’at:

 

“Say: O people of the book, come to a sentence (decree) about which there is no dispute between us and you Imran: 64. Both are sahih from the actions of the Messenger of Allah.

 

It is also recited in the sunnah of Maghrib and both suras are recited in two raka’ats of tawaf and two raka’ats of istikharah.

 

And whoever prays Witr with three raka’ats, he recites in the first raka’at and in the second raka’at and in the third raka’at and .

 

Surahs that are recommended to be recited on Friday

 

It is recommended to recite Sūrat al-Kahf on Friday based on the hadeeth of Abi Said al-Khudri and others. Al-Imam Ash-Shafi’i said in Al-Umm: It is also recommended to recite it on Friday nights.

 

The evidence for this is the hadeeth narrated by Abu Muhammad Ad-Darimi with his isnad from Abi Said al-Khudri who said:

 

“Whoever recites Sūrat al-Kahf on the night of Friday, there will be light between him and Al-Baitil Atiq (the Ka’bah).

 

Ad-Darimi mentions a hadith about the recommendation to recite Surah Hud on Friday.

 

It was narrated from Makhul, a noble tabi’iy, that it is recommended to recite Sūrat Aali Imran on Fridays.

 

It is recommended to recite many verses of Al-Kursiy

 

It is recommended to recite the verses of Al-Kursiy in all places and recite them every night when going to bed and recite Al-Mu’awwidzatain after every prayer.

 

It was narrated from Uqbah bin Amir , who said:

 

“The Messenger of Allah told me to recite Al-Mu’awwidkzatain after every prayer.” Hadith narrated by Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi and Nasa’iy. Tirmidhi said: Hadith hasan sahih.

 

It is recommended when going to sleep to recite the verses of Al-Kursiy, Qul huwallahu ahad and Al-Mu’awwidzatain and the end of surah Al-Baqarah. This is a noteworthy practice.

 

It has been narrated in the sahih hadeeths regarding this practice from Abu Mas’ud al-Badri that the Messenger of Allah said:

 

“Whoever recites the last two verses of Sūrat al-Baqarah at night, they will suffice (protect) him.”

 

Some scholars said: This means that it is sufficient for the night prayer.

 

Other scholars said: The meaning is to protect him from being disturbed during the night.

 

It was narrated from ‘Aisha that the Prophet recited Qul huwallahu ahad and Al-Mu’awwidzatain every night.”

 

Narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud with his isnad from ‘Ali , he said: “I have never seen a reasonable person who converted to Islam sleep before reciting the verse of Al-Kursiy.”

 

Narrated by Ibn Abi Dawud from ‘Ali , he said: “I have never seen a reasonable person sleep at night before reciting the last three verses of Sūrat al-Baqarah.” The isnaad is saheeh according to the conditions of Bukhari and Muslim.

 

It was narrated from Ugbah bin Amir , he said: The Messenger of Allah said to me:

 

“Do not pass a night unless you recite in it. Qul huwallahu Ahad and Al-Mu’awwidzatain, Then did not a night come upon me, but I recited them.”

 

It was narrated from Ibrahim An-Nakha’iy, who said: They recommended reciting these suras three times every night: Qul huwallahu Ahad and Al-Mu’awwidzatain. The isnaad is saheeh according to the conditions of Muslim.

 

It was also narrated from Ibrahim: They taught people when they went to sleep to recite Al-Mu’awwidzatain.

 

Narrated Aisha:

 

“The Prophet did not sleep until he recited Sūrat Az-Zumar and the Children of Israel.” Hadith narrated by Tirmidhi and he said: hadith hasan.

 

When getting up from sleep every night, it is recommended to recite the end of Surah Aali Imran from the beginning of Allah’s words:

 

until the end.

 

It has been narrated in Sahihain:

 

“That the Messenger of Allah recited a few verses from the end of surah Aali Imran when he got up from sleep.”

 

(See Bukhari: book of Fadhaailul Our’an, chapter 34, and Muslim: book of Fadhaailul Our’an chapter 1).

 

Surahs recited to the sick

 

It is recommended to recite Al-Fatihah to the sick based on the Prophet’s words in the hadith regarding Al-Fatihah: “How do you know that Al-Fatihah is ruqyah?”

 

It is recommended to recite Qul Huwallahu Ahad, Qul A’udzu bi rabbil falag and Qul A’udzu bi rabbin naas for the sick person by blowing on both palms.

 

It has been narrated in the Sahihain from the action of the Messenger of Allah, which has been explained in the section on blowing at the end of the previous chapter.

 

Talhah ibn Mutharrif reported: It is reported: Verily, the sick person, when the Qur’an is recited near him, feels lightened.

 

One day I entered upon Khaitsamah who was ill. I said: “I see you are well today.”

 

He said: “The Qur’an has been recited near me.”

 

It was narrated by al-Khatib Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi (may Allah have mercy on him) with his isnad that when Ar-Ramadi felt pain, he would say: Call the hadith experts.

 

When they were present, he said: Recite the hadith to me. This is about the hadith. even more so the Qur’an.

 

About what is recited near the dead

 

The scholars of our sahabah and others said: It is mustahabb to recite Sūrat Yaa Siin near the dead person based on the hadeeth of Ma’qil ibn Yasar 4 that the Prophet said:

 

“Recite surah Yaasiin for your dead.”

 

Hadeeth narrated by Abu Dawud and Nasa’iy in Amalul yaumi wal lailati. and Ibra Majah with isnad dio’if.

 

It was narrated by Mujalid and al-Sha’bi who said: When the Ansār are present near the dead, they recite Sūrat al-Baqarah and Mujahd dio’if. Wallahu a’lam.

 

 

 

CHAPTER NINE: WRITING THE QUR’AN AND HONORING THE MUSHAF

 

Know that the Qur’an of Aziz was written at the time of the Prophet as it is in the Mushaf today. However, it was not collected in a Mushaf, but was memorized in the hearts of the people. Some Companions memorized the whole of it and some Companions memorized parts of it.

 

When Abu Bakr Ash-Shiddiq became caliph and many memorizers of the Qur’an were killed, he was worried that they would all die and there would be disputes about the Qur’an after they were gone. So Abu Bakr consulted with the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) to collect them in a Mushaf and they agreed.

 

Then Abu Bakr ordered it to be written in a mushaf and kept it in the house of Hafshah Ummul mu’minin radhiyallahu anha.?

 

When Islam had spread during the reign of Uthman, he feared that there would be a dispute that would lead to the omission of a verse from the Qur’an or an addition to it. Then Uthman copied the collection of the Qur’an that was with Hafshah and agreed upon by the Companions into mushafs and sent them to various countries and ordered the elimination of writings that contradicted them. This action was approved by ‘Ali b. Abi Talib and the other Companions. May Allah be pleased with them.

 

The Prophet did not collect them in one Mushaf because he feared additions and deletions of some writings. This concern continued until the Prophet’s death.

 

When Abu Bakr and the other Companions felt that it was safe to do so, and that the interests required it to be collected, they did so.

 

The scholars disagree about the number of Mushafs that Uthman sent. Al-Imam Abu Amru Ad-Daani said: Most of the scholars say that Uthman wrote four manuscripts. He sent a manuscript to Basra, a manuscript to Kufa and a manuscript to Sham, while he kept the other one. Abu Hatim As-Sijistani said: Uthman wrote seven Mushafs. He sent one to Makkah, one to the Levant, one to Yemen, one to Bahrain, one to Basrah, one to Kufa and one he kept in Madinah.

 

This is the summary relating to the collection of the first Mushaf. Regarding this there are many hadiths in the Sahih.

 

As for the word al-Mushaf, some read Mushaf, some read Mishaf and some read Mashaf. The most common is to read Mushaf and Mishaf. The Mashaf reading was mentioned by Abu Ja’far An-Nahhas and others.

 

The scholars are unanimous on the recommendation to write down the Mushaf and to make the writing clear and precise.

 

The scholars said: It is advisable to put dots and shakals (harakat) on the Mushaf to guard against mistakes and changes in it.

 

With regard to Ash-Sha’bi and An-Nakha’iy’s dislike of the dots, they disliked them at that time out of fear that they would change. That time has passed, so there is no prohibition.

 

This is not forbidden, even if it is something new, because it is one of the good things that are not forbidden, such as composing knowledge, building schools and boarding schools and so on. Wallahu a’lam.

 

It is not permissible to write the Qur’an on something that is unclean, and it is makrooh to write it on a wall according to our madhhab, which is the madhhab of ‘Atha’, as we have stated.

 

We have stated that if it is written on food, there is nothing wrong with eating it. And if it is written on a piece of wood, then it is makrooh to burn it. The obligation to preserve the Mushaf and honor it

 

The Muslims are unanimously agreed that it is obligatory to protect the Mushaf and to respect it. Our companions and others were of the view that if a Muslim throws it in the dirt, may it be honored?

 

Allah Ta’ala protects then the thrower becomes a disbeliever.

 

They said: It is haraam to use it as a pillow.

 

Even making a book of knowledge a pillow is haraam. It is mustahabb to stand up to greet the Mushaf when it is handed to him, because standing up to greet prominent people such as scholars and righteous people is mustahabb. So the Mushaf is preferable. I have mentioned the evidence for the recommendation to stand in the section where I have collected it. We narrated in Musnad Ad-Darimi with a valid isnad from Ibn Abi Mulaikah that Ikrimah ibn Abu Jahal placed the Mushaf on his face and said: “The Book of my Lord. the Book of my Lord.”

 

It is haraam to go with the Mushaf to an enemy country if there is a fear that it will fall into their hands, according to a well-known hadeeth in Sahihain:

 

“That the Messenger of Allah forbade going with the Qur’an to the land of the enemy.”

 

It is haraam to sell the Mushaf to a Dhimmi. If he sells it, then there are two Ash-Shafi’i opinions concerning that: The more correct view is that the sale is not valid, and the second view is that the sale is valid.

 

In that case it is commanded to remove ownership from him.

 

The insane and young children who are not yet able to distinguish (tarnyiz) are prohibited from touching the Mushaf so as not to violate their honor.

 

This prohibition is obligatory on her guardian and the person who saw her carrying it.

 

The prohibition of touching and carrying the Qur’an by a person who is in a state of impurity

 

It is haraam for the one who is in wudoo’ to touch the Mushaf and carry it, whether he is carrying it with his hand or otherwise, whether he touches its writing or its edges or its leather. It is also haraam to touch the receptacle and the cover and box in which the Mushaf is located. This is the preferred madhhab.

 

Some say: These three kinds are not haraam, and this opinion is weak.

 

If the Qur’ān is written on a board, then it comes under the same ruling as the Mushaf, whether it is written a little or a lot. Even if only some verses are written for study, it is forbidden to touch the board.

 

If a person who is in a state of impurity or janaabah, or a woman who is menstruating, opens the pages of the Mushaf with a piece of wood or the like, then there are two opinions among our companions as to what is permissible.

 

What is more correct is that it is permissible. This is the view of the scholars of Iraq, our companions, because it does not touch or carry.

 

The second view is that it is haraam, because he is considered to be carrying the paper and the paper is like the whole thing. If he rolls up the sleeve of his shirt over his hand and turns the paper over, then it is haraam without any dispute. One of our companions was wrong to say that there are two opinions concerning that. The correct view is that it is certain that it is haraam, because the paper is turned over by the hand, not the sleeve. If a person who is junub or impure writes on the Mushaf.

 

If he carries the paper or touches it while writing, then it is haraam.

 

If he did not bring it with him and did not touch it, then there are three opinions concerning him.

 

The correct view is that it is permissible, and the second view is that it is forbidden, while the third view is that it is permissible for those who are in minor impurity and forbidden for those who are junub.

 

If a person who is impure or junub or a menstruating woman touches or carries a book of jurisprudence or any other book of knowledge containing verses of the Qur’an or a shirt embroidered with verses of the Qur’an or a dirham or dinar engraved with verses of the Qur’an or carries any item on which there is a Mushaf or touches a wall or a cake or bread engraved with verses of the Qur’an, then the correct view is that it is permissible to do all of this, because it is not a Mushaf. There is one opinion that says it is haraam.

 

The eminent scholar Abul Hasan al-Mawardi said in his book al-Haawi: “It is permissible to touch a garment inscribed with the Qur’an and it is not permissible to wear it, without any disagreement, because the purpose of wearing it is to take inspiration from the Qur’an.

 

This opinion, which he mentioned or said, is weak, and no one, to my knowledge, is of that opinion. Rather Ash-Sheikh Muhammad al-Juwaini and others emphasized that it is permissible to use it. This is the correct view. Wallahu a’lam.

 

As for the book of commentaries on the Qur’an, if it contains more of the Qur’an than others, it is haraam to touch it and carry it.

 

If the others are more numerous, as is generally the case, then there are different opinions. The most correct view is that it is not haraam. The second opinion is that it is haraam. The third opinion is that if the Qur’ān is written in clear letters because it is bold or in red letters or something else, then it is haraam. If the writing is not clear, then it is not haraam.

 

I said: And it is haraam to touch them when they are the same. Our friend the author of At-Tatimmah said: If we say that it is not haraam, then it is makrooh.

 

As for the books of the hadith of the Prophet, if they do not contain verses from the Qur’an, it is not forbidden to touch them. It is better not to touch them unless one is in a state of purity (wudhu).

 

If there are verses from the Qur’an in it, it is not haraam according to the madhhab, but it is makruh.

 

There is one view that it is haraam, which is found in the books of jurisprudence.

 

With regard to the verse for which the recitation is interrupted (such as and other than that), it is not haraam to touch it or carry it. Our companions said: This is also the case with the Torah and the Gospel.

 

Article: If there is unforgiven dirt on any part of the body of a person who is purifying himself, it is haraam for him to touch the Mushaf with that dirt without any dispute, and it is not haraam for him to touch anything else, according to the sound and well-established madhhab adopted by most of our companions and other scholars.

 

Our friend Abul Qasim Ash-Shaimarn said: It is forbidden.

 

Our companions blamed him for the hat.

 

Al-Oadhi Abu Thayvib said: This view is rejected by scholarly consensus.

 

Then according to the correct opinion: Some of our sahahar said it is makrooh. The preferred view is that it is not makrooh.

 

Article: Whoever does not find water and performs tayammum at a time when it is permissible for him to perform tayammum, then he may touch the Mushaf, whether the tayammum is for prayer or for any other purpose for which tayammum is permissible.

 

As for the one who finds neither water nor earth, he may pray according to his situation and it is not permissible for him to touch the Mushaf, because he is in wudoo’. We allow him to pray because of an emergency.

 

If he has a Mushaf with him and he cannot find anyone to whom he can entrust it, and he is unable to do wudoo’, it is permissible for him to carry it with him out of necessity. Al-Oadhi Abu Thayyib said: He does not have to do tayammum.

 

If he fears that the Mushaf may burn or drown or fall into the hands of a disbeliever, then he may take it out of necessity, even if he is in wudoo’.

 

Article: Are teachers and guardians obliged to force children who are able to distinguish (mumayyiz) in order to purify themselves to carry the Mushaf or the board that they read?

 

There are two well-known opinions concerning that. The more correct view is that it is not obligatory because it is burdensome.

 

Article: It is permissible to sell Mushafs and buy them, and it is not makrooh to buy them. With regard to whether it is makrooh to sell them, there are two opinions among our companions. The more correct of the two and the one mentioned by Ash-Shafi’i is that it is makrooh.

 

Those who are of the view that it is not makrooh to sell and buy it include: Hasan al-Bashni, Ikrimah, al-Hakam ibn Utaibah, and this opinion was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas.

 

A number of scholars disliked its sale and purchase. Ibn al-Mundhir narrated it from Algamah, Ibn Sirin, AnNakha’iy, Shuraih, Masrug and ‘Abdullah ibn Zaid.

 

It was narrated from ‘Umar and Abi Musa al-Ash’ari that it is strictly forbidden to sell it. A number of scholars allowed its purchase and disliked its sale. This opinion was narrated by Ibn al-Mundzir from Ibn ‘Abbas, Said ibn Jubayr, Ahmad ibn Hambal and Ishaq ibn Rahawaih. Wallahu a’lam.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TENTH: EXPLANATION OF THE NAMES IN THIS BOOK

 

  1. Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari Abdullah bin Qais who was attributed to Ash’ari, the grandfather of the tribe.

 

  1. Utrujjah, the name of a famous plant. Al-Jauhari said: Abu Zaid said: It is also called Turunjah in Sahih Bukhari in the book of Al-Ath’imah (food). In this hadith it is mentioned: like Utrunjah.

 

  1. Abu Umamah Al-Bahili, his name was Shuday bin Ajlan, attributed to the Bahilah, a famous tribe.

 

  1. At-Tirmidhi, attributed to Tirmidz. Abu Sa’ad AsSam’ani said: It is an ancient city at the end of the Balakh region called: Jaihun. Regarding the nisbat, it can be read Turmudzi and Tarmidzi. This is what As-Sam’ani said.

 

  1. Abu Said Al-Khudri, his name was Sa’d bin Malik who was attributed to the Banu Khudrah.

 

  1. Abu Dawud As-Sijistani, his name is Sulaiman ibn Al-Ash’ats.

 

  1. An-Nasa’iy: he is Abu Abdurrahman Ahmad ibn Shu’aib.

 

  1. Abu Mas’ud Al-Badri, his name was Ugbah bin Amru. The majority of scholars say that he stayed at Badr and did not participate in the battle. Az-Zuhri and Bukhari and others say: he participated in the battle of Badr with the Messenger of Allah.

 

  1. Ad-Darimi: He is Abu Muhammad ‘Abd Allah b.

 

Abdurrahman which is attributed to Daarim, the grandfather of a tribe.

 

  1. Al-Bazzar, compiler of the hadith book Al-Musnad.

 

  1. Abu Hurairah: His name was Abdurrahman bin Shakhr according to the most authentic narration of about 30 names. He was chewed up with Hurairah (little cat) which he used to have. He was the first person to use it.

 

  1. Abu Hanifah, An-Nu’man b. Tsabit b. Zauthi.

 

  1. Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Idris ibn Abbas ibn Uthman ibn Shafi’ ibn Saaib ibn Ubaid ibn Abdu Yazid ibn Yazid ibn Hisham ibn Muththalib ibn Abdu Manaf ibn Oushay.

 

  1. At-Tustari, named after the famous city of Tustar.

 

  1. Al-Imam Al-Muhasibi. As-Sam’ani said: He was called that because he liked to analyze himself. He was a man of both external and internal knowledge.

 

  1. Ibn Majah is Abu Abdillah Muhammad bin Yazid.

 

  1. Abu Darda”, his name was Uwaimir. Some say his name was Amir.

 

  1. Ayyub As-Sakhtiyani. Abu Umar bin Abdul Barr said: Ayyub was a tanner in Basrah. Hence he was called As-Sakhtiyani.

 

  1. Abu Sulaiman Al-Khaththabi is attributed to his grandfather named Al-Khaththab. Abu Sulaiman’s name was Muhammad bin Ibrahim ibnul Khaththab. Some say his name was Ahmad.

 

  1. Az-Zuhri was Abu Bakr Muhammad bin Muslim bin Ubaidillah bin Abdullah bin Shihab bin Abdullah ibnul Harith bin Zuhrah bin Kilab bin Murrah bin Ka’ab Al-Bashri.

 

  1. Ash-Shafi’bi, his name is Amir ibn Sharahil.

 

  1. Tamim Ad-Daariy. attributed to Daarin a place on the coast. Some say: Tamim Ad-Daariy. nisbat to Diir where he used to worship. Some say other than that. I have explained the dispute in the beginning of the Sahih Muslim.

 

  1. Al-Ghazali. He is Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Ahmad. According to the narration Al-Ghazali denied the title Al-Ghazzali (with tashdid in the letter “zayi”) and he said: My name Al-Ghazali (without the tashdid) is attributed to a village in the region of Thus called Ghazalah.

 

  1. Abul Ahwash, his name was Auf bin Malik Al-Jusyami who was attributed to Jusyam, the grandfather of a tribe.

 

  1. An-Nakha’iy, attributed to the grandfather of a tribe.

 

  1. Abu Usaid, his name was Malik bin Rabi’ah.

 

  1. Ahmad ibn Abil Hawari, and some say: Ahmad ibn Abil Hawara. It was our teacher Abul Baga’ Khalid AnNabalusi (may Allah have mercy on him) who narrated it and perhaps chose it. He was the most learned man of his time in this field and was perfect in his research. Abul Hawari’s name was Abdullah bin Maimun bin Abbas ibn Harith.

 

  1. Abul Jauza”s name was Aus bin Abdullah. Some say, Aus bin Khalid.

 

  1. Abu Dharr, his name was Jundub. Some say Burair.

 

  1. Umm Salamah, her name was Hindun. Some say Ramlah.

 

  1. Al-Auza’iy, his name was Abdurrahman ibn Umar, the imam of the Levant in his time, and he was named after a place in Baabul Faraadiis of Damascus called Al-Auza’. Some say it is named after a tribe and others say it is not.

 

  1. Al-A’masy. Sulaiman bin Mahran.

 

  1. Abul Aaliyah, his name is Rufai”.

 

  1. Abu Lubabah, a companion of the Prophet and his name was Bashir. Some say Rifa’ah bin Abdul Mundzir.

 

  1. Abdullah ibn Ahmad Al-Baghawi, attributed to Bagha, a city between Herat and Meru.

 

  1. Abu Qulabah, his name was Abdullah bin Zaid.

 

I have explained all this in Tahdzibul asma’ wal lughaat. This is a brief explanation of the complexities in this book, and I have left out the rest because it is clear. As for what I mentioned of the obvious, I meant to explain it for those who do not associate with scholars. I hope that it will benefit him. Insha’Allah.

 

RASMUL MUSHAF (THE WRITTEN FORM OF THE QUR’AN)

 

What is meant by rasmul Mushaf (the form of writing the Qur’ān) is the form of writing that Uthmān approved in writing the Qur’ānic sentences (words) and letters.

 

The basis of the writing is that it must match and match the speech without additions and deficiencies, without substitutions and changes.

 

But the Ottoman Mushaf has ignored this basis. So there are many letters in it that are shaped in the way they are pronounced. This was done for noble purposes that are apparent and will become apparent to you in the future.

 

The scholars have devoted attention to talking about the rasmu (written form) of the Qur’ān and discussing the sentences that are written differently from the kias lafadh.

 

Some of them wrote about it specifically. Among them is Imam Abu Amr ad-Daani who wrote about it in his book al-Mugni, and Allamah Abu Abbas al-Marrakisyi who wrote a book entitled Unwaanud dalil f rusuumi khaththi at-tanzil, and Allamah Ash-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ahmad, known as Al-Mutawalli, who wrote a nadhom (verse) entitled Al-Lu’lu’ al-mandhum fi dhikri jumlatin minal marsuum.

 

Then came Al-Allamah Al-Marhum Ash-Syeikh Muhammad Khalaf Al-Husani, an expert Sheikh of Qur’anic recitation in Egypt, who wrote a commentary on the nadhom and footnoted the commentary in a book called “Mursyidul hairaan ilaa ma’rifau maa yajibu ittiba’uhu fi rasmil Our’an” (Guiding people confused about what to follow about the form of Qur’anic writing).

 

RULES OF MUSHAF WRITING FORM

 

The Uthmani Mushaf has rules regarding its writing and rasam (form of writing). The scholars limited it to six rules, namely hadzaf, addition, hamzah, badal. separation and connection.

 

If there are two readings of it, then it should be read according to one of them. I have explained some of them briefly so that you can see the difference between these rules and the terminology that prevails in our time:

 

Hadzaf rule (omitting letters)

 

In summary, the alif is omitted from yaa’ an-nidaa’ such as and from Haa’ tanbih such as sila from words when followed by dhamir such as and from lafdhul jalaalah and from words and from words and after Laam such as words and between two Laam in words and from every Mutsanna such as , and from every plural tashih for mudzakkar or muannats such as , , and from every plural according to the wazan Jelis and the like such as and , from every number . from al-basmalah from the beginning of the fi’il amr form of the word and other than that (except those excluded from all of this).

 

Yaa’ is omitted from every isim mangush that is munawwan marfu’ and majrur, such as:   And from these words: , , , , , , (except those that are excluded).

 

The waawu is omitted: when it is with another waawu in a word such as:  , ,

 

Laam is omitted: when it is included in the same Laam as. , and (except those that are exempted from them).

 

There are omissions of letters that are not included under the kanlah such as omitting and the word and such as omitting Yaa’ and and such as omitting Waawu from these four fi’ils and and .

 

Additional rules:

 

To summarize, the alif is added after the Waawu at the end of every isim that is pluralized or pronounced majmu’, such as:   And after a hamzah formed by a Waawu such as:   . because it is formed thus: and in the words: and and and and in the word of Allah Ta’ala: and and MEN . Yaa’ is added in these words:   , and from the words of Allah Ta’ala: , Waawu is added in words such as: and

 

Hamzah writing rules:

 

To summarize, when hamyah saakinah (marked with a sukun).  …. is written with the letter of the preceding harakat such as: and As for those that have a harakat. when it is the beginning of a word and is connected to an additional letter. it is also written with Ahf absolutely, either marked fathah or marked kasroh. such as If the hamzah is located in the middle, it is written with the letter of the harakat that is similar to it, such as:   If the hamzah is in the middle of a word, it is written with the letter of the preceding letter’s type, such as , , (except for those that are exempted from that). “

 

If the letter preceding it has a sukun sign, then the hamzah is omitted from the letter and written alone as:   , except for those that are exempted from that and are numerous in all of them.

 

Badal Rule:

 

To summarize, Alif is written Waawu lit tafkhim in words and and , except for the exceptions and is written Yaa’ when it changes from Yaa” such as:  

 

Similarly, Alif is written Yaa’ in these words: with the meaning of how , , , , except in surah Yusuf, because it is written Alif. Nuun is written Alif in the light Nuun tauhid and in the word Haa’ ta’nits is written Taa’ which is open in the word in surah Al-Baqarah. Al-A’raf. Hud, Maryam, Az-Zukhruf Jan kam Las? in surah Al-Baqarah. Aali Imran. Al-Maidah, Ibrahim, An-Nahl, Lugman. Faathir, Ath-Thur and the word in and the word in surah Al-Mujadilah. And in the sentences ine and in the word Which is juxtaposed with suaminy a such as” and and it.

 

Rules for connecting and separating:

 

To summarize, a word with a fathah mark on the hamzah is joined by a y-word when it comes after it. This is excluded in ten places, including:

 

The word is joined to the word if it comes after it and is excluded in surahs An-Nisa’ and ArRum, and (it is) in surah Al-Munafiqun.

 

The word is joined to the word absolutely and the word is joined to the word , except in the words of Allah:

 

The word is joined to the word that comes after it, except for the words of Allah, Subhanahu:   ,

 

The word is joined to the word absolutely without exception.

 

The word is joined to the word that comes after it, except for the word of Allah Subhanahu:  

 

And the words and and and and and so on.

 

Writing rules for words that contain two readings:

 

To summarize, when a word is read with two readings, it is written in the form of one of them, like the following words that are written without Alif in the Mushaf: and the like.

 

They are all read by setting the Alif and omitting it. Similarly, these words are written with Taa’ maftuhah (open), namely: in surah Al-Ankabut and in surah Fushshilat, and in surah Saba”.

 

That is because these words are plurals that are read in plural and ifrad. There are many others, and it is sufficient to mention them to give examples and explain.

 

FEATURES OF THE UTSMANI RASAM (FORM OF WRITING)

 

This form of writing has several features and benefits:

 

First benefit: Showing the different readings of a word according to ability. That is because the rules of writing indicate that if the word contains the possibility of two or more readings, then it is written in the form that contains these two or more readings. If a letter does not contain this, because it has a different form according to the different readings, then it should be written according to the letter that is different from the original. That is to determine the permissibility of reading with it and with the letter that is its origin.

 

And when there is only one reading of the word in its original letter, it is written in that form.

 

An example of a word that is written in one form and read with several readings is the word of Allah Ta’ala:   This sentence is written as such in the Ottoman Mushaf without the dot and shyakal or tashdid and takhfif on the two Nuun Si and Ola and without the Alif and Yaa’ after the Dzaal of .

 

The existence of the rasam (written form) as you can see is suitable according to them to be recited with four kinds of recitations, all of which are reported with valid sanads.

 

First: The reading of Nafi’ and his followers. They read Nuun with tashdid on and lightened with Alif.

 

Second: Ibn Kathir’s own reading. He lightened the reading of Nuun in and read Nuun with tashdid in .

 

Third: Hafsh recitation that lightens the reading of Nuun on and with Alif.

 

Fourth: Reciting Abi Amru with tashdid and with Yaa” and lightening the Nuun in .

 

So contemplate this best and most careful method for the various recitations, so that you may know that the pious early scholars were more far-sighted and more correct than we are in establishing the rules for the Rasam (form of writing) of the Mushaf.

 

Second benefit: Producing different meanings in an almost obvious way. This is like cutting the word in the words: and connecting it in the words: because it is written like this by inserting the first Miim into the second Miim, whereas the writing is one Miim which is read with a tashdid. So the first al is cut off in writing to show that it is a meaningful cut off and the second is connected to show that it is not like that.

 

The third benefit: Indicating a hidden and subtle meaning, such as the addition of Yaa’ to the words of Allah’s word: because it is written like this.

 

This is intended to indicate the exaltation of the power of Allah, who built the heavens with it, and that power cannot be equaled by any other power, according to the well-known rule, namely: Additional words indicate additional meaning.

 

What is similar to this is the writing of these four fi’ils by omitting the Waawu, i.e.: because it is written in the Mushaf like this:   , but without the dot and without the syakal in all of them.

 

The scholars said: The secret in the omission of Waawu from is to show that this supplication is easy for man. He can do it immediately like he does a good deed.

 

Even the assignment of evil to him from his side is closer to him than good.

 

And the secret in removing it from hints at its quick disappearance and weakness.

 

The secret in omitting the Waawu from is an indication of the speed of prayer and the fulfillment of the prayers of those who pray.

 

And the secret in removing it from is a hint to the swiftness of the action and obedience of the Zabaniyah and the strength of the punishment.

 

These secrets were collected by al-Marrakisyi: “The secret in removing it from these four fi’ils is the speed with which the action occurs and the ease with which it is done and the great acceptance by those affected by it in the form.”

 

The fourth benefit: Indicating the origin of the harakat, such as writing kasroh with Yaa” in the word Allah Subhanahu:   . because it is written like that. And like writing dhommah with Waawu in the word of Allah Subhanahu: because it is written thus .

 

And that which is like indicates the origin of letters like and . because they are written like this: and so that it is understood that the Alif in both of them changes from Waawu (without the dot and syakal as in the past).

 

The fifth benefit: Indicating some fluent languages, such as writing Haa’ ta’nits (muannats) with an open Taa’ to indicate the language of Thayyi’.

 

Examples of this kind have already been mentioned. It is like the words of Allah, may He be exalted, which were written with the Yaa” omitted, to indicate the language of Hudzail.

 

Sixth benefit: Encouraging people to learn the Qur’an from trustworthy teachers and not to rely on this Uthmani rasam (written form) which does not correspond to the correct speech in the sentence. This benefit contains two features.

 

First: Ascertaining the words of the Qur’ān and the way they are delivered, as well as their proper tartil and tajweed, because it is not possible to know them with certainty from the Mushaf, regardless of its rulings and terminology.

 

Sometimes printers make mistakes in printing and sometimes readers do not know the laws of tajweed. such as Qalqalah. Idhhar, Ikhfa’, Idgham, Ar-Raum, Isymaam and the like in addition to their pronunciation.

 

Because of this, the scholars decided that it was not permissible to rely solely on the Mushaf, but to include pronunciation and recitation by learning from trustworthy memorizers.

 

Whenever you are in doubt, tell me: By your Lord: Can the Mushaf alone with any rasam point the reader to correct speech with the opening letters of the noble chapters Such as and . And included in this chapter are Ar-Raum and Isymaam in the words of Allah Subhanahu from the word The second specialty: The chain of transmission with the Messenger of Allah. This is a specialty of the Muslim Ummah that distinguishes it from other nations.

 

Ibn Hazm said: The narration by a trustworthy person from a trustworthy person up to the Prophet is reserved by Allah for the Muslims without any other religions.

 

As for the mursal and mu’dhal methods, they are found in many Jewish books.

 

But they could not be as close to Moses as we are to Muhammad . They stopped at a time between them and Moses which was more than thirty years. They only reached Sham’un and the like.

 

Then Ibn Hazm said: As for the Christians, they did not derive anything from this narration except the prohibition of divorce. As for transmission by means of a deceiver or an unknown person, this is common in the transmission of the Jews and Christians.

 

As for the words of the Companions and Taabi’een, it is not possible for the Jews to reach the Companions of a prophet or Taabi’een and it is not possible for the Christians to reach a higher generation than Sham’un and Paul.

 

IS THE FORM OF WRITING THE MUSHAF TAUQIFI?

 

The scholars have three opinions about the form of writing the Mushaf:

 

First opinion: It is tauqifi (prescribed) and it is not permissible to break it. This is the view of the majority of scholars. They argue that the Prophet had scribes who wrote down the revelation. They had actually written the Qur’ān in this form and the Prophet had confirmed them in their writing.

 

The time of the Prophet passed and the Qur’ān with this writing was not changed or replaced. It is even reported that the Prophet made regulations for the scribes of revelation regarding the form of the Qur’ān and its writing. Among these were his words to Mu’awiyah, one of the scribes of the revelation: “Prepare the inkwell and ink, sharpen the tip of the pen, erect the letter Baa’, stretch the letter Siin, do not ugly the letter Miim, make the writing of Allah smooth, lengthen Ar-Rahmaan, make the writing of Ar-Rahiim smooth, place your pen over your left ear, so that you remember easily.”

 

Then Abu Bakr came and wrote the Qur’ān in this form on sheets, and Uthman followed him during his reign. So he ordered the sheets to be copied into Mushafs in accordance with this writing and the companions of the Prophet agreed with Abu Bakr’s action, may Allah be pleased with them all.

 

The matter reached the tabi’een and tabi’it tabi’een, but none of them differed on this form of writing, and it is not reported that any of them thought of replacing it with another form of writing that emerged in the age of the development of writing and bookkeeping and the advancement of knowledge.

 

Even this Ottoman form of writing is still respected and followed in the writing of the Mushaf, its independence is not touched and its honor is not violated.

 

The summary of this argument is that the written form of the Ottoman Mushaf has several features, each of which makes it worthy of respect and must be followed.

 

These are the Messenger’s decree on it and his command to write it down, the consensus of the Companions, who numbered more than 12,000, and the consensus of the ummah after that, during the time of the tabi’een and the Imams (mujtahideen).

 

You know that it is obligatory to follow the Messenger in what he commands or approves of in accordance with the words of Allah Ta’ala:

 

“Say: If you (truly) love Allah, follow me, and Allah will love you and forgive your sins.” Ali Imran: 31.

 

Following the guidance of the Companions is obligatory, especially the khulafa’ ar-rashidin, according to the hadith of Al-Irbadh bin Sariyah and where the Prophet said:

 

“For indeed whoever lives among you will see many differences. So follow my sunnah and the sunnah of the khulafa’ur rashidin (righteous caliphs) after me. Hold on to the sunnah firmly.”

 

There is no doubt that the consensus of the ummah in any period must be followed, especially the first period. Allah, may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):

 

“And whoever opposes the Messenger after the truth has become clear to him, and follows a way other than that of the believers, We leave him free in the error which he has mastered, and We admit him to Jahannam, and Jahannam is the worst of places.”

 

Among the scholars who narrated the consensus of the ummah on what ‘Uthman wrote was the author of al-Mugni’, because he narrated with his isnad up to Mush’ab ibn Sa’ad. He said: “I found the people when ‘Uthman distributed the Mushaf. They admired the act and no one reproached him.

 

Similarly, it was narrated by the author of the commentary on Al-Agjilah from Anas ibn Malik that ‘Uthman sent the Mus-haf to every soldier of the Muslim army and ordered them to burn any Mus-haf that differed from the Mus-haf that he sent to them, and it is not known that anyone disagreed about the type of writing of these Ottoman Mus-haf.

 

The fact that there is consensus on these terms in the written form of the Mushaf is proof that it is not permissible to deviate from them by relying on anything other than that. May Allah have mercy on al-Imam al-Kharraz when he said:

 

And afterward the Imam wrote

in a Mushaf for the people to follow

and there was no chaos afterward

And what he did is true, the story of their differences is well known, such as the story of the battle of Yamamah, which is difficult, so we should follow the form of writing that he established in the Mushaf, and we should follow his actions and his determination to make it a guide for those who want to write it: Tell me about the man who was told to write the Mushaf, do you think it is permissible for him to write in the Hija’ that people do nowadays?

 

Malik replied: I do not agree with that, but he should write in the first form of writing.

 

As-Sakhawi said: The view expressed by Maalik is correct, because it preserves the first state so that it can be known by other generations. There is no doubt that this is more appropriate than anything else, because differences may lead to people not knowing about the first situation in the first generation.

 

Abu Amru Ad-Daaniy said: There is nothing to contradict Malik among the scholars of the ummah regarding it.

 

Abu Amru Ad-Daaniy also said: Malik was asked about letters in the Qur’an such as Waawu with Alif, do you think it is permissible to change from the Mushaf if it is found in it like that?

 

Malik replied: No.

 

Abu Amru said: He meant the Alif and Waawu that are added in writing, but not spoken, such as:

 

Al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hambal said: It is haraam to differ with the text of the Ottoman Mushaf regarding the Waawu and Alif or Yaa” or anything else.

 

It is mentioned in the margins of Al-Manhaj regarding the Shafi’i school of thought as follows: “The word is written with a Waawu and an Alif as it is written in the Ottoman form of writing and is not written in the Qur’an with a Yaa’ or an Alif, because the rasam (form of writing) is the sunnah that is followed.”

 

It is mentioned in al-Muhith al-Burhani regarding the Hanafi school of thought as follows: “It is proper that the Mushaf should not be written in anything other than the Uthmani Rasam.”

 

Al-Allamah Nidhamuddin An-Naisaburi said: “A number of Imams said that what is obligatory upon the readers and scholars and scribes is to follow this rasam in writing the Mushaf, because it is the rasam (form of writing) of Zayd bin Tsabit. He was the one whom the Messenger of Allah trusted and the author of his revelation.”

 

Al-Baihagi said in Shu’abul iman: “Whoever writes the Mushaf should preserve the Hijaa’ with which they wrote them and not contradict them about it and not change anything of what they wrote, because they were more knowledgeable, more truthful in heart and tongue and more honest. So we should not presume to correct them.”

 

This first opinion can be refuted by the fact that the evidence they cite does not indicate that it is prohibited to write the Qur’ān on anything other than this rasam, because there is no warning of sin and its punishment, and there is no prohibition of what is forbidden and its punishment. Most of the evidence indicates the permissibility of writing with the Ottoman Rasam and its high status and accuracy. It is a place of agreement and consent.

 

Second opinion: The Rasam (form of writing) of the Mushaf is termi, not tauqifi. Based on that, it is permissible to differ from it. Among the scholars who leaned towards this opinion was Ibn Khaldun in his Mugaddimah and the one who vigorously defended it was Al-Oadhi Abu Bakr in the book Al-Intishar. He said:

 

“As for writing, Allah has not enjoined anything on the ummah concerning it, because Allah did not enjoin upon the writers of the Qur’ān and the scribes of the Mushaf any particular form of writing other than that which He enjoined upon them and left out anything else, because this obligation cannot be known except by hearing and determining.

 

There is nothing in the texts of the Qur’an or its meanings to indicate that the Qur’an and its symbols should not be written except in a certain form and within a certain limit that should not be exceeded. There is also nothing in the texts of the Sunnah to indicate that this is the case, and there is no consensus among the people that this is the case. Similarly, the shar’i conjectures do not indicate that.

 

In fact, the Sunnah indicates that it is permissible to write it in any form, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) ordered writing it down and did not prescribe a particular form for them, nor did he forbid anyone from writing it down. Hence the writing of the various Mushafs varies.

 

Some of them wrote the word according to its pronunciation, and some added and subtracted because they knew that it was a term and people knew about it.

 

This is also why it is permissible to write with the Kufic letters and the first letter, and to make the Laam in the Kaaf form, and to bend the Alif, and to write with other forms.

 

It is permissible to write the Mushaf in the old script and Hijaa’, and it is permissible to write in the new script and Hijaa’, and it is permissible to write in between.

 

If the writing of the Mus-haf and many of its letters is different and contradictory, and the people have allowed that, and have allowed each one of them to write according to his custom and the form that is easier, more popular and preferable, without considering it a sin and not blaming one another, then it is clear that no specific limit has been imposed on the people in that regard, just as it was imposed on them in reciting and calling to prayer.

 

That is because these writings are just signs and forms of writing that function as signs, contracts and symbols. So any form of writing that indicates a word and tells how to read it must be validated and justified for the writer who uses it in any form.

 

In short, anyone who claims that people are obliged to write a certain form of writing is obliged to provide evidence for his claim, and how can he do that?”

 

This school is refuted:

 

First: The arguments that the majority of scholars have cited in support of their madhhab, which have been mentioned before you, some of which are from the Sunnah and some of which are based on the consensus of the Companions, the Taabi’een and their followers.

 

Secondly: His claim that there is no text in the Sunnah that obliges it and indicates it is rejected by the Messenger’s vindication of the scribes of revelation who wrote in this form. Among them was Zaid bin Tsabit who wrote the Mus-haf for Abu Bakr and wrote the Mus-haf for ‘Uthman and the previous hadith in which the Apostle said to Mu’awiyah: “Prepare the inkwell and ink, sharpen the nib and so on.”

 

In fact, it is proof that the Prophet prescribed the form of writing for them.

 

Third: That the words of Al-Oadhi Abu Bakr: “Hence the writing of the Mushafs differs” and so on cannot be accepted after this happened and the prevalence and knowledge of people about the Rasam tauqifi, i.e. Rasam Uthman based on what they established there.

 

We add here what al-Allamah Ibn al-Mubarak mentioned, quoting from AlArif billah his teacher, Abdul Aziz ad-Dabbagh, who said in al-Ibriz as follows:

 

The Rasam Qur’ān is one of the secrets of Allah that is witnessed and of high perfection.

 

Ibnul Mubarak said: So I said to him: Is the Waawu written instead of the Alif in words like and and and and the additional Waawu in and and , and like Yaa’ in words like:

 

  and and and all this is from the Prophet & or from the companions?

 

Ash-Shaykh Abdul Aziz replied: “Everything comes from the Prophet . It was he who ordered the writers of the Companions to write in this form. So they neither subtracted from nor added to what they heard from the Prophet .

 

Then I said: Verily some scholars are lenient in the matter of rasam. They say: Verily it is a term of the Companions. They follow what Ouraisy wrote in the days of ignorance. That form of writing came from the Companions, because Ouraisy learned to write from the people of Hirah. The people of Hirah pronounced words with Waawu. So they wrote according to their speech.

 

As for Ouraisy, their pronouncing it with Alif and writing it with Waawu is following the speech of other groups and imitating them.

 

Al-Oadhi Abu Bakr al-Bagilani said: Whoever claims that all people are obliged to follow a certain form of writing, he must also establish proof for his statement, because there is no information in the Book and Sunnah or consensus that indicates that?

 

Shaykh Abdul Aziz replied: “The Companions and others did not have any idea about writing the Qur’an, not even a hair’s breadth. In fact, it is a decree of the Prophet and he is the one who told them to write it in the form known by the addition of Alif and the lack of it because there are secrets that cannot be known to the intellect. It is a secret that Allah has reserved for His Noble Book without any other heavenly books.

 

Just as the composition of the Qur’ān is a miracle, so is its rasam (written form) a miracle.

 

How can the intellect know the secret of the extra Alif in without and the secret of the extra Yaa’ in 

 

Or how could he know the secret of the extra Alif in . in Sūrat Al-Hajj and the lack of it in Sūrat Saba”?

 

And to know the secret of its addition wherever it is and the lack thereof from within surah Al-Furgan?

 

And know the secret of its addition to and omission from , in Sūrat al-Baqarah?   And to know the secret of its addition to and omission from , in surah An-Nisa”?

 

Furthermore, how can the intellect understand the reason for omitting some letters from similar words without others, such as the omission of Alif from the Sūrahs Yusuf and Az-Zukhruf and its establishment in other places?

 

And the assignment of Alif after Waawu in Sūrat Fushshilat and its omission from other Sūrahs, and the assignment of Alif to the absolute and its omission from the place found in Sūrat Al-Anfal and the assignment of Alif to the word wherever it is and its omission from the place of Al-Furgan.

 

How can the intellect understand the opening of some letters of Taa’ and their binding to others?

 

All this is because of the divine secrets and prophetic purposes. Man does not know them because they are inner secrets that cannot be understood, except by Rabbinic guidance.

 

They are like the disjointed words and letters found at the beginning of the suras.

 

These words and letters contain great secrets and many meanings. Most people do not know these secrets or understand any of the divine meanings they contain. So it is with the form of writing in the Qur’ān letter by letter.

 

As for the one who says: The Companions have agreed on this particular Rasam, this is clearly wrong. This is because the Qur’an was written at the time of the Prophet and in his presence. At that time, what the Companions agreed upon could have been the same form or something else.

 

If it is the same form, then it cannot be an agreement of the companions, because the Prophet’s precedence contradicts it and must be followed.

 

If other than that, how did the Prophet write in a form like the giyasi form for example, while the Companions differed and wrote in another form?

 

It is not valid for two reasons. First: The assumption that the Companions transgressed and that is impossible. Secondly: The entire Ummah, the Companions and others, are unanimously agreed that it is not permissible to add a letter to the Qur’an or subtract a letter from it, and what is between the two covers is the Word of Allah, the Almighty. So when the Prophet put an Alit in and for example, and did not add an Alif to and . and did not add a Yaa’ to:   and so on, and the Companions contradicted him on this matter and violated it, then they would have acted in the Qur’ān by adding and subtracting and doing something that is not permissible for anyone to do in what they agreed upon,” and that is impossible for them.

 

If we allow letters that are less or more than what the Prophet knew and what he had and it is not a revelation and is not from the side of Allah and we do not know it for sure, then we doubt everything.

 

If it is permissible for one Companion to add a letter to his writing that is not a letter, then surely it is permissible for another Companion to subtract a letter from the revelation, because there is no difference between the two and then the whole knot of Islam is unraveled.

 

Then Ibnul Mubarak said: I said: If the rasam is tauqifi with the revelation to the Prophet and it is like the words of the Qur’ān, why is it not narrated mutawatir so that doubts are removed and the heart becomes calm like the words of the Qur’ān.

 

Indeed, there is not a single letter that has been transmitted mutawatir so that there is no dispute or confusion.

 

As for his Rasam, it was narrated with ahadith, as is known from the books written about him, whereas something that is narrated with ahadith raises doubts among the narrators in many cases. So how can the ummah remove something from the Revelation?

 

Ash-Shaykh replied: “The ummah does not remove anything from the revelation. The Qur’ān, by praising Allah, has been preserved in its words and its Rasāl. Those who are wise and have witnessed it and seen it memorize its words and meanings and do not omit anything from it.

 

They understood it by witnessing and seeing more than mutawatir, while other than them they memorized the words that reached them mutawatir and their differences regarding the letters of the rasam did not interfere with it and did not cause the ummah to lose it just as the ignorance of the common people about the content of the Qur’an and their not memorizing its words did not damage it.

 

Third opinion: The author of At-Tibyan and the previous author of Al-Burhan inclined to the view of Al-1zz ibn Abdus Salam that it is permissible and even obligatory to write the current Mushaf for the common people based on the terms that are known and spread among them, and it is not permissible to write it for them with the first Ottoman Rasam so as not to cause alterations by ignorant people. But it is obligatory at the same time to preserve the Ottoman rasam as one of the precious legacies inherited from our righteous salaf. So it should not be neglected in favor of the ignorance of the ignorant, but should remain in the hands of the wise who are always on the earth.

 

Here is what At-Tibyan said about this issue. He said:

 

As for writing the Mushaf based on the Hijaa’ letters that people have adopted, that has been practiced by the people of the eastern region because it is far from being ambiguous and was avoided by the people of Maghrib based on the words of Imam Malik.

 

He was asked: Is it permissible to write the Mushaf with the letters of Hyaa’ that people have made?

 

He replied: No, except following the first writing.

 

He said in Al-Burhan: I say: This was done in the early days. At that time knowledge was alive and fresh. As for now, there is a fear of confusion. Because of this, Ash-Sheikh Izzuddin bin Abdus Salam said: “It is not permissible to write the current Mushaf according to the first Rasam with the terms of the Imams so as not to cause changes by ignorant people.

 

But this should not be applied absolutely, lest it lead to the loss of knowledge. That which has been perfected by the ancients should not be abandoned in favor of the ignorance of the ignorant.” “And the earth will not be empty of those who establish a proof for Allah.”

 

I say: This opinion intends to maintain prudence to protect the Qur’ān from two sides: That is the side of writing it down in each period with a familiar rasam in order to keep people away from confusion and mix-ups in the Qur’ān and the side of leaving its first, narrated rasam (from the Prophet 2&) and having it recited by the wise and those who have no fear of confusion. There is no doubt that caution is a noble religious requirement, especially for the protection of At-Tanzil (the Qur’ān).

 

(Manahil Al-Irfaan fi ulumil Our’an: pages 369-386). Svubhat on the necessity of using the Ottoman rasam at this time

 

They said: Verily many students do not memorize the Qur’an and are not able to recite it in the Mushaf because they do not know the Uthmani Rasam. Therefore, why are we bound by a miniature taste and not write the current Mushaf in the familiar script terms for the convenience of the youth and everyone else?

 

Answer:

 

First: The scholars have several opinions regarding the permissibility of it. In fact one of them – Al-Izz ibn ‘Abdus Salam – made it obligatory to write the Mushaf for the common people in terms of the hadith written by them for fear of confusion just as it was obligatory to write it in the Ottoman rasam to preserve this precious heirloom. The opinions of the scholars have been explained before this and are not far from you.

 

Secondly: In the Uthmani rasam there are various features and benefits that we have mentioned before.

 

Thirdly: The majority view is based on numerous proofs that it is obligatory to use this rasam among them, and these proofs have already been mentioned.

 

Fourth: That the terms khat and writing in our time are subject to change and substitution. So we should strive to preserve the sanctity of the Qur’ān by protecting it from changes and substitutions in its rasam.

 

Fifth: That subjecting the Mushaf to new khat terms might cause a fitnah (uproar) similar to the fitnah that occurred at the time of ‘Uthman and prompted him to unify the Qur’an. It is possible that some people may say to others or one nation may say to another when there is a difference in their rules regarding the Rasam Mushaf: My Rasam is better than your Rasam or my Rasam is better than your Rasam or my Rasam is right and your Rasam is wrong.

 

That sometimes leads to some of them accusing others of sin or some of them fighting others.

 

The rule established by the scholars says: Rejecting harm takes precedence over bringing about benefit.

 

Sixth: That the Ottoman Rasam resembles a common Rasam that unites the Ummah in the writing of the book of its Lord in all times and cities, such as the Arabic language.

 

Ta is the common language that unites people in reciting the book of their Lord in all times and cities.

 

We must not be careless about this matter, which can bring together the scattered and unite the ummah in one understanding. There is no difference between the past and the present or the future.

 

Seventh: It is also possible to make recitation easy for everyone by frequently transmitting the Qur’an accurately and carefully and transmitting the science of tajweed in madrasas among students.

 

Finally – as Al-Azhar magazine says – we can remind at the bottom of each page of the Mushaf about the words in it that differ from the familiar rasam and the usual terms, especially that the rasam of the Ottoman Mushaf does not contradict our rules in khat and imla”, except slightly and in words that can be counted.

 

Besides. the difference between the two rasams does not plunge the sober reader into confusion when contemplating and examining them in general.

 

After passing through generations and centuries, the ummah did not object to using the Ottoman rasam, because what is relied upon first and before everything is the acceptance of the memorization of the experts and with that acceptance disappears the complexity of the rasam whatever it is.

 

And after the testimony there is no need for explanation (Manahil Al-irfaan fi ulumil Gur’an: 397-399).