Article on the Attributes of Allah and His Messenger and on As-Sam’iyyat – في صفات الله ورسوله في السمعيات
حتم على المكلف الدخول# في دينا جاء به الرسول
It is obligatory for a mature person (of sound mind) to embrace our religion (Islam), which was brought by the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him).
مع الثبوت فيه بالدوام # واخد لازم من الأحكام
Being consistent in the religion of Islam forever and accepting all the Shariah rulings that are obligatory (for him).
واجب علم الشهادتين # وعقده بالقلب دون مین
Therefore, it is obligatory (for him) to know the two creeds and believe in them in his heart without any doubt.
والطق باللسان حالا إن كفر # وان سواه في الصلاة يغتفر
If a person is a disbeliever, then it is obligatory to recite (the two creeds) with the tongue immediately, but if he is a Muslim, then his obligation is only in the prayer (during the tashahhud).
معناهما الأول أن تعتقدا # أن ليس في الوجود حقا عبدا
إلا الإله الواحد الفترة الأحد # الأول الحي المصور الصمد
While the meaning of the two sentences of the shahada, the first is to believe that there is no one who deserves to be worshipped’ in this universe except only Allah, the One, the Only, the One, the Beginning, the Living, the Form-forming, the Dependent Place.
الخالق الباري العظيم الدائم # الرازق الباقي القدير العالم
The Creator, the Maker, the Great, the Eternal, the Provider, the Lasting, the Powerful, the All-Knowing,
الملك المقتدر القديم # المومن المهيمن الحكيم
All-ruling, All-powerful, All-first, All-safe, All-supervising, All-wise,
الحكم العدل القوي الفعال # لما يريد وانتهى الجلال
The Decider of Cases, the Just, the Powerful, and the Doer of whatever He wills. And truly perfect is the majesty of Allah.”
ما شاء ربي كان موجودا وما # لم يشاء الوجود كان عدما
Whatever my Lord wills will come to be, and whatever He does not will will not come to be.
ﻻ حولنا قط وﻻ قوتنا # إلا بفضل الله جل ربنا
There is no power and strength for us at all except only the grace of Allah, our Lord, the Most Great.
متصف بصفة الكمال # منزه عن صفة الرذال
He bears all the attributes of perfection and is pure from all the attributes of humiliation.
لا شيء مثله وما سواه # ومن كل شيء حادث مبناه
There is nothing like Allah, and everything other than Allah is newly created.
وما سواه كله مخلوق # خالقه القديم ﻻ مسبوق
Everything other than Allah is a creature, and its Creator is Allah, who has never been preceded by anything.
كلامه وسائر الصفات # قديمة كالعلم والحياة
The Word of Allah (the attribute of Kalam) and all His other attributes are prior, such as the attributes of Knowledge (the All-Knowing) and Life (the All-Living).
لأنه سبحانه في ذاته # مباين لكل مخلوقاته
Allah, the Almighty, is completely different in His Essence from all His creatures.
كذا في الصفات والأفعال # سبحانه عن ألسن الجهال
Likewise in His attributes and all His actions. Glory be to Allah from all the words of the ignorant.
والثاني من معنى الشهادتين # هو اعتقادك بدون مين
أن محمد بن عبد الله # القرشي النبي عبد الله
أرسل رحمة إلى المخلوق طرا هو المعروف بالمصدوق
The second of the two meanings of the shahada is to believe without any denial that the Prophet Muhammad ibn Abdullah of Quraysh is a servant of Allah who was sent as a mercy to all creatures, and he is well known as a trustworthy person.
بمكة مولده ومبعثه # وطيبة مهجره ومدفنه
The place where he was born and where he was sent was Makkah. While the place where he migrated and was buried was in Thaiba.
وأنه الصادق في جميع ما# أخبر صلى الله جل دائما
And (believing) that he is truthful in all that he proclaims, may Allah, the Exalted, bestow blessings upon him.
منه عذاب القبر مع تشير # گذا سؤال منکر نکیر
Among the things he preached was about the punishment of the grave and the pleasure of the grave, as well as the questioning of the angels Munkar and Nakir.
والبعث والجنة والحساب # والحشر والثواب والعقاب
And about the resurrection of man from the grave, Paradise, the reckoning of deeds, the gathering in Mahshar, and about reward and punishment.
والنار والميزان يوم الساعة # والحوض والصراط والشفاعة
And about hell, the mizan (balance of deeds), the Day of Judgment, the pool, the bridge,’ and intercession,
ورؤية الإله والخلود # فكل أهل جنة شهود
And about seeing Allah (in Paradise), and about the eternity of the Hereafter. All the inhabitants of Paradise will be able to see Allah.
وأن تكون مؤمنا بالملك # والرسل والكتب لخير ملك
It is also obligatory to believe in the angels, the messengers, and the books (of Allah), the best of those who rule.
والقدر خيره وشره كلا # هما من الله فعز وعلا
As well as believing in destiny (Allah’s decree), including good destiny and bad destiny, both of which are from Allah, the Most Glorious and the Most High.
وأنه سيد نسل آدما # وكونه للأنبياء خاتما
And also believe that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the lord of the children and grandchildren of Adarn As (all human beings), and believe that he is the Seal of the Prophets.
Article on the Causes of Apostasy – فصل فيما يوقع في الرده
يلزم كل مسلم أن يمنعا # إسلامه والصون عما قطعا
It is obligatory for every Muslim to safeguard his Islam and preserve it from anything that might break it.
من قول أو فعل أو اعتقاد # وهو الذي يدعون بارتداد
Whether it is in the form of words, deeds, or beliefs, which the scholars call apostasy (leaving Islam),
وقد فشا تساهل الكلام # في ذا الزمان مخرج الإسلام
It has become commonplace in this day and age for carelessness in speech to lead a person out of Islam.
وﻻ يرون ذاك ذنبا فضلا # عن كون ذاك الفعل كفرا أصلا
They do not consider it a sin at all, let alone classify it as an act of kufr.
وقد أتى الردة في الكلام # مقسومة ثلاثة الأقسام
In the discussion, apostasy is classified into three parts.
THE FIRST IS APOSTASY FOR THE REASON OF BELIEF, AND THE SECOND IS APOSTASY FOR THE REASON OF BELIEF, AND THE THIRD IS APOSTASY FOR THE REASON OF BELIEF, AND THE THIRD IS APOSTASY FOR THE REASON OF BELIEF.
This is apostasy because of belief, because of actions such as prostrating to the sun, and because of speech.
وكل قسم متشعب إلى # كثيرة تأتي اقتصارا بالولا
Each of these sections has many branches, which will be explained briefly and successively.
كالشك في الله وما قد ثبتا # او في رسوله وما منه أتى
Apostasy due to belief is like doubting the existence of Allah, the Almighty, and everything that is fixed, and doubting His Messenger and the teachings He brought.
وكالعبادة لغير الباري # من شمس أو صنم أو من نار
(Apostasy by deed) is like worshiping other than Allah, the Creator, whether it is worshiping the sun, idols, or fire.
ومثل أن تقول لو أمرني # الله جل بكذا لم اعتن
Whereas (apostasy because of speech) is like saying: “if Allah swt. commands me to do something, then I do not care.”
كذاك ما احتكمت أي حكم # ولو من النبي كنز العلم
The same applies if one says: “I do not want to rely on any ruling, even if it comes from the Prophet who is the repository of knowledge (Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him).”
مستحقرا بذلك المذكور # بالله أو رسوله المشهور
(All that is done) while belittling the matter before Allah or His famous Messenger (i.e. the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him).
فكل ما دل على استهانة # بالله كفر أو بما أبانه
So (in conclusion), everything that means belittling Allah is kufr (causing apostasy), or belittling anything that has been explained by Allah.
من كتبه أو من ملائكته # أو رسله أو وعده وعيده
It is about the books of Allah, or His angels, or His messengers, or His promises, or His threats.
فليحذر الإنسان أن يحتقرا # نهاية الحذر ما قذ ذكرا
Therefore, let everyone truly fear underestimating what has been mentioned.
إذ دلنا وقاية الإنسان # خير من العلاج للإحسان
For there is a piece of advice that leads us to the good, which is that preserving one’s din is far better than curing it.
Article on the punishments for apostates – في أحكام المرتد
حتم على أراد أن يعودا # فورا إلى الإسلام کی يسودا
A person who apostatizes is obliged to return to Islam immediately, so that he will be honored.
بالنطق بالشهادتين علما # والنزغ والندم عما قدما
By saying the two creeds that have been understood, and revoking (abandoning the things that caused his apostasy), and regretting what he has done,
والعزم بالقلب على أن ﻻ يعودا # لمثله حتى إذا جاء الوفود
And resolve in his heart not to repeat the same action until the messenger of Allah (the angel of death) comes.
ثم قضا ما فاته إن كانا # من واجبات الشرع فيما بانا
Then he has to make up all the deeds that he did not do (during his apostasy), if they are among the obligations of sharee’ah that are clearly ruled upon (such as prayer, fasting, zakaah, etc.).
فإن أبي بعد استتابة يجب # قتل له على الإمام المنتصب
If he refuses to repent after he has been ordered to repent, then he must be killed by the legitimate imam (official ruler).
وصومه وسائر الأعمال # يبطل إن بالموت ذا اتصال
His fast and all his good deeds become invalid, if his apostasy lasts until death.
نكاحه إن لم يعد في العدة # قبل الدخول باطل أو بعده
The marriage becomes void (immediately), either before intercourse or after.
وعقده النكاح أيضا لم يصح # وهكذا يحرم كل ما ذبح
If he marries, then his marriage contract is invalid. Likewise, all of her slaughter is haraam to consume.
وحكموا بأنه لا يرث # من أحد مات كذا ﻻ يروث
The scholars also ruled that apostates cannot receive inheritance from anyone who dies, nor can the property of apostates be inherited by anyone.
وﻻ علينا أن نصلي وﻻ # غسل وتكفين ودفن فاخذلا
We are also not obliged to offer the funeral prayer (in fact it is forbidden), and we are not obliged to bathe it, or shroud it (but both are permissible).
We are also not obliged to pray over his dead body (in fact, it is forbidden), nor are we obliged to bathe it, nor shroud it (but both are permissible), nor are we obliged to bury it. So (all the affairs of his dead body) ignore it (it is not obligatory to care about it).
وقبره في الكافرين شيء # وماله للمسلمين فيء
It is permissible to bury the apostate in the graves of the disbelievers (and forbidden to bury him in the graves of the Muslims). And the property of the apostate becomes Fai property for the Muslims.
Article on Fulfilling Obligations and Abandoning Prohibited Things – في أداء الواجبات وترك المحرمات
گل مكلف عليه يلزم # أداء گل واجب يحتم
Every believer is obliged to fulfill all obligations that are required (by Allah).
وما به يتم كالإتيان # بگافة الشروط والأركان
Along with everything that completes the obligation, such as fulfilling all the conditions and pillars.
وأمر من ترك شيئا أو أتى بها على ثير طريق أثبتا
And it is also obligatory to instruct others who do not perform one of the conditions of the pillar, or perform it but not in accordance with the established procedures.
ويجب القهر على أداء ذلك إن يقدر على الوفاء
And it is also obligatory (for each person to force others to fulfill the obligation, if he is able to do so).
فواجب إنكاره إن عجزا # عن فهره وامره مبارزا
Man, if he is unable to force him and command him openly, then he must deny it (in his heart).
وذاك صاح أضعف الإيمان # يعنى أقل ﻻزم الإنسان
And such – O friend – is the weakest (degree) of faith, which is the minimum of the obligations that a human being must perform.
وواجب ترك المحرمات # ونهي مرتكبها والآتي
It is also obligatory to abstain from everything that Allah has forbidden, and to forbid others from doing it.
ومنعه قهرا إذا ما قدرا # وواجب من عاجر أن ينكرا
And it is obligatory to prevent the person by force, if he is able (to do so). But the one who is unable to do so must deny it (in his heart).
وليجتنب مواضع المعاصي # كل المكلفين باستخلاص
Every believer should avoid places of sin with sincerity (for the sake of Allah).
حرامنا ما نعم المجتنب # ممتثلا وعذب المرتكب
The things that are forbidden to us are those actions for which those who avoid them will be rewarded as obedient, and those who do them will be punished.
will be punished.
This article is about the times of the obligatory prayers and some things related to them – في أوقات الصلاة المكتوبة وما يذكر معها
خمس صلوت ظهر عصر مغرب# عشا وصبح كل يوم يجب
The five prayers of Zuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib, ‘Isha, and Fajr are obligatory every day.
الطهر وقته زوال شمسه # إلى مصير ظل شي كمثله
The time of Zuhr prayer is from the meridian of the sun until the shadow and the object is equal to (the length of) the object.
والوقت من بعد زمان الظهر # إلى مغيب الشمس وقت العصر
The time of ‘Asr prayer is from the end of the Dhuhr time until sunset.
والوقت بعد غيبها في الأفق # فمغرب إلى مغيب الشفق
The time for Maghrib prayer is after the sun sets on the western horizon until the red mega disappears.
ثم العشا من بعد وقت المغرب إلى طلوع الفجر غير الكاذب
Then the time for ‘Isha’ prayer is after the end of Maghrib until the dawn of Sadiq, not the dawn of Kizib.
ووقت صبح من طلوع الصادق # إلى طلوع الشمس من مشارق
The time of Fajr is from the dawn of Sadiq until the sun rises from the eastern horizon.
فهذه الفروض في أوقاتها # واجبة على مكلف بها
So, the obligatory prayers at their respective times are obligatory for those who are subject to the demands of the mukallaf.
فتحرم الصلاة قبل وقتها بل ﻻ تصح وكذا تأخيرها
So it is haraam to offer this prayer before its time, and it is not valid. It is also haraam to delay the prayer (from its appointed time).
كفعلها بعد خروج الوقت لغير عذر عند شرع يأتي
It is also haraam to offer the prayer after its time has expired, without an excuse that is justified by the Shariah, and the following is an explanation,
فإن طرا بعد مضي ما يسع وطهرها كسليس عذر منع
كحيض أو جنون أو إغماء لزمه الشروع بالقضاء
If there is an excuse that prevents prayer, such as menstrual insanity or apoplexy, after a sufficient time has passed for prayer and purification,
like the time for purification for a person who urinates continuously, then he must repeat the prayer that he has not been able to pray.
أو زالت الموانع المذكورة وقد بقي المقدار للتكبيرة
لزمه الفعل كذا ما قبلها إن صلح الجمع كظهر معها
Or the obstructions have disappeared, while
If the obstacles have disappeared, and there is still enough time left for him to say Takbiratul Ihram only, then he must pray that time (qodho’). Similarly, he must make up any previous prayers that may be joined with it, such as the Dhuhr prayer and the ‘Asr prayer.
Article Obligations of those in authority – فيما يجب على صاحب الولاية
على ولي الصبية الميزة كذا الصبي أمر الصلاة الواجبة
It is obligatory for the guardian of a boy and a girl who have reached the age of puberty to order them to perform the obligatory prayers.
وأن يعلمهما أحكامها بعد تمام السبع من شروطها
And it is obligatory to teach them the rulings of prayer, including its conditions (and pillars), when they reach the age of seven.
ويضربنهما على إهمالها بعد شروع العشر أو تسهيلها
And beat them (with a spanking that does not hurt) for neglecting or disdaining the prayer, after they have reached the age of ten.
وواجب تعليم ما قد يلزم عليهما كذاك ما قد يحرم
And it is also obligatory (on the guardian) to teach everything that is obligatory and also what is forbidden for both of them.
يزلم قتل تارك الصلاة كسلا ولم يتب على الولا
It is obligatory for the ruler (imam/head of state or his deputy) to sentence to death the one who abandons prayer out of laziness, if he does not repent.
وحكم هذا مسلم فيحكم # في أمره بحكم من قد أسلموا
The person is still a Muslim, so his affairs are treated the same as those of a Muslim.
وواجب على جميع مسلم ان يأمر الأهل بها المحرم
It is obligatory for every Muslim to order his family (children, wife, servants, etc.) to pray, as well as his mahram (relatives whom he is forbidden to marry).
والقهر أو تعليمهم أركائها وكذا شروطها وبطلاتها
And it is obligatory to urge them (to pray), or to teach them about the pillars of prayer, its conditions, and the things that invalidate it.
وكل قادر على المذكور من غيرهم يجب في المشهور
Anyone who is able to do the above, apart from them (guardians, rulers and relatives), is obliged to do so, as is well known from the scholars.
Article on the Fard of Wudoo’ – في فروض الوضو
ومن شرائط صلاتتا الوضو وستة فروضها قد تفرض
Among the conditions of our prayer is wudhu’. There are six fard wudoo’ that are absolutely obligatory.
أولها النية بالقلب لدى غسل لوجه الذي في الابتدا
First is the intention with the heart when washing the first part of the face.
الثاني غسل وجهه جميعه وأي جزء من محيطات به
The second is to wash all the face, as well as all the parts surrounding the face.
والحد من أذنه للأذن ومنبت لرأسه اللذقن
شعرا وچلدا لا الذي قد اختفى بلحية وعارض قد كفا
The boundaries of the face are from the tip of the right ear to the tip of the left ear, and from the place where the hair of the head grows to the chin.
the place where the hair of the head grows to the chin. Whether it is hair (that grows on the face) or facial skin (must be washed all over), not the part that is not washed.
not the part that is covered by a thick beard or sideburns.
وثالث الفروض فيما علما # غسل اليدين مع مرفقيهما
The third requirement of ablution, as is well known, is to wash the hands and the elbows.
رابعها مسح برأسه ولو بشعرة في حد رأسه حكوا
The fourth is wiping the head, even if it is just a hair within the confines of the head, as has been narrated by the scholars.
وغسله الرجلين والكعبين خامسها او مسحه الخفين
Fifth is washing the feet and the ankles or (in lieu of that) wiping over the khuff.
هذا إذا شروطه قك كملت سادسها ترتيب أقسام خلت
Wiping the two khuffs is of course when the conditions have been met. The sixth fard of ablution is to perform the above-mentioned fard in order.
Article Things that invalidate Wudhu’ – في نواقض الوضوء
وينقض الوضو خروج الكائن # من قبل أو دبر غير المني
Wudu is invalidated by the discharge of something other than semen from the genitals or anus.
ومس بطن الكف جزء القبل او حلقة الدبر دون حائل
And for touching the genitals or anal opening with the inside of the palm of the hand without a barrier.
ولمس جلد أجنبية ظهر كلثة مع كبر لا مع صغر
and touching the outer skin of another woman, such as touching her gums, provided that both of them are adults and not young children,
كذا زوا العقل لا من قاعد بنومة ممكن للمقعد
The same applies to loss of mind (due to insanity, trance, apoplexy, or sleep), except for the sleep of one who sits with his buttocks pressed to the floor.
with his buttocks pressed to the ground.
Article Things that require Istinja’ and Conditions of Istinja – فيما يوجب الاستنها، وفي شروطه
يجب الاستنجاء من رطب صدر من السبيلين بماء أو حجر
إلى طهارة المحل ما عدا مني شخص فطهوره بدا
It is obligatory to perform istinja’ (purification after relieving oneself) of anything wet that comes out of the genitals or anus other than semen, because semen is clearly pure. (This can be done by using water or stones until the place becomes pure.
أو بثلاث مسحات إن حصل بهذه الثلاث إنقاء المحل
بصفة القلع مع الجمود والطهر لا محترم الوجود
من أن ينتقل النجس ولا يجف فالماء إذا شرط خلا
With three strokes only (without using water), if the place of impurity can be cleaned with these three strokes (even if there are traces left). This is on condition that the wiping tool can remove the unclean material, that it is a solid object (stone or the like), that it is pure, that it is not glorified, and that the unclean material has not moved (from where it came out), and that it has not dried up. If any of the above conditions are not met, then it is obligatory (istinja) to use water.
Article Things that make ghusl obligatory and the conditions of ghusl – فما يوجب الغسل وفي فروضه
ومن شروط صحة الصلاة الغسل بالمء لأمر يأتي
من محو الإنزا أو السفاد والحض والنفاس والإلاد
Among the conditions of prayer is taking a bath with water for the following reasons. These are, for example, the emission of semen during intercourse, menstruation, postpartum bleeding, and childbirth.
فروضه أن ينوي الرفع وإن يعم الذي بدا من البدن
The obligations of ghusl are the intention of removing major impurity and spreading (water) over the visible (i.e. external) parts of the body.)
Article The Conditions of Purification, Including Wudhu’, Bathing, and Tayamum – في شروط الطهارة من وضوء وغسل وتيمم
طهارة شرعا لها أحكام شروطها التميز والإسلام
وعد المانع من وصول ما إلى المسوح والمغسول
Shar’i purification has several conditions. The conditions of purification are understanding, Islam, and there is nothing that prevents the water from reaching the washed member.
وأن يكون الماء على العضو جرى وكونه لغيره مطهرا
The water must flow over the object being washed, and the water must be able to purify the object (muthlaq water, i.e. water that is pure and purifies).
وفاقد الماء أو الماء يضر عضوا تيمم على شرط ذكر
The one who cannot find water, or the one whose limbs may be harmed by contact with water, may do tayammum according to the conditions that will be mentioned.”
بعد دخول الوقت مع زوال نجاسة وعلم الاستقبال
وبتراب خالص طهور له غبار ذا على المشهور
(That is, it must be done) after the time for prayer has entered, removing the impurity (from the body), knowing the direction of Qibla, and
using pure soil containing fine dust that is pure
And purify. This is all based on the well-established scholarly explanation.
وكونها في الوجه واليدين يرتبنهما بضربتين
بينية استبباحة الصلاة والنقل والمسح لوجه يأتي
tayammum is to wipe the dust over the face and hands in succession with two takes, with the intention that it is permissible to pray together with moving the dust and wiping the face.
Article on things that are forbidden for the one who is in ablution – فيما يحرم على من به حدث
منتقض الوضو يحرم الصلة عليه والطواف في وجه الإله
وحمل مصحف ومسه عدا مميز الصبي الأجل الاهتدا
It is haraam for a person who has broken his wudoo’ to pray tawaaf for the sake of Allah and to carry the Mushaf and touch it, except for a young child who has reached the age of puberty for the purpose of seeking guidance (learning),
واستأثر اجنت يمكث المسجد وبتلاوة القراة الماجد
Specifically, for those who are junub (in addition to the above prohibitions), it is also prohibited to stay in the mosque and recite the noble Qur’an.
وحائض والنفسا إجماعا بالصوم أو تمكينها الجماعا
قبل انقطاع دمها في الأول وقبل غسلها على ثان يلي
(The women who are menstruating and postpartum (in addition to all of the above prohibitions) are also prohibited, according to scholarly consensus, from fasting or having intercourse with their husbands until the bleeding stops in the case of the first prohibition (fasting) and until they have washed in the case of the second prohibition (intercourse).
Article on impurity and how to remove it
One of the conditions of prayer is to be pure from anything that can invalidate it, namely impurity on the place, body, and things that are carried (clothes).
So, if there is impurity on his limbs or something he is carrying, then the prayer he performs becomes void.
Unless the impurity is removed from him immediately, or the impurity is excused (such as a little blood on a wound), then it does not have to be removed.
All kinds of unclean substances that are not ma’fu must be removed, which is required by sharee’ah, regardless of taste, smell or color, with purifying water, if this is possible.
In the case of najis hukmiyah (najis that cannot be sensed), simply running water is sufficient. And if it is impurity from dogs (najis mughallazhah), then it must be washed seven times, (and one of them) must be mixed with pure dust. The washing that removes the unclean material of the dog (even if it is repeated) is counted as one time.
In purifying the impurity, it is required that the water comes to the impure object, if there is only a small amount of water in the container (less than two qullahs).
Article: Another of the conditions of prayer is facing the Qiblah (the physical Ka’bah), as the scholars have explained.
The time must have come, i.e. after the time for the call to prayer, and he must be a Muslim.
She must also be aware of the obligation of the prayer that she is performing, and not believe that the obligatory parts of the prayer are Sunnah.
A free woman (not a slave) must cover all her limbs with something (clothing), except for her face and palms.
Slave women and men must cover their navel and knees, which are the limbs between them.
Article Things that invalidate prayer
The prayer is invalidated by speaking deliberately, even if it is only one letter that is understood.
Unless the person forgets that he is doing so in prayer, and he speaks only a little.
It is also invalidated by making many movements in succession (such as moving the hands three times), and by excessive one-time movements (such as jumping).
It is also invalid for adding to the pillars of action (such as adding to bowing or prostration), and for one movement with the intention of playing, and for eating and drinking until it enters the throat, even if there is no action involved (such as chewing). Unless he forgot to swallow it, and it was only a small amount of food (such as less than a sesame seed).
It is also invalidated by the intention to interrupt the prayer, or by depending on the prayer being interrupted, or by hesitating between interrupting and continuing the prayer. This is confirmed by the scholars.
The same applies to doubts about the intention for takbeeratul ihram (doubting whether one has made the intention or not, or whether one’s intention is valid or not), and the period of uncertainty is longer than one of the pillars of prayer, or the period of uncertainty about the intention is longer than one of the pillars, even if one of the pillars has not been missed. Then (in this case) the prayer deserves to be invalidated.
The condition for the acceptance of the prayer (in addition to the above conditions) is that the prayer should be for the sole purpose of seeking the pleasure of Allah.
And let the Rizki that is eaten, as well as the clothes and place of prayer must be halal.
His heart must also be present in the prayer (khushu), because a person will not get anything from his prayer, except according to what he thinks.
And he should not be proud of his prayer, nor should he be proud of any other form of obedience.
Article on the pillars of prayer
The first pillar of prayer is the intention, by intending to perform it, and specifying (the cause such as istisga’/istikharah, or the time such as zhuhur/ashar), and with the fardhu intention (in fard prayers).
The second pillar of prayer is standing (in fard prayers) for those who are able, and the third is reciting takbiratul ihram.
The fourth is reciting Ummul Kitab (al-Fatihah) with the basmalah, and all that it entails (including the necessity of keeping all the tashdids, the order of the verses and the makhraj of the letters).
The fifth is ruku’ by bowing the body, and the sixth is (doing ruku’ earlier) accompanied by calmness of the limbs (thuma’ninah).
The seventh pillar of prayer is i’tidal, and the eighth is thuma’ninah in i’tidal.
The ninth is prostration, which is repeated twice, and the tenth is thuma’ninah in prostration.
The eleventh is sitting between two prostrations, and the twelfth is thuma’ninah in it.
The thirteenth is sitting for the final tashahhud, and the fourteenth is reciting the words of the final tashahhud.
The fifteenth is reciting the salutation to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), and the sixteenth is reciting the greeting, O one who chooses the path of righteousness.
The seventeenth is the orderly performance of the aforementioned pillars of prayer. Thus, this completes (the explanation of)
these pillars of prayer.
Article on the conditions of the obligation to offer prayers in congregation and Friday prayers
Joining in the obligatory prayers for men is fardihu kifayah, not sunnah.
That is, men who are at home (not traveling), who are of sound mind (and have reached puberty), who are free (not slaves), and who are free from any excuse (such as sickness or rain).
With regard to congregation in the Jumu’ah prayer, it is fard if the number of men reaches forty, and all of them are mukallaf (able-bodied and sensible), and they live in a place (a Jumu’ah settlement).
Similarly, the Jumu’ah prayer is obligatory for one who intends to stay in a place for four complete days (without counting the days of arrival and return).
It is also obligatory for one who hears the call to Jumu’ah from a village (neighbor) adjoining the place where he lives.
The conditions of the Friday prayer are four, the first of which is that it is performed during the Zhuhr time. (Second) the recitation of two khutbahs is also in the zhuhur time before the Friday prayer, with a loud voice that is heard by (at least) 40 people. (Third) it is done in congregation by those 40 people.
(Fourth) there is no other Jumu’ah that precedes it or coincides with it, in the same village.
The two Jumu’ah khutbahs consist of five pillars. That is, praising Allah verbally, then reciting the blessings of the Prophet who is very merciful, and commanding piety towards Allah.
And reciting a Qur’anic verse that can be understood is only included in one of the khutbahs, unlike the previous pillars (which must be included in both khutbahs). Then in the second sermon, praying for the believers who may have their lives blessed (by Allah SWT) in the land of eternity (hereafter).
The conditions of the khutbah are seven. That is, purity from two hadats and purity from impurity, whether on the body, place, or clothes worn. So, (the preacher) must practice this knowledge.
He should cover his ‘awrah, stand (for those who are able), and sit between two sermons. Then there should be a sequence between the two sermons and the obligatory prayer (i.e. Friday prayer). And the two sermons must absolutely be in Arabic.
Article on the conditions of being a mimum
It is obligatory for every praying person who follows the imam (i.e. becomes a mum) in the Jumu’ah prayer or any other prayer, to observe seven things, so that he may be guided.
He should not go ahead of the imam in the position where the imam is standing and when reciting takbiratul ihram.
In fact, reciting Takbiratul Ihram at the same time as the imam invalidates the prayer. As for being with the imam in other than takbeeratul ihram, it is makrooh, such as when reciting the greeting.
Unless one is with the imam when reciting the words amen, then that is a Sunnah of the Prophet al-Amin (very trustworthy).
It is haraam for the one who prays to precede his imam in one of the pillars of fi’li (pillars of action, such as bowing, etc.).
It is also haraam for one who prays ahead of his imam to miss two pillars of the fi’li prayer, even if they are short pillars (such as bowing and i’tidal). The same applies to being late for two fi’li pillars (in following the imam) without any excuse (such as forgetting).
The same applies to being late for more than three long pillars, even if it is due to forgetfulness.
The second condition is that the imam should be aware of his movements so that he can follow him.
(The third condition is that the imam and the congregation should be together in one place (a mosque) or (other than a mosque) within a distance of not more than 300 cubits.
The fourth is that there should be no obstructions in the way of the imam, so that the person can walk to the imam’s position.
The fifth is that there should be harmony in the structure (sequence) between the prayers of the imam and the congregation in the visible (outward) movements of the prayer.
The sixth is that there should be no significant difference between the imam and the congregation in performing the recommended actions (such as prostration, sahwi prostration, or initial tashahhud).
Seventhly, in Jumu’ah prayer, the mum should intend to become a mum at the same time as takbiratul Ihrom.
As for other than Jumu’ah prayers, it is sufficient to intend to be a mum before following the imam’s movements (even after takbiratul ihram), and before the long waiting period.
For the imam, it is obligatory to intend to be the imam in the Jumu’ah prayer and the mu’adah prayer, (apart from these two, the intention is Sunnah).
Article on caring for the dead
There are four obligations with regard to the dead: bathing, shrouding, offering funeral prayers and burying them.
These duties are fard al-kifayah, as is understood, if the dead person is a Muslim who was born alive.
With regard to the kuffaar dhimmi, burial and shrouding are obligatory only, according to the Shariah.
In the case of an infant born prematurely (miscarriage), if it appears physically, it must be washed, shrouded and buried, according to the well-known opinion.
If a person dies while fighting the disbelievers, if he dies as a result of that fighting, then shroud him in the clothes that he was wearing. You should bury him like any other corpse, but you should not bathe him or offer him funeral prayer.
The minimum standard for bathing a corpse is to remove what is considered to be impure, by applying water evenly over the skin and hair.
The minimum standard for shrouding a corpse is to use a cloth that covers the entire body, apart from the head, of a man who died while in ihram.
As for the three-layered cloth, it is obligatory for the one who leaves behind an estate that is more than his debts, so long as he does not make a will not to be shrouded in it. So, understand this.
The way in which we pray for a dead person is, at the very least, with the intention of praying for him and also with the intention of doing what is required of him.
It is also necessary to determine whether the deceased is ghaib or hadhir, and to say takbeer (four times), and to stand if one is able to do so.
In the first takbīr, recite al-Fatihah, and in the second takbīr recite salawat to the Prophet (peace be upon him).
Then in the third takbir, pray for the deceased, and in the fourth takbir, which is the last, say salam.
In the funeral prayer, it is also obligatory to fulfill the conditions of the fard prayer, such as covering the aurat and making wudhu.
The minimum standard for burying a corpse is that the hole should be dug to cover the smell of the corpse and protect it from wild animals.
It is mustahabb to widen the grave (so that it can accommodate the corpse and the person lowering it), and increase its depth to the size of a person standing with his hand raised (about 4.5 dhira’ or 216 cm).
It is also obligatory to face the corpse in the direction of our Qiblah, and other than facing the Qiblah is not allowed.
Article on Zakat
Those who have camels, or cows, or goats, or any staple food that can be stored.
This includes dates, or dried grapes, or crops that are used as staple food in times of plenty (normal, such as rice and corn), not in times of hardship.
Or owning gold, or silver, or mined goods (in the form of gold or silver), or found treasure in the form of gold and silver (rikaz) from buried places.
Or owning merchandise, or a person who finds out that the month of Shawwaal has begun.
It is obligatory to pay zakaah on each of the above-mentioned items if the following conditions are met.
Because it has reached the haul (one year of ownership), the nishab (the measure of zakaah obligatory), free grazing (without charge), and is not hired on a daily basis.
And because some of these fruits have become good (fit for consumption), and because the seeds of the farmer’s crops have hardened (fit for harvest).
The beginning of the nisaab of the animals mentioned below, namely camels, is 5 heads. The minimum threshold for cattle is 30 heads. The minimum threshold for goats is forty. This is the nishab of these livestock.
In addition to the stipulation of the nisaab, it is also required to meet the haul, free grazing (without charge), and not being used for work, as a proper condition.
So, for every five camels, one goat is required, until the number reaches 25 camels.
And for every 40 sheep (up to a count of 121), a sheep (one year old), or what is called a sheep (two years old).
And for every 30 cows (up to a count of 40), one calf (one year old) is obligatory. Then, if you have livestock beyond (the above count), then the details (of zakat) apply (in multiples).
Learning about what you should do in the affairs of livestock is obligatory, O righteous one.
With regard to dry grapes, staple crops, and dates that have been colored (fit for consumption), the nisaab is 5 wasaq. It is equal to 300 saa’, with the standard shd’ (that prevailed at the time) of the chosen Prophet to be followed.
The yield of one crop must be combined (accumulated) with the yield of the next (same crop) within the span of a year (to complete the nishab). However, one type of crop should not be combined with another different type (such as rice with corn).
When (fruits) are in good condition (fit for consumption), zakaah is due on them. The same applies when the grains (of staple foods) have hardened (fit for harvest).
One-tenth (10%) is obligatory on the three types (dates, grapes and grains) if they are irrigated with rainwater that has been falling for some time (i.e. without cost).
But if the irrigation costs money, then the zakaah is half of the tenth (5%).
If the amount exceeds one nishab, zakaah must be paid on the basis of the percentage due.
If the amount is less than one nishab, then zakaah is not due on it, except as a voluntary charity, and hopefully salvation will be achieved through it.
The minimum threshold for pure gold is undoubtedly 20 mithqals, according to the scholars. The nisaab of pure silver is 200 dirhams. Zakaah is due on both (gold and silver) at the rate of 2.5 percent.
If gold and silver exceed the nisaab, even by a little, then zakaah is due on the basis of its percentage.
In the case of gold and silver, it is stipulated that it must have reached the haul (one year of ownership). Except for gold and silver that comes from found treasure (rikaz) or mining products, the zakaah must be paid immediately (without waiting for the haul). As for the zakaah on found property (rikaz), it is one-fifth (2096), and this amount is sufficient as zakaah.
As for the nisaab of trade, as you will see, it is the same as the nisaab of the medium of exchange (i.e. gold or silver).
What is required to be spent on the valuable merchandise is 2.5% of the value of the merchandise.
Property that belongs to several people in a joint venture, or to two people in a joint venture, is the same as if it belonged to one person.
(It is the same in terms of the amount of zakaah to be paid and the nisaab. (That is if the conditions of the partnership are met.
Zakaah on fithrah must be given because it is part of the month of fasting (Ramadan) and part of Shawwal.
It is obligatory on every Muslim, for himself and also for those Muslims whose livelihood is actually dependent on him.
It is obligatory for each person to spend one saa’ of the staple food commonly consumed in the area where he lives.
Zakat on fithrah is only obligatory if it exceeds the amount of his debts and the cost of his living, which includes clothing, shelter, and food for those for whom he is responsible at that time.
The intention to pay zakaah is obligatory once the wealth to be paid as zakaah has been separated, which applies across the board (i.e. to all types of zakaah).
The distribution of zakaah has always been obligatory to the eight categories, as is well known.
These categories are mentioned in the Qur’an very clearly.
It is not permissible or valid to distribute zakaah to other than these eight groups. (Because) the specificity (for them) in the Qur’an is very clear.
Article on Fasting
Fasting Ramadan is obligatory for a person who is a mukallaf (adult and intelligent) and a Muslim.
Fasting for women who are menstruating and postpartum is not valid. Both are obliged to make up the fast.
It is permissible for a person who is traveling a long distance not to fast, whether or not fasting is harmful to him.
(It is also permissible for a pregnant woman, a woman who has caught up with her husband, and a sick person, if fasting is too burdensome for them.
And when the excuse for each of them disappears, then they must make it up.
The one who fasts Ramadaan must make the intention at night, and must determine (the type of fast, such as fasting Ramadaan or fasting a vow) each day with certainty.
The fasting person must refrain from anything that may invalidate his fast according to sharee’ah, including intercourse, even if it is by way of sodomy.
The fasting person must refrain from anything that invalidates his fast, including intercourse, even if it is by way of sodomy, intentional vomiting, masturbation, and apostasy (leaving Islam), even if it is for a short period of time.
It is also obligatory to refrain from the entry of anything into the orifices of the body, excluding the odor (or smell) of something. And (it is also obligatory to refrain) from the smoke of cigarettes that is commonly known to us.
Except for one’s own pure and pure saliva that comes out of its place of origin.
It is obligatory to refrain from insanity, even for a short time (absolutely), and not to have epilepsy for a whole day.
It is not valid to fast on the two festivals (‘Eid al-Fitr and ‘Eid al-Adha); rather the one who fasts on them is sinning.
The same applies to fasting on the three days of tasyrig (the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth of Dhu’l-Hijjah), which are immediately after the day of sacrifice.
As well as (fasting) the last half of Sha’ban, as well as the day of doubt, which is the 30th of Sha’ban. You should hold fast to this explanation. Unless (the 30th and the last half of Sha’baan) is connected with a previous voluntary fast, or with a fast to be made up, or a vow, or an existing regular fast.
If a person breaks one day of the fast, without a concession, such as traveling a long distance, by having full intercourse, he is guilty of a sin and must be punished by the ruler if he does not repent, and must make up the fast immediately, and pay expiation.
Article on Hajj
Hajj and ‘Umrah are obligatory once in a lifetime. Performing them a second time is Sunnah.
It is for all Muslims who are mukallaf, free, and able, without forcing themselves.
This means that he can travel safely and has more money than he needs to pay off his urgent debts.
He should also be able to afford a place to live and clothing for himself and for those who are his dependents.
(All of this must be sufficient) from the time of departure to the time of return, as the author of this book has explained.
The pillars of Hajj are well known among the scholars. They are: Ihram, wuquf in the land of ‘Arafah, tawaaf, sa’i, and shaving, which starts after the middle of the night of Gurban (the 10th night of Dhu’l-Hijjah).
These pillars of Hajj, apart from wuquf, are also pillars of ‘umrah. This is because the conditions of ‘umrah as narrated from the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) are without ‘umrah.
It is forbidden for the person in ihram to wear perfume and oil his beard and head, as is understood.
It is also forbidden to cut nails and hair, to have intercourse and its preliminaries (such as kissing), and to do marriage contracts.
The same applies to hunting land animals that are permissible to eat, or animals that are native to the land (even if they are at sea), and (it is required) that they be wild.
Covering the head (is prohibited) for men, as well as wearing sewn clothes, such as pants.
Similarly for women, (it is forbidden) to cover their faces and wear socks. This applies to women only.
Whoever does any of these things is sinning and must offer expiation.
As for intercourse, then (in addition to his Hajj or ‘Umrah being invalid), he must make up for it immediately, and he must complete the invalid Hajj or ‘Umrah, even if it is a naafil Hajj.
It is obligatory to enter ihram from the migratory route, whether for Hajj or ‘Umrah.
(It is obligatory to spend the night in Muzdalifah and Mina, to stone the Jamrah ‘Aqabah on the day of sacrifice, to stone the three Jamrahs (Sughra, Wustha, and ‘Aqabah) on the day of tasyria using seven pebbles, and to do the farewell tawaaf for the one who is leaving Makkah for his country.
It is absolutely forbidden to hunt and cut (or uproot) anything that grows in the two haram lands (Makkah and Madinah), whether one is in ihram or not, as is the rule. (The prohibition in Makkah is more severe than that in Madinah, with the additional penalty of having to pay a fidyah, due to the stipulation of the best of messengers.
Article on the Obligation to Observe Halal and Haram in Mu’amalat and Marriage
Every mukallaf who expects the land of salvation (Paradise) is obliged to pay attention to halal and haram.
So, do not engage in anything until you know what Allah has truly permitted and what He has forbidden.
For Allah, the Exalted, has charged us all with provisions which, if we obey them, Allah will surely take care of us.
Indeed, Allah swt. has justified buying and selling as a business of commerce, and forbidden usury through such a statement (in the Qur’an). This is by means of a ta’rif (letter), which must fulfill the demands of the validity of the sale and purchase contract and its sharia mechanism (i.e. it must fulfill the conditions and pillars).
So, every person who wants to do a sale and purchase contract must know the provisions mentioned above.
If he does not understand them, then whether he wants to or not, he will (potentially) eat usury because of his ignorance about these two things (buying and selling and usury).
Indeed, a hadith has come from the Prophet, the bearer of guidance, about the status of an honest trader in the Hereafter. That the honest trader will definitely be gathered together with the martyrs and shiddiqin.
The honest trader is promised such a tantalizing reward because of the hard work he has put in, fighting his passions and desires, and forcing him to carry out his trade contracts according to the sublime rules of Shariah.
If in this case you turn away from the correct rules, then realize that Allah is the One Who has punishment.
It is also obligatory for you to follow all the rules (terms and conditions) in all business transactions (contracts), including the contracts of wakalah (representation), ijarah (rent and services), hawalah (transfer of rights), shirkah (partnership), and so on.
In the matter of marriage, one must be more careful and cautious, to anticipate the corruption (invalidity) of marriage (which has implications for adultery).
Because it is said: “How many people are shipwrecked in the sea, because they do not know the technique of swimming.
There are five pillars of marriage that are very clear, namely the prospective husband, the prospective wife, the guardian, two witnesses, and the shighah (statement).
The shighah (statement) on the part of the guardian is in the form of ijab (statement/agreement of submission), while on the part of the prospective husband it is qabul (expression of acceptance) and a reply.
The two witnesses must hear the marriage contract and both must meet the requirements to be witnesses.
The guardian must be voluntary (no coercion), and must be free from impediments (such as disbelief, infidelity, childhood, and insanity).
The wife-to-be must fulfill three conditions, namely a specified person (clear person), a halal woman (not a mahram for the prospective husband), and free (from marriage ties / not being married or free from the obligation of ‘iddah).
The prospective husband is required to have a specified person, a lawful man (not a mahram to his prospective wife), his own will, and must know the lawfulness of his prospective wife (for him), and about his identity (including his name, lineage, and figure).
Article on Some Prohibited Buying and Selling
Indeed, usury is one of the gravest of major sins, as is written in several books.
The same applies to all the actions associated with usury, such as recording it, engineering it, and bearing witness to it.
As for usury, it is exchanging gold or silver for something else (on condition that it be) on an overdue basis, (whether gold for gold, silver for silver, or gold for silver).
The same applies to exchanging gold or silver without handing it over (leaving the room of the contractor before handing it over, and without stipulating a time period). The same applies to exchanging gold or silver for each other (i.e., gold for gold, or silver for silver) in the manner mentioned (i.e., at the time of the contract or without giving it up).
(Similarly, exchanging gold or silver) for another (i.e., gold for silver), or of the same kind (i.e., gold for gold, or silver for silver) even if the measure is the same (but on an overdue basis or without handing over). It is also the same as exchanging gold or silver for the same kind, but the quantities are different (one of them has more).
The same applies to exchanging some food for other food (as explained above). It is not permissible to sell goods that have not been received.
It is also not permissible to sell meat (in exchange) for animals absolutely (even if they are similar, such as beef in exchange for cows). It is also not permissible to sell a debt for a debt, because of a clear prohibition.
The scholars have also ruled that bai’ fudhuli (selling someone else’s property without his permission or authorization) is forbidden, and selling things that are vague, unclear and unspecified (such as selling one of two shirts without specifying it).
Similarly, it is not permissible to do a sale contract with someone who is not authorized to do so, such as a child, a madman or an idiot. It is also not permissible to sell something of unknown benefit (such as insects, snakes or rats).
It is also not permissible to sell something that cannot be handed over (such as a loose bird), or to sell something without a shighah (letter of consent).
Religion also forbids selling something that does not have an owner, such as a free person (not a slave), and wild land that is still abandoned.
It is also forbidden to sell unclean things, such as dogs, even trained dogs, or any intoxicating liquid, as well as anything that is forbidden (such as guitars or flutes).
And selling a sacred item to someone who is known to use it for immorality is haraam (such as selling grapes for wine).
Similarly, it is forbidden to sell intoxicants (even if they are sud, such as marijuana or narcotics), and to sell defective goods without pointing out the defects.
It is not permissible to divide the estate of the deceased, even if one-sixth of a dirham is taken. It is also not permissible to sell any part of it, except to fulfill clear rights. (This is so long as the debts of the deceased have not been paid, and the wills that he made have not been fulfilled. And also so long as the costs of Hajj and ‘Umrah for those who are obliged to perform them have not been paid for.
The comparison of the estate of the deceased is like that of a slave who has committed a crime. That is, it is not valid to sell the slave because he is a dependent. Therefore, the dependents of the slave must be fulfilled first (by his sayid), or it is permitted to sell him by the person who has the right (authority).
Based on the Shar’i prohibition, the scholars have ruled it haraam to undermine the will of the one who sells or the one who buys. If this happens after the price has been agreed upon, with the intention of buying it himself at a higher price. Or the person who is bulldozing is trying to sell a similar item to the person who bought it, at a lower price.
The prohibition on undermining the will of another person is more severe if it is done after the contract and during the khiyar period.
The scholars also forbade deliberately buying food at a time when prices are high and people need it, with the intention of hoarding it in storage and selling it at a higher price.
Similarly, it is forbidden to bid more than the price of a merchandise in order to deceive others.
Do not separate a slave girl from her child before the age of puberty (e.g. by selling the child), because of the strong hadith (which forbids it).
And do not commit ghash (cheating or deceit), or betrayal, O you who have come to my attention, whether in measuring, weighing, or weighing.
Do not sell merchandise to a buyer while giving him a loan of money, on the condition that he must be willing to buy (your merchandise) at a higher price (than the standard price) because of the bond of debt. Thus, the buyer is held hostage to your interest.
Similarly, do not give a loan (in money or goods), O my brother, to an employee (or laborer) such as a weaver, and make him work for you for a substandard wage because of the loan.
Or loaning farmers money, so that they will sell (their crops) to you at a lower price. This is a very despicable act (sin). It is called al-magdhi bit-tha’am (repayment of debts with the benefit of food), and is an invalid mu’amalah that is prevalent among many people.
If you want to live a fortunate (safe) life, O my brother, then you should always be close to the righteous, and gain knowledge (from them).
So, bite down with your molars (i.e. hold firmly) the Shari’ah rules in everything, O my neighbor.
And know that seeking what is lawful is obligatory, which will lead to perfection.
Article on maintenance and related matters
It is obligatory upon the wealthy (son or grandson and so on) to provide for his parents who are living in poverty (be it father, mother, grandfather, or grandmother, and so on, and even if they are able to work), because of the absolute command.
It is also obligatory to provide for his children and grandchildren who are living in hardship, or who are unable to work because they are young or sick.
Similarly, it is absolutely obligatory for a husband to provide for his wife because of tamkin (submission to her).
It is also obligatory for the husband to give his wife the mahr (dowry), and to give her mut’ah if he divorces her.
Then, it is obligatory for the wife to obey her husband in matters relating to her (such as intercourse or flirting), as long as it is permissible (by sharee’ah) for her to do so.
The scholars have ruled that it is haraam for a woman to go out of the house or fast without her husband’s permission.
The one who owns slaves and pets must provide for them at the appropriate rate.
It is not permissible for him to burden them with work that is beyond their ability, nor is it permissible for him to beat them without justification.
Article on Praiseworthy and Disgraceful Attributes
Among the obligations of your heart is to believe in Allah, the Almighty, which consists of four pillars. (It is also obligatory to believe) in everything that comes from Allah. (including His commands and prohibitions), and (believe) in His Messenger, and all the teachings that he brought, with full acceptance.
It must also be accompanied by a sense of certainty (full trust without doubt), sincerity (sincere) for the sake of Allah alone, regretting all sinful deeds, tawakkal (relying solely) on Allah, and ridha (fully willing) to all that has been destined by Allah, and ber-murdgabah to Him (always aware of Allah’s supervision of every action).
Likewise, one should always be husnuzhan (prejudiced against Allah and His creatures), and glorify the religious symbols of Allah’s chosen Prophet who is straight.
Always be grateful for the favors of Allah, and be patient in fulfilling what has been obliged by Allah, the Most Sublime.
And be patient in abandoning sinful deeds, and in undergoing the trials of Allah against you. And always be content with the provision that Allah has distributed to you.
Be ever suspicious of the passions, always considering them treacherous, and be utterly disobedient to them.
Do not give in to the devil and the sinners, and always be zuhud (unconcerned and unconcerned) about the world in order to attain salvation.
Always love Allah Swt. and His words (the Qur’an), from loving His Prophet, his Companions, his family, and the Anshar Companions, and the pious and noble “alim.
O people of the phrase “la ilaha illallah”, hold fast to a piece of advice that is very clear in its meaning, which has been conveyed by a Sayyid of high rank, who is known by the nickname al-Haddad, namely Habib Abdullah bin ‘Alawi. Every believer should adorn himself with this advice. The content of the advice is as follows (in nazham-nazham), then you should reach for it.
You should be khushu’ (bowing your heart to Allah), tawadhu’ (humble), fearful, and reluctant towards Allah, the Creator.
As well as zuhud (not being lured and enticed) towards the world, and gang’ah (being willing) to the portion that is available, so also beware of thama’ (ambition or greed).
And you should be open-hearted, charitable, compassionate, and empathetic towards others. Also, be very compassionate towards the servants of Allah, enjoining good, and forbidding evil.
Hurry towards goodness and always remain obedient to Allah.
Be a pointer and guide to virtue, and a caller to the truth and guidance of Allah.
Be courteous, calm-hearted, silent (from idle talk), and cautious (not in a hurry), which is very valuable. Expand your chest, soften your demeanor with humility, and improve your manners.
So, associate with people with good manners. Verily the descent of bala’ (calamity) is authorized by speech. A saying has shown us, O my friend, “the base of a person’s salvation is in keeping his tongue.”
Do not be arrogant, especially to those below you, and do not be arbitrary. So, guard your tongue, and it will guard you. Imam al-Ghazali said: “Anyone who sees himself as better than others is arrogant.”
Do not be greedy for the worldly affairs that are always tempting, and do not like to put off the affairs of the hereafter. Do not accumulate wealth, and do not withhold wealth from its due, such as zakat or sadaqah, so that you become a miser.
Do not break the bonds of brotherhood, be bitter, speak harshly, put each other down with words (mira’), and argue (mujadalah).
Avoid being hard-hearted (rejecting advice and truth), quarrelsome, narrow-minded, ill-tempered, and sycophantic (pretending to be good because of interests).
Do not deceive, cheat, and favor the rich over the poor. This is all to avoid various trials (bala’).
Do not go to the ruler and do not stay with him all the time.
Do something and do not remain silent against the rulers, as long as you are able to do so.
For, the most important jihad is to speak the truth to the unjust ruler and be ignorant.
You should not be position-crazy, such as being a leader, and wealth-crazy (including being hunky), and power-crazy. In fact, you should (rather) dislike this last one (power), except because of necessity (shar’i demand) or emergency (necessity).
The advice of Sayyid Abdullah bin ‘Alawi al-Haddad which is rich in help is finished. O Creator of the universe, sow his grave with Your most fragrant pleasure.
Article on Some of the Sins of the Heart
Among the sins of the heart is showing off by doing good deeds, as the scholars have explained.
Riya’ erases the reward of deeds, just as ujub’ (pride) in obeying Allah, the Exalted.
And doubting the existence of Allah and what He has said, and feeling safe from the punishment of Allah.
And despairing of Allah’s mercy, being arrogant towards the servants of Allah, and looking down on others.
So you should not see yourself as better than others. If you disobey, it will be to your own detriment.
And grudge (harboring enmity in your heart), hasud (envy), and bringing up something you once gave, because the reward of almsgiving is lost because of this attitude.
The same applies to constantly committing sins, for this is the greatest evil.
Being prejudiced against Allah and the good people, and denying the qadha’ and qadar of Allah.
Rejoicing in the disobedience that occurs, and deceiving and betraying promises, even to disbelievers (who are not kafir harbi).
Hating the companions of the Prophet (S), his family, and the righteous, who are the people loved by the Prophet (S).
Being greedy, miserly, and stingy with regard to the obligations (such as zakat) of one’s own wealth, or that of others, to be given to those who ask for it.
Insulting the things that Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, and belittling the things that Allah, may He be glorified and exalted, such as obedience, disobedience, the Qur’an, religious knowledge, Paradise and Hell.
Article on some of the major sins and the punishment for drinking alcohol
Among the abominations of the stomach are eating the proceeds of usury, extortion, stolen property, and the proceeds of ghasab (unlawful possession of someone else’s property).
And anything that is obtained through unauthorized means (transactions), such as selling the fruit of a plant on the condition that the buyer must tap it (do the harvesting).
And drinking alcohol. (The punishment for drinking alcohol is forty lashes, if he is a free man or woman. And half of that, i.e. 20 lashes for a slave. This is different from what other scholars have ruled. For the Imam (head of state), it is permissible to increase (the punishment) to 80 lashes, which applies as a hadd.
The same applies to consuming any form of intoxicating food (such as marijuana leaves, opium or methamphetamine), and unclean objects (such as urine, blood or pork), or something that is considered disgusting (such as snot or spit).
Eating the property of an orphan unjustly, and the property of a waqif, even if there is no stipulation/sharthul waqif (which authorizes it).
And something that is accepted (from someone else who gave it) because of shyness. If there had been no such shame, the gift would not have been given.
Article on some eye sins
Among the sins of the eyes, O you who have eyesight, is looking at other (non-mahram) women.
It is also haraam for women to look at other men in some circumstances (such as not because they are being proposed to, or not because of a sale and purchase contract).
And looking at the aurat is absolutely forbidden (whether it is the aurat of the same sex, and whether it is a mahram or not). So do not look at the limbs of women who are forbidden to you (not your own wives).
It is not permissible for a woman to expose any part of her body in the presence of a man who is forbidden to look at her to prevent fitnah.
The prohibition of exposing the parts of the body between the navel and the knees (whether for a man or a woman) is very clear (i.e. in the presence of a bystander, be it of the same sex, and even if it is his own mahram), except in the presence of a person who is lawful for him (i.e. husband or wife).
Similarly, opening the two private parts (qubul and rectum) without a need (such as bathing or istinja’), is also haraam (for men and women) without playing around (i.e. explicitly).
It is permissible to look at another person’s body parts without lust, other than between the navel and the knees, if there is a mahram relationship, or the same sex, or a child who (in general) does not yet feel lust. With the exception of children under the age of puberty (whether boys or girls), the ruling on both is the same (i.e. all parts of the body are not forbidden to look at, except the genitals of girls for other than their own mothers).
It is forbidden to gesture with one’s gaze at Muslims with the intention of insulting them.
And looking into other people’s houses without their permission, because this may harm (disturb them).
Or looking at things that are hidden (without the permission of the owner). The same applies to seeing an evil deed, if one does not want to denounce it, or if one has no excuse (i.e., an excuse such as not being able to denounce it for fear of being harmed by it).
Article on some of the verbal sins and on the Haddah of Qadzaf and the expiation for Zhihar
A proverb has shown us, my friend, “the basis of a person’s salvation is in guarding his tongue.”
Among the most despicable of the verbal sins are backbiting against Muslims and namimah (fighting and provocation). (Giving gossip is like saying something that the person who bears it does not like, even if it does exist (e.g. mentioning another person’s physical shortcomings). And (namimah is) revealing something that people dislike absolutely, as is understood.
And telling lies, swearing falsely, and accusing others of adultery (qadzaf) while defiling their honor. The offender of qadzaf (who is free) should be flogged a total of 80 times, and 40 times for a slave, which is half the punishment of a free person.
And insulting the companions of the Prophet who were always helped (by Allah), breaking promises, and false testimony.
And cursing, reviling, and delaying payment of debts when one is able to pay, because of the hadith about this.
And cursing (cursing, whether at people, animals, or objects), insulting Muslims, and all words that hurt Muslims.
This includes lying to Allah, the Most Merciful (such as saying that Allah has a son or a partner), and to the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) who came to deliver the Qur’an.
Also included in verbal sins are false confessions (claims of property), and imposing bid’ah thalag on an honorable woman (wife).
The same applies to zhihar. If you do not divorce your wife immediately after the zhihar, then you have to offer expiation. As a perfect expiation, you should free a believing slave who is free from disgrace. If you are unable to do that, then fast for two consecutive months with certainty, without playing around. If you are also unable to do that, then feed 60 poor people, one mud each.
Reciting the Qur’an incorrectly (though not to the extent of corrupting the meaning), and begging when one has sufficient wealth (or business), for by doing so one is humiliating oneself.
Making a vow with the intention of depriving the heirs of their inheritance. And not making a will for something that is new (i.e. not widely known), such as a debt or property that no one knows about except himself, as he disdains it.
The same applies to claiming another man as one’s father, or a slave claiming another man as his master, which is also forbidden in sharee’ah.
Proposing to a woman who has been proposed to by his brother (fellow Muslim) is forbidden by the Prophet (peace be upon him) because it hurts his brother.
Similarly, issuing a fatwa without knowledge, and studying harmful sciences such as horoscopes, is also prohibited by the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him).
Deciding on a ruling other than the ruling of Allah, and performing nadb (mourning a dead body by mentioning its virtues), and niyahah (screaming when mourning a dead body), and playing malahi (musical instruments that distract one from Allah, such as the flute).
And any form of speech that leads to something that is forbidden, or that detracts from what is obligatory.
And any expression that shows contempt for the religion, or for the prophets, scholars, laws, the Qur’an, or the signs of Allah, the Merciful.
Likewise, playing the flute, and keeping silent from the obligation to do amar ma’ruf and nahi mungkar, even though he is able (not affected by udzur)
Hiding testimony, and concealing knowledge that must be learned, when there are those who want to learn (from him).
Laughing at the emission of wind (fart), or laughing at his brother (fellow Muslim) while insulting and belittling him.
And forgetting the Qur’an completely (after having previously memorized it), and not answering the greeting that is obligatory (to be answered).
The same applies to kissing the wife of one who is in ihram, or one who is observing an obligatory fast, with such kisses as might move the nose of a sleeping person (i.e. serious kisses that cause desire).
Article on Some of the Sins of the Ear
One of the sins of the ear is listening to someone else’s conversation that he has intended to keep secret.
The same applies to listening to the sound of flutes, thunbur, and any other unlawful sound that is forbidden by Islam.
As well as the most despicable speech, such as listening to gossip and namimah (fighting). Except when these sounds enter his ears by force (unintentionally), and he himself dislikes them and tries to avoid them. In this case, he is obliged to denounce it and forbid it, if he has the ability to do so.
Articles on Some of the Sins of the Hand and the Haddah for Thieves and the Diyat for Murder
One of the sins of the hand is to reduce the measure, weight, and measurement. So, be aware of this matter.
The same applies to stealing. If a thief is proven to have taken a quarter of a dinar from the place where it was kept, then cut off his right hand. That is by cutting off his right hand, and if he repeats it, then cut off his left foot. Each hand shall be cut off from the wrist, and the foot from the ankle. Then (if he repeats the act), his left hand shall be cut off, then his right foot.
The same applies to robbery, ghashab, extortion, corruption and murder. In the case of these murders (whether intentional, semi-intentional, or misdirected), the killer (as expiation) must free a believing slave who is free from defect. If he is unable to do so, then he must fast for two consecutive months, after which he is no longer liable.
In the case of intentional killing, the qishash should be imposed on the perpetrator. Unless the family of the victim is kind enough to forgive him, either in lieu of diyat or free of charge,
In manslaughter and similar manslaughter, it is obligatory to pay diyat, which is 100 camels for a free male victim, and half of that (50 camels) for a free female victim. As for the diyat for the victim of a slave (whether male or female) is according to the price of the slave.
The criteria for diyat vary according to the type of murder. Similarly, the fruit of the plant also depends on the type of tree (planted).
Beating unjustly, accepting or giving bribes (gratuities) to the decision maker (judge or ruler).
Chopping up (torturing) animals and burning them without there being a factor that requires doing so (such as out of necessity).
Playing dakon and other games that involve gambling, so avoid them. Playing musical instruments that are forbidden, such as the flute and thunbur (lute).
The same applies to touching another woman intentionally, without a barrier such as a shirt, as is understood. Or with a barrier, but with desire, even if it is with a person of the same sex, or a mahram relationship.
Drawing anything, especially animals, does not include drawing trees,
Failing to pay zakaah, either in full or in part, after being obliged to do so and being able to pay it. Or giving something that does not meet the conditions, or giving zakaah to someone who is not entitled to receive it.
(Including the sin of the hand is) if you are reluctant to give salaries to employees (laborers). The same applies if you refuse to help a person who is in distress, or if you refuse to save a drowning person when you see him, even though there is no excuse in these two cases (i.e., the distressed person and the drowning person).
The same applies to writing something that is forbidden to say, so you should advise your family with something that will bring happiness to them.
Article on some sexual immoralities and adultery
Among the sexual immoralities of mankind are adultery and liwath (homosexuality or sihaq, i.e. lesbianism), the abomination of which is very obvious.
The punishment for committing adultery and liwath (homosexuality or sihaq, i.e. lesbianism), who is free and has had sexual intercourse in a valid marriage, is stoning with medium-sized stones until he dies. If he is not muhshan, then whipped 100 times and exiled for one year. For a slave, the punishment is half that of a free person (i.e. 50 lashes and half a year’s exile).
Having intercourse with an animal, whether lawful to eat or not, and intentionally emitting sperm with the hand of someone who is not lawful for him (not his husband or wife)
And having intercourse with his wife during nifaas or menses, or after the completion of nifaas and menses, but before taking a bath. Or after a ghusl that is not accompanied by the intention (of a ghusl), or that does not fulfill the conditions of a valid ghusl.
The same applies to exposing one’s ‘awrah in the presence of others (whom it is not permissible to see), or in any place without a need.
And facing the Qiblah (or backing away from it) without a covering, when urinating (or defecating), except in a place provided (specifically for defecating).
Likewise, urinating (or defecating) in the mosque (even if a container is used), or on a venerated grave (i.e. belonging to a Muslim or a kafir dzimmi), or in a place that is venerated (such as the hills of Shafa and Marwah),
And not to circumcise after the age of puberty (for men or women). The evidence for the obligation of circumcision is the command to follow the teachings of Prophet Ibrahim al-Khalil (peace be upon him).
Article on some of the sins of the feet
Among the sins of the feet is walking on the earth to commit sins.
Such as walking in order to harm others, such as to slander a Muslim, or to kill him arbitrarily, as the wrongdoer does.
And running away by a slave (from his master), or a wife (from her husband), or someone who has dependents, such as gishas on him (or dependents of debts, family maintenance, or filial piety).
Walking with an arrogant manner like a hard-hearted person, and stepping over the necks of people (worshipers).
And passing in front of a person who is praying, when the conditions for limiting his place are met (such as wearing a prayer mat, putting up a stick, or standing next to a pillar).
And sticking one’s foot out towards the Qur’an (or religious books), when one is not on high ground.
And any form of traveling towards something forbidden or to avoid an obligation.
Article on Bodily Vices and Hadith for Robbers
Whoever does not show filial piety to his parents, his children will not show filial piety to him, and the mercy of Allah will be far from him.
Bodily disobedience is truly numerous. Among them is disobedience to parents.
And any attitude that hurts (parents) such as saying uff (an expression of annoyance and boredom). Also running away from the battle line.
Breaking kinship ties, harming neighbors (including kafir dzimmi or musta’ min), and wearing black hair dye.
Connecting the hair of a woman’s head, i.e. with human hair, absolutely (whether her husband gives permission or not, and whether with her own hair or someone else’s), is haraam.
It is forbidden for a woman to imitate a man, or vice versa (i.e. a man imitating a woman), and for a woman to lower the hem of her sarong or pants to the ground for the sake of vanity.
Similarly, (men) wear henna on their hands or feet to imitate women.
And if you cancel an obligatory act of worship (prayer or fasting) without an excuse, and cancel a voluntary Hajj or a voluntary ‘Umrah (because when one starts Hajj or ‘Umrah, they become obligatory, so it is obligatory to complete them).
Imitating a believer and insulting him, and looking for other people’s faults.
Tattooing one’s body to adorn one’s appearance, and keeping a Muslim silent for more than three days without any benefit to him.
Befriending the infidel and sitting with him, or befriending the innovator because he is pleased with him.
Wearing silver jewelry, such as anklets, or gold for men, except for a silver ring (even this is mustahabb for him).
Wearing clothes (especially for men) that when weighed are mostly silk, especially when all the material is silk.
Being alone with a non-mahram woman where there is no other woman (i.e. a third person). So, you should fear her temptations.
A woman traveling unaccompanied by her mahram, and also when you force a free man to be a servant.
Despising a just Imam, an old Muslim, and a community leader.
Antagonizing the guardians of Allah and helping to disobey the One Who forbids wrongdoing
Circulating counterfeit currency and using containers made of silver or gold, as explained by the scholars.
The same applies to keeping these containers, such as putting them in a cupboard, even if they are not used at all.
Using, for example, lipsticks and toothbrushes (made of gold or silver), or keeping them without using them, comes under the same ruling as using gold and silver containers.
Abandoning a fard act of worship (such as prayer or fasting) deliberately, or doing it but leaving out one of its conditions or pillars.
Failing to pray Jumu’ah without an excuse, and if the people of a region fail to pray in the congregation that is prescribed (i.e., in congregation for the obligatory prayers). Similarly, delaying fard prayers from their time without a valid excuse.
Throwing game with a whip (or any other object that is not sharp, such as a stone) that kills quickly (so that it cannot be slaughtered), and making the animal a target for throwing (or shooting, i.e. not with the intention of hunting).
A woman who is in ‘iddah leaves the house that is provided for her, without any excuse (such as medical treatment or an urgent need).
Not mourning during ‘iddah by refraining from adorning herself for the death of her husband.
Intentionally making the mosque unclean, or defiling it even with a pure object, as the scholars narrated in the hadeeth.
Neglecting the Hajj after one is able to do it, until the one who is able dies.
Owing money to someone who has no hope of repaying the debt, based on the circumstances on which he can rely (in the form of work or otherwise, except in cases of emergency).
Not deferring payment of a debt to someone who is not able to pay it off, and spending money in disobedience to Allah, the Almighty.
Disrespecting the noble Qur’an and shar’i knowledge (such as the book of jurisprudence), and allowing people who are not allowed to hold the Qur’an or the book to hold it, such as a child who is not yet enlightened, a madman, a person with impurity, or a disbeliever.
Similarly, tampering with land boundary markers, and using a public road for something that is not allowed.
Using a borrowed item against the terms of the permission of the person to whom it is given (i.e. the lender).
Obstructing something that is free (to the public) that does not belong to anyone, such as salt from the place where it is mined (or for example a public grazing place, or a public spring), to which everyone is equally entitled (to utilize).
Utilizing found objects that one finds (without knowing the owner) before they are announced according to the understood rules (such as doing so for one year and in a public place).
The same applies to sitting around without any excuse while watching something forbidden, such as a woman singing.
And coming without permission to a wedding banquet, or the host letting him in, but only out of shyness.
A person who is honored out of fear of harm, and if there were no such fear, his habitual behavior would not be honored.
Not equalizing overnight stays between free wives (i.e. if a slave gets half the stays of a free woman).
And a woman should go out wearing perfume or adorning herself when she passes men who are not her mahrams, even if she is covered and has her husband’s permission.
The practice of sorcery, which is one of the gravest sins. Also disobeying the government.
It is also disobedience to the government, which is one of the greatest sins. It is also disobedience to the government, which is disobedience to the government, which is disobedience to the government, which is another sin.
Protecting the wrongdoer in secret, and securing him from those who would claim their rights (against the wrongdoer).
Mentoring Muslims, and robbery on the road. The thief should be punished according to the degree of his crime. He should be punished according to the degree of the crime he has committed. Either he should be reprimanded (if he only frightened passers-by, without seizing property and without killing), or he should have his hands and feet cut off crosswise (if he seized property and did not kill), or he should be killed (if he killed without seizing property), or he should be killed and crucified (if he killed and seized property). However, there is a difference of opinion on this matter (i.e. some scholars say that he should not be crucified, but thrown to the ground until the pus flows).
Not fulfilling vows and making wishes during fasting, because of the well-known prohibition (from the Prophet).
Taking someone else’s seat (which he has left for a while because of a need, either on the street or in the mosque), and cutting in line, and jostling that can hurt others. So, make up for anything that is still wrong.
Article on the Manner of Repentance
It is obligatory for people who have the ability to make an effort (i.e. mukallaf), to immediately repent by asking forgiveness (to Allah SWT).
Accompanied by regret, stopping the sin, and fully determined not to repeat the sin he committed.
If the sin is due to missing an obligation, such as prayer or zakat, then it is obligatory to make it up.
And if the sin is a right, then you have to pay it off or ask for his permission, (thus) you will certainly get husnul khatimah (a very good end of life).
This Nazham of Sullam at-Taufiq has been completed, and Allah is the only One who knows the truth.
Indeed, what was hoped for by Abdul Hamid who came from the land of Lasem has been realized, thanks to the greatness of His Majesty Thaha of Bani Hashim (Prophet Muhammad Saw.).