Taisir al-Khallaq

1. Opening

الحَمْدُ لِلهِ الكَرِيمٍ الخَلَّاق

Praise be to Allah, the Glorious, the Creator.

 والصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ المَبْعُوثِ لِتَتْمْيمِ مَكَارِمِ الأخْلَاق

and mercy and peace be upon our lord Mohammed, who was sent to perfect noble morals.

وَعَلَى آلِهِ وَأصْحَابِهِ مَا جَرَى قَلَمُ التَّلْخِيصِ وَالبَيَانِ عَلَى صِفَاتِ الاوْرَاق

and for his family and friends as long as the pen flows summary and clarity on the sheets of paper.

أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَهَذَا مُخْتَصَرٌ فِي عِلْمِ الأَخْلَاقٍ الدِّينِيَّةِ وَضَعْتُهُ لِطُلَّابِ السَّنَةِ الأُولَى الأَزْهَرِيَّةِ.

But after that, this is a summary of the Science of Religious Ethics, which I made for the First Year Students of Al-Azhar

وَسَمَّيْتُهُ تَيْسِيرِ الخَلَّاق فِى عِلْمِ الأَخْلَاق

 and I call it Taisirul Khollaq fi Ilmil Akhlaq (the ease of the creator on the science of akhlaq).

فَقُلْتُ وَبِاللهِ العِصْمَةُ وَبِيَدِهِ إِتْمَامُ النِّعْمَةِ

So I said -And only with Allah is providence, and only with His power is the perfection of favors-:

عِلْمُ الأَخْلَاقِ عِبَارَةٌ عَنْ قَوَاعِدَ يُعْرَفُ بِهَا صَلَاحُ القَلْبِ وَسَائِرِ الحَوَاس.

The science of morals is a term for the methods by which the goodness of the heart and all the members of the body is known.

وَمَوْضُوعُهُ الأَخْلَاقُ مِنْ حَيْثُ التَّحَلِّى بِمَحَاسِنِهَا وَالتَّخَلِّى عَنْ قَبَائِحِهَا.

It discusses morality in terms of adorning oneself with its virtues and emptying oneself of its vices.

وَثَمْرَتُهُ صَلَاحُ القَلْبِ وَسَائِرِ الحَوَاسِ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالفَوْزُ بأعَلَى المَرَاتِ فِى الآخِرَة

The fruit is the goodness of the heart and all members in this world, and obtaining a high position in the Hereafter.

2. Taqwa

التَّقْوَى هِىَ إِمْتِثَالُ أَوَامِرِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَاجْتِنَابُ نَوَاهِيهِ سِرًّا وَعَلَانِيَةً.

Taqwa is doing the commands of Allah, the Most High and the Most Great, and avoiding His prohibitions in a hidden and overt manner.

فَلَا تَتِمُّ إِلَّا بِالتَّخَلِّى عَنْ كُلِّ رَذِيلَةٍ ، وَالتَحَلِّى بِكُلِّ فَضِيلَةٍ

So piety is not complete except by avoiding all vices and adorning oneself with every virtue.

فَهِيَ الطَّرِيقُ الَّذِي مَنْ سَلَكَهُ اهْتَدَى

Taqwa is the path, and whoever treads it will be guided.

 وَالعُرْوَةُ الوُثْقَى الَّتِي مَنْ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِهَا نَجَا

and a strong rope, which whoever holds on to it will be safe

وَأَسْبَابُهَا كَثِيرَةٌ

The causes of piety are many

مِنْهَا: أَنْ يُلَاحِظَ الإنْسَانُ أَنَّهُ عَبْدٌ ذَلِيلٌ ، وَأَنَّ رَبَّهُ قَوِيٌّ عَزِيز، وَا يَنْبَغِى لِذَّلِيلِ أَنْ يَعْصِىَ العَزِيز، لِأَنَّ نَاصِيَتُهُ بِيَدِه

Among other things: Man should consider that he is a lowly servant, and his Lord is all-powerful and mighty, and it is not proper for the lowly to disobey the mighty because his head is in His power.

وَمِنْهَا أَنْ يَتَذَكَّرَ إِحْسَانَ اللهِ إلَيْهِ فِى جَمِيعِ الأحْوَالِ ، وَمَنْ كَانَ كَذَلِكَ لَا يَنْبَغِى أَنْ تَجْحَدَ نِعْمَتَهُ.

Among them: He should remember Allah’s kindness to him in all things, and whoever does so should not deny His favors.

 وَمِنْهَا: أَنْ يَتَذَكَّرَ المَوْتَ ، لِأَنَّ مَنْ عَلِمَ أَنَّهُ سَيَكُون وَأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ أَمَامَهُ إِلَّا الجَنَّةَ أَوِ النَّار ، بَعَثَهُ ذَلِكَ إِلَى الأَعْمَالِ الصَّالِحَةِ حَسْبَ الإسْتِطَاعَة.

Among them: He should remember death, because a person who realizes that he will die, and there is nothing in front of him but Paradise and Hell, it encourages him to do good deeds as much as he can.

 وَمِنَ الأَعْمَالِ الصَّالِحَةِ مُسَاعَدَةُ المُسْلِمِينَ وَالنَّظَرُ إِلَيْهِم بِعَيْنِ العَطْفَ وَالرَّحْمَةِ خُصُوصًا إِذَا سَبَقَ مِنْهُم إحْسَانٌ إِلَيْه.

Among the good deeds is helping fellow Muslims, looking at them with gentleness and compassion, more so if they are the first to do good.

وَأَمَّا ثَمَرَتُهَا فَسَعَادَةُ الدَّارَيْن

as for the fruit of Taqwa is happiness in two homes (this world and the Hereafter).

أَمَّا فِى الدُّنْيَا فَارْتِفَاعُ القَدْرِ وَجَمَالُ الصِّيتِ وَالذِّكْرِ وَاكْتِسَابُ المَوَدَ مِنَ النَّاسِ

As for the worldly life: it is the elevation of status, the fragrance of names and titles, and gaining the affection of people.

لِأَنَّ صَاحِبَ التَّقْوَى يُعَظِّمُهُ الأَصَاغِرِ ، وَيَهَابَهُ الأَكَابِرُ ، وَيَرَاهُ كُلُّ عَاقِلٍ أَنَّهُ الأَوْلَى بِالبِرِّ وَالإِحْسَان

because the one who has piety is exalted by the small and feared by the great, every reasonable person sees that the pious person is more entitled to goodness and greatness.

وَأمَّا فِى الآخِرَةِ فَالنَّجَاةُ مِنَ النَّارِ وَالفَوْزُ بِدُخُولِ الجَنَّةِ

And as for the Hereafter: then be saved from Hell, and enter Paradise.

وَكَفَى المُتَّقِينَ شَرَفًا أَنَّ اللهَ يَقُولُ فِيهِم

 The glory of the pious is that Allah says about them:

إِنَّ ٱلَّهَ مَعَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّقَواْ وَّٱلَّذِينَ هُم مُّحۡسِنُونَ

“Verily, Allah is with those who fear and those who do good.”(An-Nahl: 128)

3. Manners that must be fulfilled by students

The student or learner has manners related to himself, manners with the teacher and manners with his friends.

As for the manners of the student relating to himself, there are many: Abandoning the trait of ujub, tawadlu’ or friendly, honest so that it is liked and trustworthy, calm, authoritative, not turning much when walking and not looking at things that are prohibited by religion, honest with the knowledge he has. That is, not answering questions that he does not know.

As for the ethics of students towards teachers, among others:

Believing that the glory of his teacher exceeds the glory of his own parents. Because, it is he who educates his soul. Bow when in the presence of the teacher. Sitting politely when receiving lessons from the teacher and listening well. Not joking around. Not favoring other teachers in front of the teacher, so that he is not offended. Not ashamed to ask the teacher about issues that he does not understand.

As for the ethics of students towards their fellow students, among others: Respect them, do not harass them, do not spit on them, do not insult them because of their slowness in understanding the lesson, and do not feel happy when the teacher scoffs at one of them who is ignorant, because, such an attitude causes hostility.

4. Rights and duties to parents

Father and mother are the cause of human existence. If it were not for their hard work, this human being would not be able to live. If it were not for their hardships, this human being would not be able to experience pleasure.

As for the mother, she has conceived with great difficulty, as well as giving birth. As for the father, he has devoted all his abilities in achieving good for the care of his child’s body and soul. Therefore, the child should always remember the good services of his parents, so that he can thank them for their services. Obeying all the commands of both parents, unless they are ordered to commit sins. If the order is sinful, then there is no need to obey. Sitting in front of them solemnly, politely and not bringing up their faults. Not hurting them, even if it is just by saying cih or hus. Not to argue with them continuously. Not walking in front of one’s parents, except when serving them. Praying for both parents, so that they receive mercy and forgiveness from Allah swt. Encouraging the father and mother to do good and preventing them from doing evil, so that the child will be the cause of them being saved from the punishment of hell.

Allah swt. Says:

“And your Lord has commanded that you should worship none but Him and that you should do good to your parents in the best way. If either of them or both of them grow old in your care, then do not say to them the word ‘ah’ and do not yell at them and speak to them noble words. And humble yourself before them both with great affection and say: ‘O my Lord, love them both, as they have nurtured me in my childhood’.”

Take note of the above and let the child give preference to his mother, for the Prophet said:

“Devotion to the mother should be twice as much as to the father.”

5.Rights and obligations to relatives

A person’s relatives are those who are related to him. Allah, the Almighty, has commanded the establishment of kinship ties and forbidden the severing of them. The Prophet said: Allah swt. says in (Hadith Qudsi):

“I am Ar-Rahman (the Most Compassionate Essence) and the word Ar-Rohim, I took out of My name. Therefore, whoever establishes family ties, I establish them for him. But whoever breaks the family relationship, I will break the relationship with him.”

Therefore, everyone is obliged to protect the rights of relatives, and fulfill them. Not offend any of the relatives, either by action or speech. Be friendly to relatives. Being patient in the face of interference from relatives, even if it goes too far. Asking for relatives who are invisible. Assisting relatives in obtaining their needs. Protecting relatives from any harm, even if they are not in need. Frequently visiting or visiting relatives.

6. Rights and Obligations to Neighbors

Neighbors are every person whose residence is close to where you live, with a distance of 40 houses in all directions.

The neighbor has rights that you must fulfill, including : Greeting him first, being kind to him, repaying a neighbor who has been kind to you first, giving him material rights that you are responsible for, visiting him when he is sick and congratulating him when he gets pleasure. Condolences when a neighbor is afflicted with a disaster. Not looking at the neighbor’s wives, daughters or female servants. Avoiding anything that displeases the neighbor, to the best of one’s ability. Receiving or welcoming a neighbor with a radiant face and full of respect.

The Prophet said:

“Whoever claims to believe in Allah and the Day of Judgment, should make his neighbor welcome.”

“‘Aisha r.a. reported that the Prophet said: The angels always warn me about the rights of the neighbor, so that I think that the neighbor can inherit the other neighbor.”

7. Social etiquette

There are many social etiquettes, including: Being pleasant-faced, friendly, listening to what others say, not being arrogant, being quiet when friends are joking, forgiving friends who are wrong, being polite and not boasting about rank or wealth. This is because boasting in this way can bring down self-esteem.

Among other social manners, is to keep secrets, because there is no value for a person who cannot keep secrets.

The poet said:

“If a person cannot keep three things, then sell him, even for a handful of ashes. (They are: being loyal to one’s friends, sacrificing one’s wealth and keeping secrets in one’s heart.”

8. Harmony

Harmony is the feeling of peace when living with people and pleasure when meeting them. There are five reasons for the creation of harmony, namely:

First: There is religious belief; Because perfect faith will give birth to compassion for others.

Second: There is a relationship of lineage: Because humans are – by nature – inclined to their families, love them and always try to save them. As the Prophet said.

Third: There is a marital bond; Because, a person if he loves his wife or husband, must also like everyone who has a relationship with him. Khalid bin Yazid bin Mu’awwiyah once said:

“The people I hated the most were the family of Zubair bin Al-Awwwam but I then married one of their daughters, eventually they became the people I loved the most.”

Fourth: Kindness, which is acting or speaking kindly to one’s fellow human beings. A poet said:

“Be kind to your fellow human beings, and you will surely win their hearts. This is because kindness has always attracted the sympathy of the people.”

Fifth: There is a bond of brotherhood, as the attitude of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) brought the Muhajirin together with the Anshar, so that their relationship would be strong and they would become more harmonious.

As for the benefits of harmony, it is to be able to provide mutual kindness among people and help each other in good endeavors and obedience to Allah. With this harmony, the situation becomes balanced, stable and there is no turmoil. Allah swt. says:

“And hold you all to the rope (religion) of Allah, and do not be divided.”

9. Brotherhood

Brotherhood is a loving relationship between two people. Each of them tries to do good to the other, by giving help to the other. Whether in the form of wealth, energy, forgiveness, sincerity, loyalty, trying to lighten the burden, not burdening each other, always speaking well according to religious teachings, encouraging good and avoiding evil and asking each other for goodness to Allah.

The benefits of brotherhood are great. It encourages one to be virtuous and creates the harmony and peace that Allah expects as a result of piety.

“Fear Allah and mend your relations among yourselves.”

(Q.S. Al-Anfal, 8: 1).

10. Adab in gatherings

One who attends gatherings should greet those who are already in the gathering. Sitting in the last row, according to the order. Ignoring unhelpful talk. To remove the evil with one’s hands, with one’s tongue, or with hatred in one’s heart.

Leaving the assembly immediately when it is declared over. Not belittling anyone in the assembly, for he may be honorable in the sight of Allah. Not to glorify someone because of his wealth. This will weaken one’s faith and lower one’s self-esteem.

If one is sitting on the side of the road, one should close one’s eyes (lower one’s gaze), help the weak (persecuted), guide those who are lost, answer the greeting, give to beggars and sit quietly. Doing so will encourage others to respect and sympathize with him.

11. Manner of Eating

The procedures before eating are: Washing hands, placing the food to be eaten on the mat (mat) or table. Intention to get strength to carry out worship. Not too full. Liking the food that is available. Not insulting existing food and looking for friends to eat with.

The procedures when eating are: Read Bismillah aloud, so that others want to read it too. Using the right hand. Make the mouthful smaller. Chew well until pulverized. Not reaching out to take more food before the food in the mouth is finished. Taking only the food that is in front of him, unless it is fruit. Not blowing on the food. Not cutting food with a knife. Not wiping one’s hands on the food. Not putting (mixing) date seeds (other fruit) in place of dates (fruit) and not drinking, except when really need it.

While the procedures after eating are: End eating before being too full. Wash both hands after licking them. Cleaning up scattered food and reciting Alhamdulillah.

12. Manner of Drinking

There are many procedures for drinking, including: Taking a drink with the right hand. Looking at the drinking water before drinking it. Reading Bismillah. Sitting and sipping and not chugging (nglogok, Javanese), because chugging drinking water can harm the liver. The Prophet said:

“If you drink, then you should sip it and never chug it.”

Drink three sniffs, reciting Bismillah with each sniff. Reciting Alhamdulillah when finished drinking. Not breathing in the drink and not belching in the drink. When giving someone a drink, one should give precedence to the person on one’s right even if there is a more honorable person on one’s left. This is because the Prophet once gave a drink to a Bedouin on his right, while Abu Bakr and Umar r.a. were on his left.

He said:

“Give precedence to the right, then keep going to the right.”

13. Sleep Procedure

If a person wants to sleep, then he should be clean from impurity (beruwdlu). Lie down facing the qibla. Intend to rest his body, so that later he will be strong to perform worship and remember Allah before sleeping and afterwards.

When the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) went to sleep at night, he would place his hand under his cheek and say a supplication:

And when he woke up, he recited supplication :

14. Manners of Entering the Mosque

Mosques are the houses of Allah, so whoever’s heart is always reminded of the mosque, Allah will give shade to that person on the Day of Judgment. As mentioned in the Prophet’s hadith.

Therefore, everyone is encouraged to go to the mosque frequently. The procedure is to walk quietly. Putting the right foot first when entering. Put the sandals outside it.

When entering recite the prayer:

“O Allah, open the doors of your mercy for me.”

Performing the Tahiyyat Masjid prayer before sitting down. Saying salam, even if the mosque is quiet, with no one in it. This is because the mosque is essentially never empty of jinn and angels. Sit in it with the intention of getting closer to Allah swt. Increase the recitation of dhikr. Refrain from things that please the lusts. Not engaging in debate. Not moving from his seat, unless there is a need. Not looking for lost items in it. Not to make loud noises in the presence of those who are praying. Not to walk in front of someone who is praying. Not to be busy with some work. Not to involve oneself in the conversation of those who discuss wealth (the world), in order to be safe from threats.

As mentioned in the Prophet’s hadith:

“At the end of time there will be people from among my people who will come to the mosques and sit in them in groups. They will talk about wealth. If you see them, then do not sit with them, for God will not regard them as valuable.”

When leaving the mosque, put the left foot first and put it on the sandal, then put the right foot into the sandal. When leaving the mosque, recite the supplication:

“O Allah, I seek grace from You.”

The Prophet said: Allah has said in Hadith Qudsi:

“Verily, My houses in My earth are mosques. Those who make pilgrimage to Me are those who enliven the mosques. Very fortunate is My servant who performs ablution in his house. Then he makes a pilgrimage to Me in My house, and the pilgrim has the right to honor the pilgrim.”

“Anas r.a. reported: Whoever gives light in a mosque, the angels and the angels of the attendants at the arsh will always ask for forgiveness for that person, as long as the light illuminates the mosque.”

15. Cleanliness

Cleanliness of the body, clothes and premises is a requirement of the Shariah. Therefore, one should always clean his body, trim his hair, comb it and oil it. Cleaning the ears by washing or wiping them with water. Cleaning the mouth by rinsing the mouth frequently and using the miswak (toothbrush). Cleaning the nose by inhaling water, then spraying it back. Cleaning the nails by washing the bottom with water.

The Hadith explains that the Prophet always oiled and combed his hair.

In addition, everyone should always clean their clothes, by washing them with water alone or mixed with soap, if needed. In addition to cleaning the body and clothes, it is also required to clean the place.

Cleanliness is enjoined in order to maintain health, to remove sadness, to bring joy, to please friends and to bring forth the blessings of Allah swt. He said:

“As for the favors of God, then show them.”

16. Honesty and Lying

Honesty is telling something in accordance with reality. Lying, on the other hand, is saying something that is not true.

The causes of honesty are: Intellect, religion and self-respect. Reason is the cause of honesty, because it can understand the benefits of honesty and the dangers of lying. Of course, a reasonable person will not be happy if he is exposed to harm. If so, he will act honestly.

Religion is a cause of honesty, because religious teachings command honesty and forbid lying. Of course, a person who understands the teachings of religion will definitely act honestly.

The same applies to a person who has self-respect. He will not be happy if he does not act honestly, because people who maintain their self-esteem always try to decorate themselves with good behavior. Meanwhile, lying is not good at all. If this were the case, he would not lie.

As for the cause of lying, it is the desire for gain and avoidance of harm. Sometimes a person thinks that lying will save him, even if it is temporary, so he does it. On the other hand, a person thinks that being truthful will cause him harm, so he does not want to practice it.

The danger of lying will affect the person who commits it and he will be disgraced, humiliated and lose the trust of others in this world and in the hereafter he will receive punishment from Allah.

The danger of lying is not only on the person who tells the lie, but also on other people. This is because the person who lies usually promises good things to others, then does not fulfill them. This, of course, makes the person he lied to feel very disappointed, because what he expected, failed. In addition, people who like to lie are prone to gossip and divide and conquer which can encourage people to hate each other and fight as a result of the liar’s actions.

The following words of Allah and the words of the Messenger are sufficient proof of the humiliation of lying.

“Those who invent lies are only those who do not believe in the verses of Allah, and they are the liars.”

“If a servant tells a lie once, the angels will stay away from him for a mile, because of the corruption of his false speech.”

The following words of Allah and the words of the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) are sufficient proof that truthfulness is a praiseworthy action.

“O you who believe, fear Allah and be with those who are great.”

“Be honest, even if you all think you will be destroyed if you are honest. Verily, honesty will save you.”

17. Amanah

Amanah (trustworthiness) is the fulfillment of one’s obligations to Allah. With amanah (honesty), religion or faith becomes perfect, self-esteem is preserved and wealth will be maintained. Because carrying out the rights of obligations to Allah, means, practicing all His commands and avoiding all His prohibitions. While carrying out the rights of obligations towards fellow human beings, means returning entrusted goods to the owner, not reducing the scales, measures or meters. Not revealing the secrets or disgraces of others and choosing something that suits him, whether in religion or the world.

Allah swt. Says:

“Verily, Allah enjoins you to deliver the trust to those who are entitled to it.”

The Prophet said:

“The faith of the one who is not trustworthy is incomplete. And the religion of the one who does not keep his word is incomplete.”

The opposite of trustworthiness is betrayal, which is challenging the truth by breaking promises in an unspoken manner.

The dangers posed by treachery are many, including: The perpetrator will be labeled as a cheater. Not perfectly religious. Low aspirations. Despised his soul. Shunned by people as a result of his crimes against them. His hand will be cut off, if he steals their property, and causes Allah to be angry and torture the perpetrator, because he ignores the prohibition of Allah.

Allah swt. Says:

“O you who believe, do not betray Allah and the Messenger (Muhammad), nor do you betray the trusts entrusted to you, while you know it.”

18. Al-‘Iffah

Iffah is the attitude of guarding oneself from what is forbidden and what is not praiseworthy. It is a very noble trait and temperament. From this trait arise many noble traits, such as patience, modesty, giving, peace-loving, piety, calm dignity, compassion for others and shyness. “Iffah is like the storehouse of one who has no wealth and the crown of one who has no position.

The thing that can help a person have the nature of ‘iffah is to keep away from greed (gluttony), abandon the pleasure of seeking wealth and live as it is.

Allah swt. Says:

“Those who know think they are rich, because they keep themselves from begging.”

The Prophet said:

“Very fortunate is the person who is guided to Islam and lives modestly and accepts things as they are.”

19. Al-Muru’ah

Muru’ah is a trait that encourages adherence to noble morals and good habits. The things that cause muru’ah to arise are high ideals and nobility of spirit.

Indeed, a person who has such aspirations and a noble soul, must have the aim of achieving glory, gaining advantages, building glories, sharing pleasures and trying to get rid of disturbances.

Muru’ah is a sign of ‘iffah. A person who has the trait of muru’ah is a sign that he can protect himself from what is forbidden and bad, and that he is clean and preserved. Therefore, a person who has the trait of muru’ah must be a pious person, who does not like pleasures, who is willing to accept Allah’s gifts to him and without seeing the wealth of others.

The evidence that shows the praiseworthiness of the trait of muru’ah is the Prophet’s statement:

“Verily Allah swt. Loves things that are lofty and noble.”

20. Patience

Patience is a trait that encourages a person to abandon grudges against those who annoy him, even though the person is capable of retaliating. The things that cause a person to be patient are: Compassion for the ignorant. Avoiding quarrels (hostility). Feeling ashamed or uncomfortable to retaliate. Wanting to do good to those who do bad to him. Preserving the favor one feels, and waiting for the right opportunity.

Indeed, avoiding enmity with someone is a noble soul and a noble ideal. Meanwhile, shame is part of the effort to save oneself and a sign of the perfection of self-respect. Meanwhile, efforts to maintain favors are proof of loyalty. As for engineering and hoping for an opportunity, it is part of cunning. Because, people who overflow with anger are a little trickery.

The Prophet Muhammad praised those who are patient, as in his hadith:

“Indeed Allah swt. loves those who have shame and those who are patient. And He hates the wicked and violent.”

21. Generosity

Charity or generosity is giving away wealth voluntarily, without being asked and not because of obligation. Charity is a noble trait and a praiseworthy deed, because in it there is inner bonding and unity. The benefits are also great and evenly distributed. The Prophet used to give things to others, without fear of becoming poor.

In the hadith it is mentioned that the Angel Gabriel said: Allah said (Hadith Qudsi):

“This religion (Islam), which I have approved, will not be made more appropriate or perfect, except for generosity and noble character. Therefore, let all of you glorify this religion by extending charity and good character as much as possible.”

22. Tawadlu’ or Humble

Tawadlu’ is an attitude of humbling oneself with respect and solemnity, not out of lowliness or contempt. It means giving everyone their due, according to their position. It does not raise the status of the lowly, nor does it lower the status of the noble.

Tawadlu’ is one of the causes of nobility and honor. The Prophet said:

“Whoever is tawadlu’ for the sake of Allah, Allah will raise his rank.”

23. Elevation of the Soul

A sense of self-esteem (izzatun nafsi) is a trait that because of it, people can put themselves in an honorable and noble position. The reason for the emergence of the nature of izzatun nafsi, is knowing one’s own position.

The fruits of izzatun nafsi are: Endurance. Patience in facing difficulties. Not showing his needs. Getting respect from people and getting goodness from Allah.

Allah swt. says:

“Victory belongs only to Allah, His Messenger and those who believe.”

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:

“Allah loves and cherishes the one who knows his position.”

24. Revenge

Hiqd (grudge) is the attitude of harboring evil intentions and trying hard to inflict torment on others. The feeling of resentment is always followed by eight forbidden actions, namely: Hasud (envy) of the person against whom one holds a grudge. Glad to see the calamity suffered by the wronged person Shunning the wronged person, even if the wronged person shows pleasure in him. Turning away from the person one is cursing with the intention of belittling him. Discussing the shortcomings of the person against whom one is holding a grudge. Revealing the secrets of the person one is spiteful towards. Imitating (speech or action) the person one is spiteful towards, with the intention of mocking or ridiculing him. Hurting the spiteful person’s body and denying the spiteful person his rights. For example, not paying the debts owed to the debtor,

The evidence that shows the impropriety of hiqd (revenge) is the saying of the Prophet :

“The believer is the one who does not have a grudge.”

25. Hasud, envy and jealousy

Hasud (envy) is the loss of favors received by others. As for the hope of getting something, like what the other person has, it is called ghibtah. Ghibtah is not a blameworthy act, rather it is encouraged. Because, ghibtah can encourage a person to do praiseworthy deeds.

The Prophet said:

“The believer has the trait of ghibtah, while the hypocrite has the trait of hasud.”

The causes of hasud are three:

  1. Hatred of the person whom one has envied, because of the honor he has or the favors that Allah has bestowed upon him.
  2. The virtues of the person being envied outweigh the virtues of the person being envied, and he is unable to attain the virtues of the person being envied.
  3. Fear of good or honor, and envy of those who are favored.

 

The things that can remove hasud from the heart are: Holding fast to the teachings of religion. Knowing the dangers of hasud and being satisfied with the provisions and destiny of Allah swt.

The Hadith of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) which denounces the trait of hasud is:

“Hasud consumes good deeds as fire consumes firewood.

26. Gossip or Gossiping

Gossip is talking about a friend about something that displeases him, even in his presence, such as saying: That person is blind, wicked, poor, or short of clothes. All these words are meant to criticize the friend.

There are eight causes of gossip, namely: Hasud. Venting resentment. Intent to exalt oneself (arrogance). Attempting to thwart the person being hurt from achieving his or her goals. Intending to free oneself. Seducing (influencing) friends. Joking, and mocking.

As for mocking the one who is careless, because of his carelessness and pointing it out in his favor, this does not come under the heading of gossip, because it comes under the heading of advice. Allah, the Almighty, does not forbid exhortation. But He forbids gossip and strongly condemns it. He said:

“… and let not some of you backbite others. Should one of you eat his brother’s carcass. Then surely you would be disgusted with him.”

27. Backbiting or slander

Namimah (slander) is accusing or informing others of one’s words, actions or circumstances with the intention of causing harm. The things that lead to slander are: Evil intentions towards the person being talked about. Showing pleasure to the person being spoken to. Making things sound good, and meddling in other people’s affairs.

The thing that can prevent a person from cheating, is the realization, that cheating causes a rift in relations, stirs up hostility and brings Allah’s punishment.

The Prophet said:

“The most beloved of all of you to Allah are those who love one another. And those whom Allah hates the most are those who go about slandering and dividing their brothers and friends.”

He said again:

“The one who slanders will not enter Paradise.”

28. Arrogance

Kibr (arrogance) is a feeling of greatness and thinking that one is above others. The damage caused by this arrogance is numerous. Among them: Hurting other people. Breaking the bonds of brotherhood. Causing division. Bringing hatred to the friend of the one who is arrogant, and hurting him. Disobeying (opposing) the truth. Can not reduce irritation, and rude in giving advice.

The following words of the Prophet are sufficient proof that arrogance is reprehensible:

“There will not enter Paradise the one in whose heart there is arrogance, even if it is only the weight of a mustard seed.”

Whoever realizes that he is a creature that comes from the nutfah (zygote) and will later become a carcass, then he easily abandons arrogance, the cause of which is ujub or self-admiration.

29. Deceived by one’s own feelings

Ghurur (delusion) is the inclination of the heart and disposition towards things that are in accordance with the demands of lust, due to the seduction of the devil. Ghurur is of two kinds:

First: The delusion of the disbelievers who exchange the luxuries of this world for the pleasures of the Hereafter. This includes those who are inclined towards the life of this world with all its luxuries and deny the existence of the Day of Judgment. Included among the disbelievers are those who are deceived by the position or rank of the world with the assumption that he with such a position in the world, is certainly more entitled to a position in the hereafter.

Second: The delusion of dissident Muslims. This group includes: People who do not want to do good deeds, because they are deceived by their belief that Allah’s forgiveness is very wide, or rely too much on the piety of their father or a lot of knowledge. The person who relies on Allah’s forgiveness without doing good deeds does not realize that wanting something without effort is a despicable greed. As for the one who relies on the efforts of his parents, it means that he does not remember the words of Allah:

“Fear you all of a day on which parents will not help their children, and children will not help their fathers.”

Those who rely on their knowledge do not realize that knowledge without charity is like fruit without fruit.

Among the believers who are deceived by their own feelings, is the one who is deceived by the many worship services he performs, so that he thinks that he is more entitled to forgiveness than others. Such a person does not realize that such actions can eliminate sincerity and erase the reward of his deeds. Also included in this group is a person who is deceived by the amount of wealth he has. He thinks that with his abundant wealth, he can surpass others, causing him to gravitate towards the luxuries of this world and forget about the grace of Allah.

Among the bad traits caused by ghurur is arrogance, which prevents one from entering Paradise.

30. Zalim or Aniaya

Zalim is an action that exceeds the limits of truth or violates the law. It includes all immoral and despicable acts. A wrongdoer is sometimes a wrongdoer against himself and sometimes a wrongdoer against others.

Being unjust to oneself means neglecting to obey Allah or not believing in Him.

Being unjust to others means not being diligent in fulfilling one’s rights, such as being hurtful to one’s neighbors, disrespecting one’s guests, telling lies, gossiping and dividing people.

The Prophet said:

“Zalim (wrongdoing) is the cause of the darkness of the Day of Judgment.”

In a hadith Qudsi it is mentioned:

“O My servant, indeed I have forbidden wrongdoing to Myself and I have made wrongdoing forbidden among all of you. So, do not all of you do wrong.”

31. Justice

Justice is being modest in all matters and practicing in accordance with the Shari’ah (law). There are two kinds of justice:

First: Fairness towards oneself, namely acting in accordance with the truth (religion).

Second: Fair to others.

Fairness towards others is divided into three, namely:

  1. Justice of the ruler (superior) against the people (subordinates), by providing convenience to the people and giving their rights.
  2. Justice of the people (subordinates) towards the ruler (superior), students towards teachers and children towards parents, by obeying sincerely.
  3. Justice of people towards their neighbors, by not boasting in their presence and keeping them away from harassment.

Allah swt. says:

“Verily, Allah has commanded to do justice and righteousness.”

That is the meaning of justice, as explained above. The meaning of good deeds, on the other hand, is as mentioned in the Prophet’s hadith.

“(Ihsan) is to perform the worship of Allah so steadily that it is as if you see Him.”

If you cannot see Him, then you must be sure that Allah is watching you.

This is what is called the perfection of faith and the pinnacle of obedience.

Closing

                The author of the book of morals, Taisirul Khollaq, explained that the revision of this book was completed on the afternoon of the blessed Friday, the 26th of Jumadil Ula 1339 AH.

This is a brilliant book that has been compiled with a noble purpose.

Know that one will not attain anything in life without the book of Taisir Al-Khollaq.